|A visual of the the Clausius postulate, namely that the constancy of energy and the tendency towards energy increase governs the operation of the universe; term clarified in the sense of the 2014 University of Dublin Science Gallery atheist Christmas (see: atheist holiday) card motto: “All I want for Christmas is a rational view of a universe by physical laws”. (Ѻ)(Ѻ)|
In 1865, German physicist Rudolf Clausius summarized the results of his now-mature mechanical theory of heat, derived in the previous 15-years, via 9-memoirs, which he famously enunciated during a reading at the Philosophical Society of Zurich on April 24th as follows:
“For the present I will confine myself to the statement of one result. If for the entire universe we conceive the same magnitude to be determined, consistently and with due regard to all circumstances, which for a single body I have called entropy, and if at the same time we introduce the other and simpler conception of energy, we may express in the following manner the fundamental laws of the universe which correspond to the two fundamental theorems of the mechanical theory of heat: first, that the energy of the universe is constant, second that the entropy of the universe tends to a maximum.”
Of note, the term "system" was not used by Clausius, but rather he employs the terms "body" or "working body", a synonym of the 1824 term "working substance" (Carnot's term for system), all of which are equivalent to the modern-day term "system" or "thermodynamic system" as any boundaried region space.
In the modern view, according to the Eddington rule (1928) and Einstein postulate (c.1940), the above statement by Clausius is the foundation statement in all of science and human knowledge, will likely never be overthrown, and all future theories will need to conform to the second law or become defunct.
● Rosetta stone (and mistranslations)
● Hawking radiation
● Black hole thermodynamics
1. Clausius, Rudolf. (1865). "On Several Convenient Forms of the Fundamental Equations of the Mechanical Theory of Heat" (ninth memoir), Read at the Philosophical Society of Zurich on the 24th of April, 1865; published in the Vierteljahrsschrift of this society, Bd. x. S. 1.; Pogg. Ann. July, 1865, Bd. cxxv. S. 353; Journ. de Liouville, 2e ser. t. x. p. 361; The Mechanical Theory of Heat, ch. 9 (pg. 365). J. Van Voorst, 1867.
● Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness – Wikipedia.