Attack reaction

Hediger-Hall attack reaction
An illustration of the "flight reaction" and "attack reaction" by Heini Hediger (1955), left, and a sketch of the "attack reaction" by Edward Hall (1966), based on the work of Heidiger.
In hmolscience, attack reaction refers to []

In 1934, Heini Hediger, in his “On the Biology and Psychology of Flight in Animals”, was speaking about “flight reactions” and “critical reactions” of big cats. [1]

In 1955, Hediger, in his The Psychology of Animals in Zoos and Circuses, described these as such: [2]

“According to the definition, ‘flight reaction’ occurs in every wild animal, or in an animal adapted to captivity, whenever man approaches to within the characteristic flight distance of that animal. In addition to this fundamental possibility of driving the new wild animal away to any desired point by releasing its flight reaction, the tamer has another basic possibility, of drawing the animal towards him from any point by releasing its so-called ‘critical reaction’. This occurs whenever the man approaches a wild animal (or one accustomed to captivity), which is prevented from escape, to a distance less than its characteristic ‘critical distance’. In the case of the big cats, this distance plays an exceedingly important part, is fixed, and may be determined to within centimeters. The critical reaction consists of a change from flight to attack, never with the character of an active offensive, but always of a defensive, emergency nature.”

This was photo diagramed by Hediger as shown adjacent, shown with a 1966 sketch of this so-called “attack reaction” by Edward Hall. [2]

In 2003, Raddai Raikhlin, in his Civil War, Terrorism, and Gangs, was employing a Hall model in his work. [3]

In 2007, Libb Thims, in his Human Chemistry, was employing the Hediger-Hall attack reaction model as such: [4]

Attack reaction

In 2019, Thims, in the "war" article, was employing the attack reaction as follows:

War (labeled)


1. (a) Hediger, Heini. (1934). “On the Biology and Psychology of Flight in Animals” (“Zur Biologie und Psychologie der Flucht bei Tieren.), Biol. Zentralbl. Vol. 54, pp. 21-40.
(b) Hediger, Heini. (1955). The Psychology of Animals in Zoos and Circuses (Skizzen zu einer Tierpsychologie im Zoo und im Zirkus) (photo, pg. 112; critical reaction, pgs. 123-24). Dover, 1968.
2. Hall, Edward T. (1966). The Hidden Dimension: an Anthropologist Examines Man’s Use of Space in Public in Private (attack reaction, pg. 12). Doubleday Anchor Book.
3. Raikhlin, Raddai. (2003). Civil War, Terrorism and Gangs: the Systematic of Sociology and Social Dynamics (Hall, pg. 258; thermodynamics, 30+ pgs). BookSurge.
4. Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (attack reaction, pg. 226; Hall, pgs. 223-32; 264-65). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.

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