Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein nsIn existographies, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) (IQ:205|#3) (Gottlieb 1000:17) [RGM:2|1,500+] (Murray 4000:9|CS / 2|P) (LGS:1) [Kanowitz 50:2] [Cropper 30:1|R] (GPE:1) (HD:52) (RE:76) [CR:737] was a German-born American greatest physicist ever physicist noted for his 1905 discovery of the equivalence of mass and energy (mass-energy equivalence), for his hypothesis of "light quanta" (based on Max Planck's 1901 energy element), a pioneer of radiation thermodynamics, initiator of the science of relativistic thermodynamics, and for his 1915 masterpiece the general theory of relativity, which provided a new general theory of gravity that predicted the gravitational bending of light rays, a phenomenon that was confirmed by Arthur Eddington during the eclipse of 1919, after which Einstein became world-famous. [1] The follow is Einstein's 1933 statement on human behavior: [26]

“Our behavior should be motivated by the ever-present realization that human beings in their thoughts, feelings and actions are not free agents, but are subject to the inexorable laws of cause and effect as are the stars in their courses.”

The following is a truncated version of one of Einstein's famous quotes on physical theories:

Thermodynamics is the only physical theory of universal content that will never be overthrown.”

Einstein also developed a model for the heat capacity in solids and gases, and, together with Indian physicist Satyendra Bose, developed a variation of statistics allowing for the description of the behavior of bosons. [2]


Purpose? | Why's of existence
See main: Einstein on purpose; See also: Einstein-Pascal dialogue
In December 1950, Einstein received a long handwritten letter from a nineteen-year-old engineering student at Rutgers University who said “My problem is this, sir, ‘What is the purpose of man on earth?’” Dismissing such possible answers as to make money, to achieve fame, and to help others, the student said “Frankly, sir, I don’t even know why I’m going to college and studying engineering.” The student went on to express his opinion that man is here “for no purpose at all” and went on to quote from French mathematical physicist Blaise Pascal’s (IQ=190) Pensees (Thoughts) the following words, which he said aptly summed up his own feelings on the matter: [20]

“I know not who put me into the world, nor what the world is, nor what I myself am. I am in terrible ignorance of everything. I know not what my body is, nor my senses, nor my soul, not ever that part of me which thinks what I say, which reflects on all and on itself, and knows itself no more than the rest. I see those frightful spaces of the universe which surround me, and I find myself tied to one corner of this vast expanse, without knowing why I am put in this place rather than another, nor why this short time which is given me to live is assigned to me at this point rather than at another of the whole eternity which was before me or which shall come after me. I see nothing but infinities on all sides, which surround me as an atom, and as a shadow which endures only for an instant and returns no more. All I know is that I must die, but what I know least is this very death which I cannot escape.”

The student remarked that Pascal saw the answers to be in religion but that he himself did not. After elaborating on the cosmic insignificance of man, he nevertheless asked Einstein to tell him where the right course lay, and why, saying “Pull no punches. If you think I’ve gone off the track let me have it straight.” On 3 Dec 1950, a few days after receiving the letter, Einstein replied (see: main). [15]

CTP a
Significance of key terms from Einstein's collected papers (1879-1902) indicating that "temperature" was the most dominate scientific term of this period.
CTP b
Significance of key terms from Einstein's collected papers (1900-1909) indicating that "entropy" was the most dominate scientific term of this period.
Education
At age 5, Einstein received his first compass, and began to investigate the natural phenomenon. At age 9, Einstein built a 14-story card house. (Ѻ)

At age 10, he set into a program of self-education and began reading as much about science as he could. At age 12, he had decided to devote himself to solving the riddle of the ‘Huge World.’

In 1895, at age 16, Einstein attempts to skip high school, by taking an entrance exam to the Swiss Polytechnic, a top technical university, but fails the arts portion. The following year, age 17, he finishes high school and enrolls at ETH Zurich in the mathematics and physics program. In 1900, age 21, he graduated from college, with a degree in mathematical physics.

For the next two years, Einstein searched unsuccessfully for a teaching post, settling, in circa 1902, for a job at the patent office in Bern, evaluating patent applications for electromagnetic devices. He published his first scientific paper in 1901 on intermolecular forces, followed by two papers in 1902 on thermodynamics of potential differences in metals and of the second law in the context of kinetic theory. Over the next two years, he published two papers: “A Theory of the Foundations of Thermodynamics” (1903) and “On a General Molecular Theory of Heat” (1904)”. The following year he published 25 papers, mostly on thermodynamics, five of which functioned to catapult him into scientific stardom. The following key term mapping gives an indication to the weight of different terms in the mind of Einstein during his first thirty years of life.

Einstein gained worldwide prominence in 1919, when British astronomers verified predictions of Einstein's general theory of relativity through measurements taken during a total eclipse. Einstein's theories expanded upon, and in some cases refuted, universal laws formulated by Newton in the late seventeenth century.

On the shoulders of giants
Born the year of Scottish physicist James Maxwell's dereaction (death), Einstein was so inspired by Maxwell's mathematics - which he'd had to teach himself because his teachers didn't include it in their curriculums - that he put a photograph of Maxwell on his study wall, alongside pictures of Michael Faraday and Isaac Newton. These three men were Einstein's great intellectual influences. [6]

Bust of Goethe (1829)Einstein's heroes (s)
Einstein kept a bust of Goethe in his study, along with pictures of Faraday, Newton, and Maxwell, and in his personal library the most-represented author was the work of Goethe in a thirty-six volume edition and another of twelve volumes, plus two volumes on his Optics, the exchange of letters between Goethe and Schiller, and a separate volume of Faust. [16]

Maxwell, who had built on the work English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday and his conception of "lines of force" (or field lines), through the publication of his 1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, had established that light or all forms of electromagnetic radiation consisted of electromagnetic waves. Subsequently, by 1905 the wave nature of light was an established, incontrovertible fact. Einstein, however, proposed that light was not continuous but consists of localized particles. As Einstein wrote in the introduction to his March 1905 paper: [9]

“According to the assumption to be contemplated here, when a light ray is spread from a point, the energy is not distributed continuously over ever-increasing spaces, but consists of a finite number of energy quanta that are localized in points in space, move without dividing, and can be absorbed or generated only as a whole.”

These “energy quanta” were later terms labeled as “photons” a 1926 coinage of American physical chemist Gilbert Lewis to describe a “particle” of light. [10]

Collected works
See also: Einstein's personal library
The complete scholarly edition of The Writings of Albert Einstein, according to Princeton University Press, constitutes about twenty volumes. On 17 Mar 1932, on the hundredth anniversary of Goethe's dereaction (death), Einstein wrote, in his auto-biographical answers to a questionnaire about his achievements and publications, in the process of becoming a member of the Kaiser Leopold German Academy of Scientists, the following: [15]

“My publications consist almost entirely of short papers in physics, most of which have appeared in Annalen der Physik and the Proceedings of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. The most important of which have to do with the following topics: Brownian motion (1905), theory of Planck's formula and light quanta (1905, 1917), special relativity and the mass of energy (1906), general relativity (1916).”

According to Google Books analysis of key term usage as found in the collected papers of Einstein, the mindset of his twenties, from 1900 to 1909, was most dominated by the word "entropy". [14] The first 25 of Einstein’s first 30 published papers, of over 300 in total, were in thermodynamics. [12] Thermodynamics played a special role in Einstein's early search for a unified theory of physics. [13]
Einstein reading
Some of the books in Einstein's personal library.

Determinism
See main: Determinism
On whether or not the laws of science applied to humans, Einstein stated: [15]

“Scientific research is based on the idea that everything that takes place is determined by laws of nature, and therefore this holds for the actions of people.”

Seed of drive
In his last Autobiographical Note, Einstein recalled the first crucial insight (thought experiment) that led to his special theory of relativity. It came to him unexpectedly, while he was daydreaming, at the age of sixteen: [4]

“What would it be like … to run beside a light beam, at the speed of light?”

Through this conjecture, a number of scientific insights, e.g. that no object with mass can be moved at the speed of light because it would take an infinite about of energy, that time is relativistic, that matter and energy are equivalent, that radiation consists of light quanta, etc., emerged or naturally fell out into plain view. [5]
Einstein's famous E = mc^2 equation at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany.
Three-meter-tall sculpture of Einstein's E = mc² formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany.

Mass-energy equivalence
In 1905, with respect to the development of "relativistic thermodynamics", German-born American physicist Albert Einstein showed that energy is proportional, according to the speed of light squared, to matter. [7] Specifically, in his September 27 paper "Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?", Einstein proposed that the equivalence of mass and energy is a general principle, which is a consequence of the symmetries of space and time. [8]

On love
See main: Einstein on love
The following are Einstein's thoughts on the subject of love: [11]

“Gravitation cannot be responsible for people falling in love.”

“How on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love?”

In respect to gravitation and love, Einstein seems to have been off in logic a bit. To cite a simple disproof example, female sexual heat, for instance, is mediated by the lunar cycle which is a gravitational phenomenon.
thermodynamics forever
A retouched photo showing Einstein's famous "thermodynamics forever" or "thermodynamics will never be overthrown" quote. [17]

Atomic energy | Uranium bomb
In 1904, New Zealand-born British physical chemist Ernst Rutherford wrote: [21]

“There is reason to believe that an enormous store of latent energy is resident in the atoms of the radio elements. Its existence at once explains the failure of chemistry to transform the atoms and also accounts for the independence of the rate of change of all external agencies. If it were ever found possible to control at will the rate of disintegration of the radio elements an enormous amount of energy could be obtained from a small amount of matter.”

In his famous Aug 2nd, 1939 letter to President Roosevelt, Einstein warned of the atomic bomb:

“In the course of the last four months it had been made probable—through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in America—that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radium-like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future.This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable—though much less certain—that extremely powerful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory. However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for transportation by air.”

The theory that a the nuclear chain reaction could release several million times more energy than ordinary chemical reactions, was originally conceived by Leo Szilard, and there after communicated to Einstein.
Einstein (on mediocre minds)
An Einstein photo (Ѻ) from an article on the “Lieserl love letter hoax”. (Ѻ)

Religion | God
See main: Einstein on religion; Einstein on god
The following are a few quotes by Einstein on god and or religion:

“Thus, I came to a deep religiosity, which, however, reached an abrupt end at the age of 12. Through the reading of popular scientific books, I soon reached a conviction that much in the stories of the Bible could not be true. Suspicion against every kind of authority grew out of this experience, an attitude that has never left me.”
— Albert Einstein (c.1950), in FSM app

“I do not believe in a personal god and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it.”
— Albert Einstein (1954), reply letter to an Italian-born American atheist on clarification of his religious views, Mar 24

“I have repeatedly said that in my opinion the idea of a personal god is a childlike one. You may call me an agnostic, but I do not share the crusading spirit of the professional atheist whose fervor is mostly due to a painful act of liberation from the fetters of religious indoctrination received in youth. I prefer an attitude of humility corresponding to the weakness of our intellectual understanding of nature and of our own being.”
— Albert Einstein (c.1950), Source

Curiously, Einstein, in communication with Sigmund Freud, commented his view that he believed that Jesus Christ was an actual real person:

“Dear professor Freud, it is admirable the way the longing to perceive the truth has overcome every other desire in you. You have shown with irresistible clearness who inseparably the combative and destructive instincts are bound up with the amative and vital ones in the human psyche. At the same time a deep yearning for that great consummation, the internal and external liberation of mankind from war, shines out from the ruthless logic of your expositions. This has been the declared aim of all those who have been honored as moral and spiritual leaders beyond the limits of their own time and country without exception, from Jesus Christ to Goethe and Kant.”
— Albert Einstein (1932), “Letter to Sigmund Freud” [25]

Whereas, in fact, the person of "Jesus Christ", as described in the Christian Bible, is but an half-divine half-anthropomorphized rewrite of the "Osiris anointed" mummification resurrection story of the Egyptian Book of the Dead. We might have to give Einstein an IQ downgrade (↓) for his comment, in respect to Newton and Goethe. “No way Einstein goes above Isaac Newton.” (source: Electro-Cute (2013), IQ 200+ | Smartest person ever (4 of 4), Aug comment, 5+ thumbs up). Newton, for example, denied the divinity of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit; and Goethe, likewise, at age 21, contended that “Jesus Christ is not the author of Christianity, but rather a subject composed by a number of wise men and that Christian religion is merely a rational, political institution”, at age 33 described himself as “non-Christian”, and at age 46 stated that one of the four things he hated most was the cross †, along with bugs, tobacco smoke, and garlic. On the flip side, mass public polling at TopTens.com's "10 Smartest People in History" (Ѻ), still ranks Einstein (#2) above Newton (#5). Yet then again, Newton (#7) has a higher HCT ranking as compared to Einstein (#12).

“The word god is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honourable, but still primitive legends.”
— Albert Einstein (1954), Letter to Gutkind (Jan 3) (Ѻ)

(add discussion)

Soul?
See main: Einstein on the soul
In 1921, Einstein received a letter from a woman in Vienna imploring him to tell her if he had formed an opinion as to whether the soul exists and with it personal, individual development after death; on 5 Feb 1921, Einstein answered the following: [15]

“The mystical trend of our time, which shows itself particularly in the rampant growth of the so-called theosophy and spiritualism, is for me no more than a symptom of weakness and confusion. Since our inner experiences consist of reproductions and combinations of sensory impressions, the concept of soul without a body seems to me empty and devoid of meaning.”

In 1929, Einstein stated the following about his views on the question of god and soul:

“We followers of Spinoza see our God in the wonderful order and lawfulness of all that exists and in its soul (‘Beseeltheit’) as it reveals itself in man and animal. It is a different question whether belief in a personal God should be contested. Freud endorsed this view in his latest publication. I myself would never engage in such a task. For such a belief seems to me preferable to the lack of any transcendental outlook of life, and I wonder whether one can ever successfully render to the majority of mankind a more sublime means in order to satisfy its metaphysical needs.”
— Albert Einstein (1929), “Letter to Eduard Busching” (Oct 29); after Büsching sent Einstein a copy of his book Es gibt keinen Gott [There Is no God] [28]

On 17 Jul 1953, in a response letter to a female Baptist pastor who queried him in regards to his views on soul, God, and everlasting life, Einstein replied: [15]

“I do not believe in immortality of the individual, and I consider ethics to be an exclusively human concern with no superhuman authority behind it.”

Dereaction | Reaction end
In 1948, an exploratory surgery found a grapefruit-sized aneurism (swelling and weakening) of the abdominal aorta. The aneurism was partially wrapped with cellophane bands in 1949. On 11 Apr 1955, just two days after he signed Bertrand Russell's appeal for an end to the nuclear arms race, Einstein’s aneurysm perforated. To the suggestion that he undergo the recently introduced aneurysmectomy and graft replacement, Einstein famously replied: [18]

“I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially; I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly.”

On April 18th, at the Princeton University Hospital, he dereacted, met his reaction end (died) or existence end in his sleep.
Einstein's brain
Einstein's brain is reported to have had more glial cells, in the left parietal lobe (above), a larger and more myelinated corpus callosum, and possibly a higher right frontal cortex neuronal density. [27]

Brain
See main: Einstein’s brain
Within seven hours of his reaction end, his brain was removed by American pathologist Thomas Harvey and had it cut into 240 blocks for study; sending tissue slides to several neuropathologists, who reported nothing exotic. The remaining brain sections floated in two mason jars of formaldehyde, inside of a cardboard box marked Costa Cider, under a beer cooler in Harvey’s office.

In the mid-1980s, Marian Diamond studied Einstein’s brain, finding that, in the left inferior parietal lobe, there were more glia per neuron (73 percent) as compared to average brains. [27]

In 1999, his brain was examined by Sandra Witelson and colleagues at McMaster University, who found that it weighted 1,230 grams; had parietal lobes, essential for mathematical and spatial reasoning, that appeared 15 percent wider than normal (a phenomenon also, supposedly, found in Gauss and Siljestrom); and his Sylvian fissure, the fold running through the parietal lobes, was missing. [19]

Einstein’s corpus callosum was also found to be highly myelinated and much thicker than average. (Ѻ) In 2001, American investigative journalist Michael Paterniti published Driving Mr. Albert: a Trip Across America with Einstein’s Brain, wherein he details the so-called what had become “urban myth” of the Einstein’s brain. (Ѻ)
Einstein and the mind
An artistic depiction of the classic Einstein quote: “Education is the progressive realization of our ignorance.”

Praise | Tributes
The following are related tributes and or praise:

“Centuries from now the man in the street will know of our time as the period of the [First] World War, but the educated man will associate the first quarter of our century with your name [Einstein], just as today some people think of the end of the seventeenth-century as the time of the wars of Louis XIV and others as the time of Newton.”
Fritz Haber (1929), letter to Einstein on the occasion of his 50th birthday [15]

Quotes | Dated
The following are noted quotes and comments by Einstein:

“Really, it would have been better if I had never been born. Sometimes the only thought that sustains me and is my only refuge from despair is that I have always done everything I could within my small power, and that year in, year out, I have never permitted myself any amusements or diversions except those afforded by my studies.”
— Albert Einstein (1898), "Letter to sister" [15]

“Nernst and Planck acted like people who wanted to get hold of a rare postage stamp.”
— Albert Einstein (1913), commentary on Walther Nernst and Max Planck’s summer travel to Zurich in attempts to recruit him to the University of Berlin, with offers of his own Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, full professorship, without any teaching duties, and lucrative salary [29]

“I, too, was originally supposed to become an engineer. But I found the idea intolerable of having to apply the inventive faculty to matters that make everyday life more elaborate—and all, just for dreary money-making. Thinking for its own sake, as in music! … When I have no special problem to occupy my mind, I love to reconstruct proofs of mathematical and physical theorems that have long been known to me. There is no goal in this, merely an opportunity to indulge in the pleasant occupation of thinking.”
— Albert Einstein (1918), "Letter to Heinrich Zangger" [15]

“With fame I become more and more stupid, which, of course, is a very common phenomenon.”
Albert Einstein (1919), "Letter to Heinrich Zangger, Dec [15]

“I admire Goethe as one of the smartest and wisest men of all time.”
Albert Einstein (1932), "Comment to Leopold Casper", Apr 9 [24]

“Read no newspapers, try to find a few good friends who think as you do, read the wonderful writers of earlier times, Kant, Goethe, Lessing, and the classics of other lands, and enjoy the natural beauties of [the] surroundings.”
Albert Einstein (1933), "Advice to troubled despondent jobless Munich musician", Apr 5

“Everything is determined … by forces over which we have no control. It is determined for the insect as well as the star. Human beings, vegetables, or cosmic dust—we all dance to a mysterious tune, intoned in the distance by an invisible piper.”
Albert Einstein (1936), "Response letter to sixth grade Sunday School student as to whether or not scientists pray", Jan 24 [15]

Life and death flow into one, and there is neither evolution nor destiny, only being.”
Albert Einstein (1939), "Letter to Queen Elisabeth of Belgium" [22]

“Great [individuals] have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. The mediocre mind is incapable of understanding the man who refuses to bow blindly to conventional prejudices and chooses instead to express his opinions courageously and honestly.”
Albert Einstein (1940), "Letter to Morris Cohen, Mar 19 [23]

“Objectively, there is, after all, no free will.”
Albert Einstein (1946), "Letter to Otto Juliusburger", Apr 11

“My scientific work is motivated by an irresistible longing to understand the secrets of nature and by no other feeling.”
Albert Einstein (1949), "Reply letter on a query about his scientific motivation", Aug 20 [15]

Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one’s living at it. One should earn one’s living by work of which one is sure one is capable. Only when we do not have to be accountable to anyone can we find joy in scientific endeavor.”
Albert Einstein (1951), "Reply letter to female student thinking about becoming a professional astronomer", Mar 24

Quotes | Un-Dated
The following are noted quotes and comments by Einstein:

“Don’t bother me, I want to study.”
— Albert Einstein (c1925), comment to second wife Elsa Einstein [m.1919-1936]; as reported by Angela Jabari (2017) as seen somewhere

“It’s not that I’m so smart, it’s just that I stay with problems longer.”
— Albert Einstein (c.1930)

Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance you must keep moving.”
— Albert Einstein (c.1930)

Education is the progressive realization of our ignorance.”
— Albert Einstein (c.1930)

“When I examine myself and my methods of thought, I come to the conclusion that the gift of fantasy has meant more to me than my talent for absorbing positive knowledge.”
Albert Einstein (c.1930)

“The formulation of the problem is often more essential then its solution which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill.”
— Albert Einstein (c.1930) (Ѻ)

“Now he has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me. That signifies nothing. For those of us who believe in physics, the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.”
— Albert Einstein (1955), letter of condolence to the family of his lifelong friend Michele Besso, who had just passed away (Ѻ); Einstein, himself, dereacted a month later

See also
Einstein on love
Einstein on purpose
Einstein’s personal library
Einstein-Murphy dialogue
Einstein-Pascal dialogue
Einstein on simplicity
An Einstein original quote, or a paraphrase of Ernest Rutherford (see: barmaid explanations).

References
1. (a) Muller, Ingo. (2007). A History of Thermodynamics - the Doctrine of Energy and Entropy. New York: Springer.
(b) Albert Einstein (definition) – Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000, version 2.5, CD-Rom.
2. Perrot, Pierre. (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
3. Staff writer. (1999). “Einstein the Greatest”, BBC News Online, Monday, 29 Nov.
4. (a) Wenger, Win and Poe, Richard. (1996). The Einstein Factor, (pg. 11). Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.
(b) Pais, Abraham. (1982) Subtle is the Lord, The Life and Science of Albert Einstein, (pg. 131). New York: Oxford University Press.
5. Rigden, John S. (2005). Einstein 1905 - the Standard of Greatness. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
6. (a) Arianrhod, Robyn. (2006). Einstein’ Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
(b) Arianrhod, Robyn. (2003). “Einstein’s Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics”, The Sydney Morning Herald, November, 10th.
7. (a) Bodanis, David. (2000). E = mc² - a Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation. New York: Berkley Books.
(b) Muller, Ingo. (2007). A History of Thermodynamics - the Doctrine of Energy and Entropy, (ch. 10: Relativistic Thermodynamics, pgs. 289-305). New York: Springer.
8. Einstein, A. (1905), "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?", Annalen der Physik 18: 639–643 (English).
9. Einstein, Albert. (1905). “On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creation and Conversion of Light”, Annalen der Physik March 18.
10. (a) Ball, David W. (2001). The Basics of Spectroscopy, (pg. 13). SPIE Press.
(b) Gribbin, John. (2000). Q is for Quantum – An Encyclopedia of Particle Physics. New York: Touchstone Books.
11. (a) Among the letters Einstein received in England was one from a man who had a theory that gravity meant that as the earth rotated people were sometimes upside down or horizontal. Perhaps, reasoned the man, this led people to do foolish things, like falling in love. This prompted Einstein to scribble on the letter: “falling in love is not the most stupid thing that people do … but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it.”
(b) Source: Isaacson, Walter. (2007). Einstein, (pg. 423). Simon and Schuster.
(c) In the late 1920s at the California Institute of Technology, as recorded by Henry Borsook (1956), physical chemist Edwin Cohn asked geneticist Thomas Morgan what is research plans were? Morgan answer was: “I am not doing any genetics. I am bored with genetics. But I am going out to Cal Tech where I hope it will be possible to bring physics and chemistry to bear on biology.” Shortly after Morgan arrived at Cal Tech, Einstein visited the laboratory and posed almost the same question. Morgan answered similarly as before. In response, Einstein shook his head and said: “No, this trick won’t work. The same trick does not work twice. How on earth are you ever going to explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love?”
(d) Source: Kang, Manjit. (2002). Quantitative Genetics, Genomics, and Plant Breeding, (pg. 12). CABI Publishing.
12. List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein – Wikipedia.
13. Klein, Martin J. (1967). “Thermodynamics in Einstein’s Thought: Thermodynamics Played a Special Role in Einstein’s Early Search for a Unified Foundation of Physics” (abs), Science 4, August. pgs. 509-16.
14. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1987). The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein: The Early Years, 1879-1902, Volume 1. Translator: Anna Beck, Compiler: Peter Havas. Princeton University Press.
(b) Einstein, Albert. (1989). The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein: The Swiss Years, Writings, 1900-1909, Volume 2. Translator: Anna Beck, Compiler: Peter Havas. Princeton University Press.
15. Einstein, Albert. (1981). Albert Einstein: the Human Side. Princeton University Press.
16. (a) Bust of Goethe by David d'Angers, Weimar, 1829. Galerie David d'Angers, Angers.
(b) Galison, Peter, Holton, Gerald J., and Schweber, Silvan S. (2008). Einstein for the 21st Century: His Legacy in Science, Art, and Modern Culture (ch. 1: Who Was Einstein? Why is He Still so Alive?, pgs 3-15; quote: pg. 10). Princeton University Press.
17. Kreuzer, H.J. and Tamblyn, Isaac. (2010). Thermodynamics (Einstein photo, pg. 2; §8.6: Athletes: the Human Engine, pgs. 160-62; §8.6: Thermodynamics in Economics, pgs. 162-66). World Scientific.
18. (a) Suy, R. (2008). “Arterial Aneurysms: a Short Historical Review”, in Aortic (pg. 37) (eds. Sakalihasan, Natzi, Kuivaniemi, Helena, and Michel, Jean-Baptiste). University de Liege.
(b) Levenson, Thomas. (2003). Einstein in Berlin (pg. 432). Bantam Books.
19. (a) Ackerman, Diane. (2004). An Alchemy of Mind: the Marvel and Mystery of the Brain (pgs. 63-65). Simon and Schuester.
(b) Albert Einstein’s brain – Wikipedia.
20. Pensees – Wikipedia.
21. Ubbelohde, Alfred René. (1954). Man and Energy: Illustrated (pg. 80). Hutchinson's Scientific & Technical Publications.
22. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1939). “Letter to Queen Elisabeth of Belgium” (Ѻ), Jan 9.
(b) Pagels, Heinz R. (1982). Cosmic Code (pg. 3). Simon & Schuster.
(c) Dozier, Rush W. (1992). Codes of Evolution: the Synaptic Language Revealing the Secrets of Matter, Life, and Thought (pg. 3). Crown Publishers.
23. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1940). “Letter to Morris Cohen” (Ѻ), Mar 19.
(b) Note: Sent to Cohen, professor emeritus of philosophy at the College of the City of New York, defending the appointment of Bertrand Russell to a teaching position.
24. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1932). “To Leopold Casper”, Apr 9, Einstein Archives, 49-380.
(b) Einstein, Albert. (2010). The Ultimate Quotable Einstein (editor: Alice Calaprice; contributor: Freeman Dyson) (Goethe, 6+ pgs). Princeton University Press.
25. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1932). “Letter to Sigmund Freud”, date (add).
(b) Einstein, Albert. (1935). The World As I See It (pgs. 46-47). Book Tree, 2007.
26. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1933). “Address and Messages” (pgs. 28-29). Spinoza Institute of America.
(b) Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pg. 533). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.

27. Jensen, Eric. (2009). Enriching the Brain: How to Maximize Every Learner’s Potential (pgs. 155-56). John Wiley & Sons.
28. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1929). “Letter to Eduard Busching”, Oct 29; after Büsching sent Einstein a copy of his book Es gibt keinen Gott [There Is no God] (Ѻ)
(b) Jammer, Max. (1999). Einstein and Religion: Physics and Theology (pg. 51). Publisher.
29. Charles, Daniel. (2005). Master Mind: the Rise and Fall of Fritz Haber, the Nobel Laureate who Launched the Age of Chemical Warfare (pg. 135). Harper Collins Publishers.

Further reading
● Einstein, Albert. (1938). “Morals and Emotion”, Publication; in: The Einstein Reader (§6:13-17). Citadel Press, 1956.
● Einstein, Albert. (1950). “The Laws of Science and the Laws of Ethics” (Ѻ), Publication; in: The Einstein Reader (§15:103-04). Citadel Press, 1956.
● Rogers, Donald. (2005). Einstein’s Other Theory: the Planck-Bose-Einstein Theory of Heat Capacity. Princeton University Press.

External links
Albert Einstein – Wikipedia.

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