In equations, the following formula:

is called “[name]” and states that

History

The basics of this equation was first outlined by American engineer Willard Gibbs in his 1876 section "Electromotive Force" of his

where

The work of Gibbs was expanded on further by German physicist Hermann Helmholtz in his 1877 "On Galvanic Currents originated by Differences of Concentration", and followup famous 1882 "On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes", in which he is said to have derived the function in terms of the isochoric-isobaric free energy (Helmholtz free energy, dF); although, it is difficult to pin down the exact formulation. [3]

In 1923, American physical chemists Gilbert Lewis and Merle Randall were stating this equation in its essential modern notation, as follows:

albeit, in his characteristic function notation, where

Here, no note, we see a notation our first instance of notation confusion overlap, i.e. the symbol F, being used for two different quantities (Faraday constant and Free energy); hence the symbol "G" was instilled as the standard symbol for the isothermal-isobaric free energy in honor of Willard Gibbs in 1933 by English chemical thermodynamicist Edward Guggenheim.

References

1. (a) Laidler, Keith. (1993).

(b) Merle, Randall. (1942).

2. Gibbs, Willard. (1876).

3. (a) Helmholtz, Hermann. (1877). “On Galvanic Currents Originated by Differences of Concentration”, Wiss. Abh. Bd. i. No. xliv.

(b) Helmholtz, Hermann. (1882). “On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes” (Die Thermodynamic Chemischer Vorgange), in:

4. (a) Lewis, Gilbert and Randall, Merle. (1923).

(b) Merle, Randall. (1942).

is called “[name]” and states that

__Gibbs free energy change__*ΔG*of a__Galvanic cell__equals the negative of the number of faradays*n*passing through the cell, when the reaction takes place, times the__Faraday constant__*F*times the__electromotive force__*E*of the cell. [1]History

The basics of this equation was first outlined by American engineer Willard Gibbs in his 1876 section "Electromotive Force" of his

*Equilibrium*treatise, in which he derived the following formula for a perfect (reversible) electrochemical apparatus:where

*V'*and*V''*denote the electrical potentials in pieces of the same kind of metal connected with the two electrodes,*de*is a differential quantity of electricity, and*dζ*(differential of zeta) is the change in the available energy (or isothermal-isobaric free energy, i.e. Gibbs free energy dG). [2]The work of Gibbs was expanded on further by German physicist Hermann Helmholtz in his 1877 "On Galvanic Currents originated by Differences of Concentration", and followup famous 1882 "On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes", in which he is said to have derived the function in terms of the isochoric-isobaric free energy (Helmholtz free energy, dF); although, it is difficult to pin down the exact formulation. [3]

In 1923, American physical chemists Gilbert Lewis and Merle Randall were stating this equation in its essential modern notation, as follows:

albeit, in his characteristic function notation, where

*Δ**F*is the__Lewis free energy__(in place of*G*or Gibbs free energy), F is the Faraday equivalent, and*N*(in place of*n*) is the number of equivalents passing through the cell when the reaction occurs as written. [4]Here, no note, we see a notation our first instance of notation confusion overlap, i.e. the symbol F, being used for two different quantities (Faraday constant and Free energy); hence the symbol "G" was instilled as the standard symbol for the isothermal-isobaric free energy in honor of Willard Gibbs in 1933 by English chemical thermodynamicist Edward Guggenheim.

References

1. (a) Laidler, Keith. (1993).

*The World of Physical Chemistry*(section: thermodynamics of electrochemical cells, pgs. 220-21). Oxford University Press.(b) Merle, Randall. (1942).

*Physical Chemistry*(pgs. 325-)*.*Randall and Sons.2. Gibbs, Willard. (1876).

*On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances*(section: "Electromotive Force", pgs. 331-49).*Dover.*3. (a) Helmholtz, Hermann. (1877). “On Galvanic Currents Originated by Differences of Concentration”, Wiss. Abh. Bd. i. No. xliv.

(b) Helmholtz, Hermann. (1882). “On the Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes” (Die Thermodynamic Chemischer Vorgange), in:

*Physical Memoirs Selected and Translated from Foreign Sources*, 1: 43-97. Physical Society of London, Taylor and Francis, 1888.4. (a) Lewis, Gilbert and Randall, Merle. (1923).

*Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances*(pgs. 157). McGraw-Hill.(b) Merle, Randall. (1942).

*Physical Chemistry*(pgs. 325-)*.*Randall and Sons.