Archimedes

Archimedes nsIn existographies, Archimedes (287-212BC) (IQ:190|#39) (Cattell 1000:414) [RGM:9|1,500+] (Murray 4000:20|M / 5|T) (GME:4) (CR:75) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, and engineer, noted for his principle of the lever, buoyancy principle or theory of specific gravity, a mechanical method of the calculation of areas, among others; sometimes known as one of fabled "last persons to know everything".

Architronito | Steam-powered cannon
In 330BC, Archimedes, according to Leonardo da Vinci (c.1500), invented a architronito, or steam-powered cannon that throws 70lb iron balls, via the action of “great noise and fury”, at the enemy, by the action of heat derived from burning coals; diagrams of which are found in da Vinci’s notebooks; the gist of which is diagrammed as follows: [5]

Steam cannon

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Mathematics
Archimedes discovered the value of Pi, worked on the concept of infinity, and made steps towards the development of calculus. [1]

Mechanics | thermodynamics
In his The Method of Mechanical Theorems, Archimedes gives an account of his “mechanical method”, in which, utilizing his center of gravity method, he shows how to use infinitesimals and the law of the lever to determine the areas of figures from the known center of mass of other figures, in what seems to be a precursor to integral calculus. [1] French physicist Gustave Hirn, in his 1868 Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics, mentions Archimedes, and his lever principle, as follows: [2]

“We see how many people incorrectly thought are what we call the power of an engine. When they hear about a steam engine, a water wheel of twenty horses for example, it contained only twenty horses harnessed together and acting both are driven by the engine. They thus confuse the effort exerted at a given time, and assumes no minimum time, with the mechanical work, which involves the idea of time. Archimedes said that with a lever and a fulcrum long enough, that it would raise the earth, he probably thought to have multiplied almost indefinitely the power of man, in reality, unconsciously perhaps He has made us very small. Lift the land means, in effect, use the engine working at our disposal, to raise to a height equal weight to that of Earth. But really, how long would it take a very vigorous man, working day and night, without rest, to lift such a weight to one millimeter in height? He would need two million of millions of centuries! Archimedes indeed, although we were humiliated.”
Archimedes moving the earth
A depiction of Archimedes, who famously said "give me a lever long enough, and I will move the earth", moving the earth; thus Illustrating his "principle of the lever", supposedly one of the per-cursors to infinitesimals and hence to integral calculus.

No doubt this "moving earth" postulate would have been considered heresy, being in direct opposition to the stationary earth theory found at the heart of Ra theology, and hence Christianity; just as was Galileo Galilei put under house arrest some 2,000-years latter for advocating the same view.

Archimedes palimpsest
In 1998, the auction house of Christie’s sold the famous Archimedes Palimpsest, a 1000AD collected works set of Archimedes theories, which was made into a palimpsest in 1200AD, for more than $2 million. Since then, Stanford University working in coordination with the Walters Art Museum has been using a variety of imaging techniques to retrieve the hidden texts and images, which turned out to be heretofore undiscovered works, Balancing Planes, On Floating Bodies, The Method of Mechanical Theorems and the Stomachion, in which Archimedes wrote about topics ranging from gravity to infinity. [1] The ongoing project is currently hosted at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland. [4]

Other
In 1789, at the age of 13, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher Sophie Germain (see: smartest woman ever), in her father’s library, intrigued by the famous death of Archimedes, she self-taught herself mathematics; learning Latin and Greek so to read Isaac Newton and Leonhard Euler.

Quotes | By
The following are quotes by Archimedes:

Eudoxus first discovered the proof that the cone is one-third of the cylinder of equal height on the same base, and the pyramid one-third of the prism. No small share [of the discovery] should be assigned to Democritus, who first made the assertion about the above-mentioned figure without proof.”
— Archimedes (c.220BC), Mathematical Theorems Addressed to Eratosthenes (see: Eratosthenes) [6]

References
1. Netz, Reviel and Noel, William. (2011). The Archimedes Codex (abs). Orion.
2. The Method of Mechanical Theorems – Wikipedia.
3. Hirn, Gustav. (1968). Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics (Métaphysique et conséquences philosophiques de la thermodynamique: l'analyse fondamentale de l'univers) (Metaphysics and Philosophical Implications of Thermodynamics: Basic Analysis of the Universe) (Archimedes, pgs. 19-23). Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
4. The Archimedes Palimpsest | Lost and Found – Walters Art Museum.
5. (a) Da Vinci, Leonardo. (c.1518). The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci (pgs. 142-43). Arcturus, 2017.
(b) Architonnerre – Wikipedia.
6. Taylor, C.C.W. (1999). The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus: Fragments: a Text and Translation with a Commentary by C.C.W. Taylor (pg. 136). University of Toronto Press.

Further reading
● Pickover, Clifford A. (2008). Archimedes to Hawking (pg. 339). Oxford University Press.

External links
Archimedes – Wikipedia.

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