Bauer principle

In animate thermodynamics, Bauer principle, "principle of the permanent inequilibrium of living matter" or "principle of stable nonequilibrium", is a principle which states that “living and only the living systems are never in equilibrium, and, on the debit of their free energy, they continuously invest work against the realization of the equilibrium which should occur within the given outer conditions on the basis of the physical and chemical laws.”

Overview
The principle was formulated in 1920 by Hungarian-born Russian physical biologist Erwin Bauer, supposedly, based on an extrapolation of Gibbsian thermodynamics to chnopsological systems (biological systems). [1]

A shortened version of the Bauer principle, according to Russian biophysicist Mikhail Volkenstein, is: [2]

“Living systems are never in equilibrium and at the expense of their free energy …”

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References
1. (a) Bauer, Erwin. (1920). Die Grunprincipien der rein Naturwissenshtlichen Biologie (The Fundamental Principles of Biological Science). Berlin.
(b) Bauer, Erwin. (date). Vorträge Und Aufsätze Über Entwickelungsmechanik Der Organismen, Volumes 26-34 (Lectures and Essays on the Evolutionary Mechanics of Organisms) (Nabu Press). Publisher.
(c) Bauer, Erwin. (1935). Theoretical Biology. Publisher.
2. Volkenstein, Mikhail. (2009). Entropy and Information. BirkHauser Basel.

Further reading
● Zotin, Aleksandr I. (1990). Thermodynamics Bases of Biological Processes: Physiological Reactions and Adaptations (Bauer principle, pg. 237). Walter de Gruyter.
● Minai, Asghar T. (1993). Aesthetics, Mind, and Nature: a Communication Approach to the Unity of Matter and Consciousness (Bauer principle, pg. 59). Praeger.
● Grandpierre, Attila. (2010). “On the First Principle of Biology and the Foundation of the Universal Science” (Bauer principle, pgs. 18, 24-25); in: Astronomy and civilization in the New Enlightenment: Passions of the Skies (editors: Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Attila Grandpierre) (pgs. 19-36). Springer.
● Tuhtan, Jeff. (2012). “A Modeling Approach for Alpine Rivers Impacted by Hydropeaking Including the Second Law Inequality” (Bauer principle, pg. 87) (pdf), PhD dissertation, Stuttgart University, Germany.

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