Abraham never existed

Abraham never existed 3
A re-annotated version of George Graham’s 2015 The Abraham Dilemma: a Divine Delusion, showning the gist reason why Abraham never existed, namely that the early Is-Ra-El-ites (Jews), in aims to effect a god reduction, so to make a successful monotheism out of an extant polytheism (or henotheism), employed the “god into prophet” method, and turned the sun godRa” into the invented patriarch “Abraham”, whose name means “father Ra of keme” or “Ra born out of Atum”, rescripted to the punchline that Adam (Atum) was said to the first man (see: religio-mythology genealogy), whose descendent is Noah (Nun), whose descendent is Abraham (Ra), who had the wife Sarah (Sirius), with whom he procreated: Isaac (father of Jacob), who also, in later invented history (c.600AD), had the wife Hagar, with whom he procreated Ismael (patriarch to Muhammad). [3]
In non-existents, Abraham never existed refers to the deduced conclusion that the religious character Abraham, the presumed patriarch of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, never existed as a real person, but rather was god-to-prophet invention, specifically "sun god" Ra to "man" Abraham rescript (see: recension theory), effected to realized a new monotheism out of decaying extant polytheism (or henotheism).

The following natural phenomena, in Ancient Egypt, prior to the damning of the Nile river, was a annual observation that was real:

“Who is there that does not know that the vapor of the sun is kindled by the [Jun 25] rising of the dog-star [Sirius]? The most powerful effects are felt on the earth from this star. When it rises, the seas are troubled, the wines in our cellars ferment, and stagnant waters [Nile River] are set in motion [150-day flood].”
Pliny the elder (77AD), “On the Rising of the Dog Star” [9]

The Egyptians made the sun a god called Ra, the star Sirius a goddess, Isis predominately, and the Nile River the god Nun. These gods and goddess, over time, and cross-culturally, were rescripted (see: god character rescripts).

In c.1550 to 1830, prior to the translation of the Rosetta Stone, which released the key to the ancient Egyptian language and religion, scholars made numerous connections between Brahma and Abraham (see: Abraham and Brahma), and their respective wives, Saraswati and Sarah; for example:

“‘Abraham’ and his wife ‘Sarah’ are derived from Brahma and his wife ‘Saraswati’.”
Constantin Volney (1791), The Ruins (pg. #); Nigel Leask (2004) truncated (pg. 105) version

In c.1850, scholars, now with knowledge of all three religions: Egyptian religion (previously missing), Hinduism, and Judaism, began to “see”, via overlapping similarities, that both Abraham and Sarah motif, along with the Brahma and Saraswati motif, were both rescripts of the Ra and Sirius, star rising, sun rebirth, annual Nile River flood periodicity (see: Ra, Brahma, and Abraham): the following is one example:

“So Ab, the original, Ram, or due east point, the orient, or origin of all light, or Braam of Sanscrit, by disguising its true meaning and mystifying the multitude by inserting at the proper place this H converted Abraam into Ab-ra-ham, or Ab, the first, original, Ra, the father or sun god, and Ham the Egyptian founder; or God the father of Ham.”
— Karl Anderson (1892), The Astrology of the Old Testament

In 1849, Henry Ouvry (1813-1899), an English military officer, age 36, in a letter to his brother, stated the following:

“What language do you suppose that Abraham spoke? [see: Frederick II] I have been learning Hebrew and Arabic and I say he did not speak Hebrew, for when he lived there was no Hebrew to speak; and, again, what language was spoken before the flood?”
— Henry Ouvry (1849), “Letter to Brother”, Jul 14 [4]

In 1892, Ouvry, aged 79, in his Cavalry Experiences and Leaves from My Journal, added the following footnote correction to this paragraph:

“It is now forty years since I wrote the above absurdity. I was then unacquainted with German Biblical criticism: I now know that such a person as Abraham never existed, and that there was never any general Deluge, and that, the whole so-called Mosaic account is a mere legend, and has no claim to be considered historical.”
— Henry Ouvry (1892), Cavalry Experiences and Leaves from My Journal [4]

Ouvry, in short, stated in effect that it took him some 40-years, following study in German Biblical criticism, although he does not specify which German (Ѻ) he learned this from, to unlearn the ingrained-form-childhood belief that Abraham was a real person.

In 1974, Thomas Thompson (1939-) (Ѻ), in his The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives: The Quest for the Historical Abraham, used archeological data and biblical criticism to argue that the biblical characters: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are not historical, that there presumed existences have NOT been “substantiated by the archaeological and historical research”, contrary to the then-prevalent view; the following is an oft-cited quote:

“Not only has archaeology not proven a single event of the patriarchal traditions to be historical, it has not shown any of the traditions to be likely.”
— Thomas Thompson (1974), The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives (pg. 328)

In 1995, Ibn Warraq, in his Why I Am Not a Muslim, citing Thompson (1974), stated the following:

“The Torah was not written by, nor "given" to, Moses, and there is no good reason to believe any of the exploits of Abraham and others to be true. Certainly no historian would dream of going to the Muslim sources for the historical verification of any biblical material; the Muslim accounts of Abraham, Moses, and others are, as we saw earlier, taken from rabbinical Jewish scriptures or are nothing more than legends (the building of the Kaaba, etc.) invented several thousand years after the events they purport to describe. Historians have gone even farther. There seems to be a distinct possibility that Abraham never existed: ‘The J tradition about the wandering of Abraham is largely unhistorical in character. By means of the theological leitmotif of the wandering obedient servant of Yahweh, it gives a structure to the many independent stories at J's disposal. It is an editorial device used to unite the many disparate Abraham and Lot traditions’ (Thompson, 1974). Thompson goes on to say (p. 328): ‘Not only has "archaeology" not proven a single event of the patriarchal traditions to be historical, it has not shown any of the traditions to be likely. On the basis of what we know of Palestinian history of the second millennium BC, and of what we understand about the formation of the literary traditions of Genesis, it must be concluded that any such historicity as is commonly spoken of in both scholarly and popular works about the patriarchs of Genesis is hardly possible and totally improbable. The quest for the historical Abraham is a basically fruitless occupation both for the historian and the student of the Bible.”

In 2001, Libb Thims, while drafting the “Thermodynamics of Religion” chapter, to his Human Thermodynamics manuscripts, began to research the various religions of the world, then being under the impression that Abraham, the patriarch of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, so he was told, was a real person, and therein began to do historical research into Abraham, along the way amassing some 170+ books in religio-mythology, astro-theology, and comparative religion and mythology (see: Thims religio-mythology book collection); it would not be until 2003 to 2004 period, particularly after reading Gary Greenberg’s 101 Myths of the Bible (2000), that he began to discern that Abraham was fictional, and based on the motif of helical rising of Sirius (Sarah) coupled, i.e. married, so to say, to the re-birth of the sun (Ra or Abraham), following the annual 150-day Nile River (Noah) flood phenomena.

In 2016, Thims, in his drafting Smart Atheism: For Kids, digressed into the astro-theological origins of Abraham stories; some content of which was summarized, in reduced form, in his drafting Human Chemical Thermodynamics (2019). [8]

The following are related quotes:

“Whether Abraham is a myth or a real personage [see: Abraham never existed] can probably never be known. Without Abraham, no Jews, no Jesus, no Christianity, and no salvation for the world. But some have asserted that Brahma and Abraham are alike corruptions [see: Abraham and Brahma] of Abba Rama, or Abrama, and that Sarah is identical with Saravasti, thus showing a Hindoo origin for the man and woman standing at the head of all the Jews. If Abraham is a myth—and the chances that he is are at least equal to the belief that there was such a man—then the story about Isaac, Jacob, his twelve sons, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, Samson, Job, Samuel, Saul, David, Solomon, etc., is also mythical.”
DeRobigne Bennett (1881), The Gods and Religions of Ancient and Modern Times (pg. 481)

“The story of Abraham is a myth. Abraham himself is a myth. It was usual with the Old Arabians to regard Saturn and Abram as their progenitor, and while looking upon Saturn as their father ... He was a child named Ab-ram, and this name is later changed to Ab-ra-ham. Charles King in his work, The Gnostics, states that the words "brahma" and "abrahrn" have the same numerical value. When we run this ‘allegory’ down, we discover that Abram (Abraham) is just another myth of the sun.”
Hilton Hotema (1963), The Secret of Regeneration (pgs. 136-37)

Abraham, Jacob, Moses, King David, and King Solomon in all his splendor, never existed, a 15-year study of archaeological evidence, by Thomas Thompson, has concluded.”
— David Keys (1993), “Leading Archaeologist Says Old Testament Stories are Fiction” [1]

Abraham, the Jewish patriarch, probably never existed. Nor did Moses. The entire Exodus story as recounted in the Bible probably never occurred. The same is true of the tumbling of the walls of Jericho. And David, far from being the fearless king who built Jerusalem into a mighty capital, was more likely a provincial leader whose reputation was later magnified to provide a rallying point for a fledgling nation. Such startling propositions — the product of findings by archaeologists digging in Israel and its environs over the last 25 years — have gained wide acceptance among non-Orthodox rabbis. But there has been no attempt to disseminate these ideas or to discuss them with the laity.”
— Michael Massing (2002), “New Torah for the Modern Minds” [7]

“If Jesus, and Muhammad, and Abraham, and Moses, had never been born, which in any case I tend to doubt, or if all the stories told about them were untruth, as was suddenly found, and everyone had to admit it, some people, I know, would go into a panic, [thinking]: ‘now what will we do, we have no morals suddenly?’ What could be more nonsensical than that?”
Christopher Hitchens (c.2009), Video debate (2:34-)

“Some scholars say Abraham never existed. Others say he really wasn't willing to sacrifice Isaac. Others say that Abraham's willingness to follow a commandment to kill his son in its historical and cultural context was not immoral. Still others claim that he expected Isaac not to perish but to be resurrected.”
— George Graham (2015), The Abraham Dilemma: a Divine Delusion [3]

“For historians, historical ‘truth’ is based on: 1) an accurate chronology (Herodotus' principle) anchored on absolute dates and 2) reliable documents (Thucydides' principle) coming from critical editions. Depending on the method chosen, the result will be different: according to archaeology, Abraham never existed because there is no definite archaeological evidence, but according to chronology, Abraham existed.”
— Gerard Gertoux (2017), Sarah Wife of Abraham: Fairy Tale or Real History? [2]

See also
Jesus never existed
Muhammad never existed
Moses never existed
● Soul does not exist
● Spirit does not exist
God does not exist
● Afterlife does not exist
Life does not exist

1. (a) Thompson, Thomas L. (1992). Early History of the Israelite People: from Written and Archaeological Sources (Abraham, 5+ pgs). Brill.
(b) Keys, David. (1993). “Leading Archaeologist Says Old Testament Stories are Fiction” (Ѻ), Independent, Mar 28.
2. Gertoux, Gerard. (2017). Sarah Wife of Abraham: Fairy Tale or Real History? (pg. 13). Lulu.
3. Graham, George. (2015). The Abraham Dilemma: a Divine Delusion (pg. #). Oxford University Press.
4. Ouvry, Henry A. (1892). Cavalry Experiences and Leaves from my Journal (§:Letter, pgs. 81-; quote, pg. 84). Publisher.
5. (a) Thompson, Thomas L. (1974). The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives. Publisher.
(b) Warraq, Ibn. (1995). Why I Am Not a Muslim (pg. #). Prometheus Books, 2003.
(c) Hitchens, Christopher. (2007). The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever, Selected and with Introductions by Christopher Hitchens (§44: The Koran, from Why I Am Not a Muslim, by Ibn Warraq, pgs. 384-453; quote, pg. 414). De Capo Press.
6. (a) Thompson, Thomas L. (1974). The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives: The Quest for the Historical Abraham. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2016.
(b) The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives – Wikipedia.
7. Massing, Michael. (2002). “New Torah for the Modern Minds” (Ѻ), The New York Times, Mar 9.
8. (a) Thims, Libb. (2016). Smart Atheism: For Kids (pdf | 309-pgs) (§7: Abraham, pgs. 191-94). Publisher.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2019). Human Chemical Thermodynamics: Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities – Sociology, Economics, History, Philosophy, Ethics, Government, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence, Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Meaning (pdf) (Abraham, pgs. xiv, 14-18). Publisher.
9. Pliny (the Elder). (77AD). Natural History, Volume 1 (translators: John Bostock and H.T. Riley) (pg. 67). Henry G. Bohn, 1855.

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