Chemical thermodynamics (etymology)

In etymologies, chemical thermodynamics (etymology) refers to the name “origin” and or coining of the formation of the unified single subject term “chemical thermodynamics”, which seems to have arisen in the 1903 English translation of French physicist and chemist Pierre Duhem’s Thermodynamics and Chemistry, if not before, and as a quoted term by Gilbert Lewis in 1921.

Publication timeline | Theory era
The following is a timeline of chemical thermodynamics articles, books, and textbooks, showing the general etymological formation of the the term chemical thermodynamics, in the subject's so-called "theory" era, i.e. theoretical chemical thermodynamics:


Publication | Theory era
Main author
Approach [2]





1869"Vapor Pressure and Heated Evaporation of Ammonium Chloride"
Horstmann 75August Horstmann
(1842-1929)


1873"Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids"
Gibbs 75 newWillard Gibbs
(1839-1903)


1873"A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Means of Surfaces"Gibbs 75 newWillard Gibbs
(1839-1903)


1876On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous SubstancesGibbs 75 newWillard Gibbs
(1839-1903)


1882
"The Thermodynamics of Chemical Processes"Helmholtz 75Hermann Helmholtz
(1821-1894)


1884 Studies in Chemical DynamicsHoff 75Jacobus van't Hoff
(1852-1911)
Arbeit or Affinity
1885Chemical Equilibrium the Result of Dissipation of EnergyGeorge Liveing 75George Liveing
(1827-1924)
Energy dissipation
1886Le Potential Thermo-DynamiqueDuhem 75Pierre Duhem
(1861-1916)
Chemical potential
1893Theoretical Chemistry from the Standpoint of Avogadro's Rule and ThermodynamicsNernst 75Walther Nernst
(1864-1941)
Arbeit or Affinity
1893Die Thermodynamik in der ChemieJohannes van Laar 75Johannes van Laar
(1860-1938)
Total entropy
1897Vorlesung uber ThermodynamikPlanck 75Max Planck
(1858-1947)
Total entropy
1903 Treatises on the Thermodynamics of Chemical ProcessesHorstmann 75August Horstmann
(1842-1929)


1903 Thermodynamics and Chemistry: A Non-mathematical Treatise for Chemists and Students of ChemistryDuhem 75Pierre Duhem
(1861-1916)


1906Sechs Vortrage uber das Thermodynamische PotentialJohannes van Laar 75Johannes van Laar
(1860-1938)
Chemical potential

Thus, given the above rule, the subject of "thermodynamics and chemistry" (1880s) became "chemical thermodynamics" (1920s) over a period of forty years. Hence, if one is to learn by example, in the naming of a new branch of thermodynamics, e.g. "the thermodynamics of surface interactions", one should skip to the chase (e.g. surface thermodynamics), and save years of thought on questions regarding name choice. In the 1940s, to note, the specialty branch of chemical engineering thermodynamics began to develop.

Publication timeline | Quantitative era
The following is a timeline of chemical thermodynamics articles, books, and textbooks, showing the general etymological formation of the the term chemical thermodynamics, in the subject's so-called "quantitative" era, i.e. quantitative chemical thermodynamics:


Publication | Theory era
Main author
Approach [2]





1905Thermodynamics of Technical Gas ReactionsHaber 75Fritz Haber
(1868-1934)
A
Isochore

1907 Experimental and Theoretical Applications of Thermodynamics to ChemistryNernst 75Walther Nernst
(1864-1941)
A
Isochor

1908Die Chemische Affinitat und ihre MessungSackur 75Otto Sackur
(1880-1914)
A
Isochor

1912 A Text Book of Thermo-Chemistry and ThermodynamicsSackur 75Otto Sackur
(1880-1914)


1912Die Berechnung chemischer Affinitäten nach dem Nernstschen WärmetheoremPerson icon 75Franz Pollitzer
(c.1985-c.1950)
A
Isochor

1913 Text-book of Thermodynamics with special reference to Chemistry Partington 75James Partington
(1886-1965)


1921Thermodynamics and ChemistryPerson icon 75Frank MacDougall
(1883-c.1960)


1918Die theoretischen und experimentellen Grundlagen des neuen WarmstatzsNernst 75Walther Nernst
(1864-1941)
A
Isochor


(add discussion)

Publication timeline | Modern era
The following is a timeline of chemical thermodynamics articles, books, and textbooks, showing the general etymological formation of the the term chemical thermodynamics, in the subject's so-called "modern" era, i.e. modern chemical thermodynamics:


Publication | Theory era
Main author
Approach [2]





1923 Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical SubstancesLewis 75 newGilbert Lewis
(1875-1946)




Person icon 75Merle Randall
(1888-1950)


1924 Chemical ThermodynamicsPartington 75James Partington
(1886-1965)


1928
1934
The Fundamentals of Chemical Thermodynamics (Part I)
The Fundamentals of Chemical Thermodynamics (Part II)

John Butler 75John Butler
(1899-1977)


1933 Modern Thermodynamics by the Method of Willard GibbsGuggenheim 75Edward Guggenheim
(1901–1970)


1946 Thermodynamics for ChemistsSamuel Glasstone 75Samuel Glasstone
(1897-1986)


1949 Thermodynamics: Advanced Treatment for Chemists and PhysicistsGuggenheim 75Edward Guggenheim
(1901–1970)


1950 Chemical ThermodynamicsPrigogine 75Ilya Prigogine
(1917-2003)




Person icon 75Raymond Dufay

1950 Chemical ThermodynamicsRossini 75Frederick Rossini (1899-1990)

1950 Chemical Thermodynamics: Basic Theory and MethodsKoltz 75Irving Klotz
(1916-2005)


1958Introduction to Chemical ThermodynamicsE. F. Caldin

1959 An Introduction to the Study of Chemical ThermodynamicsD. H. Everett

1962Elements of Chemical ThermodynamicsLeonard Nash

1963Elementary Chemical ThermodynamicsBruce Mahan

1965 Chemical ThermodynamicsJohn Kirkwood



Irwin Oppeheim

1965Chemical Thermodynamics: a Course StudyFrederick Wall

1966Basic Chemical ThermodynamicsJurg Waser

1969Chemical ThermodynamicsPeter Rock 75Peter Rock
(1939-2006)


1973Basic Chemical ThermodynamicsBrian Smith 75Brian Smith
(1933-)


1990Chemical ThermodynamicsCharles Reid

1990Thermodynamics of Chemical SystemsScott Wood



Rubin Battino

2000Chemical Thermodynamics: Principles and Applications (Volume 1) Chemical Thermodynamics: Advanced Applications (Volume 2)J. Bevan Ott 75J. Bevan Ott
(c.1930-)




Juliana Boerio-Goates 75Juliana Goates
(c.1953-)



(add discussion)

Overview
In 1903, French physicist and chemist Pierre Duhem, in the introduction to the American (English) edition of his 1902 Thermodynamics and Chemistry (Thermodynamique ct Chimie) stated the following: [1]

“One of the objects I had in mind when writing Thermodynamics and Chemistry was to make the work of J. Willard Gibbs known and admired. More and more clearly the author of the phase law appears as the initiator of a chemical revolution; and many do not hesitate to compare the Yale College professor to our Lavoisier. Chemists had fixed upon a certain number of properties by which they recognized a substance to be a definite compound; these characteristics are effaced by the phase rule; many substances, to which formulae had been attributed, are erased from the number of combinations; chemical science as a whole needs a revision at which the laboratories of America and Europe are working most diligently.

Nevertheless, whatever be the outcome of this revolution, it seems to me there is injustice in making the glory of Gibbs consist in this alone, by seeing in him merely the author of the phase rule. In his immortal work. On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, this rule is not all; it is but one theorem, and is accompanied by other propositions whose importance is not less; the theorems on indifferent points, the laws of dissociation of perfect gases, the properties of dilute solutions, the conditions of osmotic equilibrium, the theory of the voltaic cell, bear, not less than the phase rule, the mark of the genius of their author.

The phase rule is not, therefore, by a great deal, the whole of Gibbs's work; a fortiori it is not the whole of chemical thermodynamics; other ideas, other principles, play an essential role in the development of this science. When a chemical system is studied, it is assuredly very important to determine its variance, whose value fixes the form of the equilibrium law for the system; but before even calculating the variance, it is expedient to answer this question: Is the equilibrium of the system stable, indifferent, or unstable? Thermodynamics teaches us that no chemical equilibrium is unstable. The equilibrium conditions which the chemist meets may therefore be classed in two categories: those which are stable and those which are indifferent. This classification seems the most natural this division the most radical which may be conceived.”

In 1921, American physical chemist Gilbert Lewis, in his “The Activity Coefficient of Strong Electrolytes”, was referring to his upcoming textbook—Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances (1923)—as being on the subject of chemical thermodynamics, term in quotes: (Ѻ)

“This paper is a summary of several chapters of our book on ‘chemical thermodynamics’. Although the work is approaching completion, it seems that the material here considered may be of some immediate interest to the growing number of investigators who are engaged in this important work.”

This may well be said to be the foundational start of the etymology of chemical thermodynamics.

See also
Chemistry (etymology)
Thermodynamics (etymology)

References
1. Duhem, Pierre M.M. (1903). Thermodynamics and Chemistry: a Non-Mathematical Treatise for Chemists and Students of Chemistry (Author’s Introduction to the American Edition, pgs. iii-v; “chemical thermodynamics”, pg. iv); translator: George Kimball Burgess. J. Wiley & Sons.
2. Jensen, William B. (2005). “The Quantification of 20th-Century Chemical Thermodynamics: a Tribute to Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances” (pdf), Lecture given at Boston Society Symposium on Classic 20th-Century Chemistry Textbooks, 230th meeting of the ACS, Washington, DC, Aug 29.

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