# Atomic theory

 Father of Atomic Theory “All reality consists of hard indivisible particles, moving and colliding in empty space.” Leucippus (c.450BC) Theory
In science, atomic theory is an argument that all matter in the universe consists of small particles called atoms or atomos (Greek meaning 'uncuttable' or 'indivisible') moving about in a void or vacuum.

The atomic theory was originated by Greek philosopher Leucippus in circa 450 BC as a point of argument to contradict the earlier circa 485 BC hypothesis by Greek philosopher Parmenides that vacuums are a natural impossibility or that “nature abhors a vacuum”.

The following table lists the chronological development of atomic theory, from the early 'Greek school' of atomic theory (450-55BC), to fragmented commentary in the dark ages, to the revival of atomic theory (1600-1800), to subatomic theory (1902-1926), to subnuclear theory (1963-), to human molecular theory (2002-).

Human molecular theory
See main: Human molecular theory, Human molecular hypothesis, human molecule
A subset of atomic theory logic is 'human molecular theory', the premise that humans are made of atoms, ordered in specific arrangement, in the form of a dynamic molecule. The immensity of this simple doctrine cannot be overestimated in terms of it far-reaching implications. To illuminate, as commented, in aggregate form, famously by American physicist Richard Feynman, in his famous time capsule wisdom:

“If all scientific knowledge were lost in a cataclysm, the single statement that I would propose to best pass on our understanding of the world, so to preserve the most information for the next generations of creatures, would be: ‘all things are made of atoms’.”

The extrapolation of this, up to the human scale, namely that:

“All humans are made of atoms”

is the more far-reaching statement with which to pass on to subsequent generations.

That humans are little particles (made of atoms), which go by various names: human molecules, human atoms, human atomisms, human particles, human chemicals, or human elements, etc., that move around, attracting each other when in near vicinity, but repelling upon being squeezed together in too close a manner. In this one sentence, one sees that there is an enormous amount of information about the human world, if just a little imagination and thinking are applied. In this perspective, the following table gives a gist outline of human molecular theory:

 Modern Human Molecular Theory 1919 George Carey(1845-1924) Definitively stated that: "man's body is a chemical formula in operation." 2000 Robert Sterner(c.1958-) In their ecological stoichiometric studies of elemental composition variations in related species of small fresh water organisms, Sterner and Elser initiated modern 'human molecular theory' by calculating the following 22-element empirical molecular formula for one person: H375,000,000 O132,000,000 C85,700,000 N6,430,000 Ca1,500,000 P1,020,000 S206,000 Na183,000 K177,000 Cl127,000 Mg40,000 Si38,600 Fe2,680 Zn2,110 Cu76 I14 Mn13 F13 Cr7 Se4 Mo3 Co1 which they specifically defined as the chemical formula for one 'human molecule', thus giving, for the first time, experimentally measured proof or derivation that a human being is a 'molecule' comprised of a specific number of operational atoms. James Elser(c.1959-) 2002 Libb Thims(c.1975-) In his human thermodynamic studies, particularly surrounding efforts to understand how the spontaneity criterion applies to human relationships, in 2002 calculated the following 26-element empirical molecular formula: H2.5E9 O9.7E8 C4.9E8 N4.7E7 P9.0E6 Ca8.9E6 K2.0E6 Na1.9E6 S1.6E6 Cl1.3E6 Mg3.0E5 Fe5.5E4 F5.4E4 Zn1.2E4 Si9.1E3 Cu1.2E3 B7.1E2 Cr98 Mn93 Ni87 Se65 Sn64 I60 Mo19 Co17 Vand in 2007 wrote the first textbook on the behavior and reactions of human molecules; and in 2008, after becoming aware of the earlier work of Sterner and Elser, wrote the first booklet on history of the concept of the human molecule. 2005 New Scientist In 2005, in an anon author of a New Scientist article entitled “That’s Life”, gave the following 12-element empirical formula was: [15]$H_{15,750} N_{310} O_{6,500} C_{2,250} Ca_{63} P_{48} K_{15} S_{15} Na_{10} Cl_{6} Mg_{3} Fe_{1} \,$ This attempt at what the author calls "one's chemical formula", however, is lacking in 14 elements shown to have active role in the internal functioning of a person.

The three subjects concerning the study of human molecules include: human chemistry, human physics, and human thermodynamics.

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“When I taught physics in secondary school in 1891, the invisible and indestructible atom was the foundation upon which the scientific structure was built. Some of my naïve pupils were skeptical and asked if I were telling a fairy tale.”
Judson Herrick (1956), The Evolution of Human Nature (pg. 33)

“If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generation of creatures, what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is the atomic hypothesis (or atomic fact, or whatever you wish to call it) that all things are made of atoms — little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another. In that one sentence you will see an enormous amount of information about the world, if just a little imagination and thinking are applied.”
Richard Feynman (1964), Lectures on Physics

References
1. Cornford, F.M. (1938). Background to Modern Science (atomic theory, pg. 25). Cambridge.
2. Lindley, David. (2001). Boltzmann’s Atom: the Great Debate that Launched a Revolution in Physics (Greek atomic theory, pg. 3-11). The Free Press.
4. Pullman, Bernard. (1998). The Atom in the History of Human Thought (Timelines, pgs. 12, 118, 195; Thomson, pgs. 258-59; Nagaoka, pg. 383). Oxford.
5. Rutherford, Ernest. (1911). “The Scattering of α and β Particles by Matter and the Structure of the Atom”, Philosophical Magazine, 21: 669-88, Apr.
6. (a) Nagaoka, Hantaro. (1903). “Reading”, Physico-Mathematical Society of Tokyo, Dec.
(b) Nagaoka, Hantaro. (1904). “Article”, Phil. Mag. 7:455.
7. Mehra, Jagdish and Rechenberg, Helmut. (2000). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory (II.2: Ideas Towards a Model of Atomic Structure, pgs. 168-). Springer.
8. Maimonides, Moses. (c.1170). The Guide for the Perplexed (pg. 261). Publisher.
9. Brumbaugh, Robert S. (1981). The Philosophers of Greece (ch. 9: Democritus and the Atomic Theory, pgs. 78-). SUNY Press.
10. Lucretius. (c.75BC). On the Nature of Things (book one: matter and space, book two: movement and shapes of atoms, book three: life and mind, book four: sensation and sex, book five: cosmology and sociology, book six: meteorology and geology). Latin-to-English trans. by Robert Allison. London: Arthur Humphreys, 1919.
11. LoLordo, Antonia. (2007). Pierre Gassendi and the Birth of Modern Philosophy (Daniel Sennert, 6+ pgs). Cambridge.
13. Higgins, William. (1814). Experiments and Observations on Atomic Theory and Electrical Phenomena. Dublin: Graisberry and Campbell.
14. (a) Clarke, F.W. (1904). “The Atomic Theory”, Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian, pgs. 243-62.
(b) Swedenborg, Emanuel. (1721). Some Specimens of a Work on the Principles of Chemistry, with other Treatises (in Latin). Amsterdam; English ed. 1847, London.
15. Author. (2005). “That’s Life”, New Scientist, Dec 03.
16. Finger, Stanley and Piccolino, Marco. (2011). The Shocking History of Electric Fishes: from Ancient Epochs to the Birth of Modern Neuropsyciology (pg. 144). Oxford University Press.
17. Scott, George P. (1985). Atoms of the Living Flame: an Odyssey into Ethics and the Physical Chemistry of Free Will (pg. 33). University Press of America.
18. Compton, Arthur H. (1935). The Freedom of Man (pgs. 11-12). Yale University Press.
19. Fowler, Michael. (c.2010). “Models of the Atom”, Lectures, University of Virginia.
20. (a) History of knot theory – Wikipedia.
(b) Sossinsky, Alexei (2002). Knots, Mathematics with a Twist (pgs. 3-10). Harvard University Press.
21. Ostwald, Wilhelm. (c.1908). “Quote”, in: Grundriss der allgemeinen Chemie (4th ed., 1909), Preface, as cited by Erwin N. Hiebert and Hans-Gunther Korber in article on Ostwald in Charles Coulston Gillespie (ed.), Dictionary of Scientific Biography Supplement 1, Vol 15-16, 464.
23. Dawes, Gregory W. (2012). Theism and Explanation (pg. #). Routledge.
24. Stenger, Victor J. (2013). God and the Atom: from Democritus to the Higgs Boson: the Story of a Triumphant Idea (pgs. 49, 55). Prometheus Books.