A general diagram of "calculus" of a moving point in a Cartesian system in time (Newton, 1666). [1] |

**calculus**, from the Latin

*calcis*- “small stone”, as in infinitesimal counting, refers to the method of mapping the motion of a moving point in time, on a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, originally developed by

__Roberval__(c.1635) (Ѻ), such that the curve, defined by the function

*f*(x,y) = 0, is regarded as the locus of the intersection of two moving lines, one

__horizontal motion__(x-axis) the other

__vertical motion__(y-axis), whereby the “

__derivative__” (see:

__differential calculus__) of each motion, in respect to time, is the

__velocity__in each respective direction, according to which the tangent of the curve is the velocity of the particle; the “integration” (see:

__integral calculus__) of the function of the curve yields the area under the curve (Newton, 1666).

References

1. (a) Newton, Isaac. (1666). “Tract on Fluxions”, Oct.

(b) Edwards, C.H. (1975).

*The Historical Origin of Calculus*(§: Calculus According to Newton, pg. 191-92). Springer.

See also

● History of differential equations

● Prodigies and calculus

External links

● Calculus – Wikipedia.

● Calculus – EtymOnline.com.