Abu Al-Biruni

Abu Al-Biruni sIn existographies, Abu Al-Biruni (973-1048) (IQ:160|#587) (GME:43) (CR:11), aka Albiruni (Sachau, 1879), was an Iranian-born Afghanistan astronomer, mathematician, physicist, comparative religions scholar, a universal genius claimant, noted for []. [4]

Physics
The following statement Al-Biruni, supposedly, is a forerunner to Newton’s first law of motion: [4]

“All elements converge on the center of the earth, but the heavier precedes the lighter.”

Al-Biruni also, supposedly, was one of the first to give a statement of specific gravity. [4]

Earth
Al-Biruni used the measurements of angles of mountains, trigonometry, and algebra methods to calculate the size of the earth as a sphere; somewhat as illustrated below (adjacent): [1]
Size of the earth (Biruni)
Al-Biruni's method for calculating the size of the earth.

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Golden age | Islamic scientists
The four big scientific figures in Islam’s golden age, according to Algerian-born astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum (2010), are: al-Khwarizmi, inventor of algebra and coiner of “algorithm”, Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham), Avicenna (Ibn Sina), and al-Biruni, who exchanged many letters with the former. [3]

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Biruni:

Biruni, a Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna and Alhazen not only studied history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive of Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu'di.”
— David Lindberg (1978), Science in the Middle Ages [2]
Abu Al-Biruni
A 1974 cover story article on Al-Biruni, who is described as a universal genius, for his his multifarious work in astronomy, history, botany, pharmacology, geology, poetry, philosophy, mathematics, geography, and comparative religion, and the humanities. [5]

Quotes | By
The following are noted quotes:

“The difference between you and me is that you’re a philosopher and I’m a [mathematical] scientist.”
— Abu Al-Biruni (c.1020), “Letter to Avicenna” [3]

References
1. BBC. (2015). “Abu Rayhan Biruni (al Biruni) the Great Persian Scientist” (Ѻ), At Tar Foundation.
2. Lindberg, David C. (1978). Science in the Middle Ages (Biruni, 8+ pgs). University of Chicago Press, 1980.
3. Guessoum, Nidhal. (2010). “Interview: Islamic Golden Age”, in: Atoms and Eden (§16:215-28; Al-Biruni, pg. 217). Oxford University Press.
4. Salah, Abeer. (2015). One Giant Step for Mankind: One Verse at a Time (pg. 61). Cedar Graphics.
5. Gafurov, Bobojan. (1974). “Al-Biruni: A Universal Genius in Central Asia a Thousand Years Ago”, Courier (pgs. 4-9), Jun.

Further reading
● Biruni. (c.1000). The Chronology of Ancient Nations (translator: Edward Sachau) (Ѻ). William Allen, 1879.

External links
Abu Rayhan al-Biruni – Wikipedia.

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