Anne Helden

photo neededIn existographies, Anne C. van Helden (c.1945-) is a Danish science historian, who in 1991 was associated with the Boerhaave Museum (see: Herman Boerhaave), in Leiden, noted for []

Overview
In 1991, Helden, in her “The Age of the Air-Pump”, building on Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer’s 1985 Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life, attempted to fill in missing historical details about the history of the invention of the air pump and its ramifications. [1] The following, from this article, is Helden's table of air pumps (vacuum pumps) dated to year of invention, design, and improvement:
Air Pump Designs up to 1740
The following is Helden's table of extant seventeenth century air pumps, the oldest of which being the pump made by Otto Guericke in 1663 for Johann Schonborn, now kept at the Deutsches Museum, Munich:
Extant Seventeenth Century Air Pumps
In 2003, Helden, expanding her 1991 article, contributed a short article “Air Pump” to the Wilbur Applebaum’s Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: from Copernicus to Newton. [2]

Huygens | Onnes
Helden has published historical work on Christiaan Huygens and also on Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his low temperature thermodynamics research, from 1882 to 1923. [3]

Quotes | By
The following are quotes by Helden:

Guericke had designed his first air pump on the basis of a fire syringe: a piston moving back and forth in a brass cylinder. During the outward motion, it took in air from a spherical recipient. The pump was emptied during the inward stroke, while a leather valve prevented the air from flowing back to the recipient. The outlet was supplied with a valve as well, to prevent the atmospheric air from being taken in during the suction stroke. Hooke and Huygens improved on this design, but the overall idea remained the same. Leakage was the largest problem with the earliest vacuum pumps. To reduce it, the pump cylinder had to be perfectly straight with a smooth inner surface. Requirements like this made the construction of a vacuum pump extremely expensive and difficult. No more than fifteen scholars and institutions succeeded in obtaining a vacuum pump before 1670, and most of these depended on Guericke, Hooke, or Huygens for the construction and maintenance of their instruments.”
— Anne Helden (2003), “Air Pump”, in: Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution [1]

References
1. (a) Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, Simon. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Guericke, 5+ pgs; map, pg. 228; antlia pneumatica, pg. 278). Princeton University Press, 2011.
(b) Helden, Anne. (1991). “The Age of the Air-Pump” (pdf), Tractrix: Yearbook for the History of Science, Medicine, Technology, and Mathematics, 3:149-72.
2. (a) Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, Simon. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Guericke, 5+ pgs; map, pg. 228; antlia pneumatica, pg. 278). Princeton University Press, 2011.
(b) Helden, Anne. (1991). “The Age of the Air-Pump” (pdf), Tractrix: Yearbook for the History of Science, Medicine, Technology, and Mathematics, 3:149-72.
(c) Helden, Anne. (2003). “Air Pump”, in: Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: from Copernicus to Newton (editor: Wilbur Applebaum) (§: Air Pump, pgs. #; Guericke, 5+ pg. #). Routledge.
3. Helden, Anne C. van – WorldCat Identities.

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