Bergman’s affinity table

In affinity chemistry, Bergman’s affinity table is a 1775, 59-column 50-row, affinity table, found in appendixes (as attached foldout sheets) in the chemistry textbook A Dissertation on Elective Attractions, by Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman, showing the majority of the main chemical reactions, known at the time, in the "wet way" (aqueous reactions) and "dry way" (heated reactions), ordered according to affinity preference. The table is shown below and below the table is Bergman's "chemical signs explained" table: [1]

Bergman's table (columns 1-25)

Bergman's table (columns 26-59)
Bergman's chemical signs explained

See also
Bergman’s reaction diagrams

Bergman's table was the largest affinity table ever made. The table formed the basis of logic to the German polymath Johann Goethe’s 1809 human affinity table. In the decades to follow the publication of Bergman’s table, it became apparent that reactions were temperature dependent and that one table would have to be made for each degree on the temperature scale. This impediment eventually gave way to the construction of free energy tables, after it was shown in German physicist Hermann Helmholtz’s 1882 treatise The Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes, that the measure of affinity is equal to the negative of the free energy change for the given reaction or set of reactions in a system.

1. Bergman, Torbern. (1775). A Dissertation on Elective Attractions. London: Frank Cass & Co.

EoHT symbol

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