# Cannon

In engineering, cannon is a hollowed barrel-like device that uses combustion or heat to fire or impel a projectile, typically a large iron ball.

Overview
In c.1495, Leonardo da Vinci designed an upside-down cannon barrel (see: gunpowder engine), fitted with a piston, as sketched by him below (left), which had a rod attached to the bottom of the piston, which he stated could be used to lift a weight of large size, if gunpowder was ignited inside the cannon, therein consuming the oxygen inside of the working body volume, thereby making a vacuum, which, owing to the force of the atmospheric pressure, would lift the weight: [3]

In c.1650, Edward Somerset took a cannon, and filled it 3/4th full of water, sealed it, and boiled it for 24-hours, until it burst with great explosion. A few years later, he was able to make an engine, that raised water by means of fire, which he attached to the side of his castle. [3]

In 1660, Christiaan Huygens discussed the use of a cannon to raise weight by action of rarefied steam to raise weight, with Blaise Pascal.

In 1673, Christiaan Huygens made a gunpowder engine that could lift a weight using a cannon.

In 1699, Guillaume Amontons, in his “Method of Substituting the Force of Fire for Horse and Man Power to Move Machines”, supposedly, pointed out that the “cannon” was a type of heat engine, or “fire engine”, that could be used to move machinery. [2]

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“The combustion engine, in the form of a cannon, is the oldest form of heat engine.”
Osborne Reynolds (1883), “On the General Theory of Thermo-Dynamics” [1]

Cannon boring experiment
● Da Vinci engine
Gunpowder engine
Walter Cannon

References
1. (a) Reynolds, Osborne. (1883). “On the General Theory of Thermo-Dynamics”, Lecture at Engineering School at Owens College, Manchester; in: Papers on Mechanical and Physical Subjects, Volume Two: 1881-1900 (§47: pg. 151). Cambridge University Press, 1901.
(b) Cardwell, Donald S.L. (1971). From Watt to Clausius: the Rise of Thermodynamics in the Early Industrial Age. Cornell University Press.
2. (a) Amontons, Guillaume. (1699). “Method of Substituting the Force of Fire for Horse and Man Power to Move Machines”, Historie et Memoires de l’Academie Royale des Sciences (pg. 112).
(b) Cardwell, Donald S.L. (1971). From Watt to Clausius: the Rise of Thermodynamics in the Early Industrial Age (pg. 20). Cornell University Press.
3. Gould, Sabine. (1908). Devonshire Characters and Strange Events (§: Savery and Newcomen, Inventors, pgs. 487-501) (WS). John Lane.