Close to equilibrium

In thermodynamics, close to equilibrium or near equilibrium are processes quantified by the following condition:

 \Delta G \ll 1.5 kJ/mol \,

signifying a negative Gibbs free energy change ΔG much less than 1.5 kilo-joules per mol. [1] The name near equilibrium thermodynamics is sometimes used as the branch of thermodynamics that studies these types of processes.

1. Ernster, Lars. (1984). Bioenergetics (ch. 1: Thermodynamic Aspects of Bioenergetics, pgs. 1-10, by Karel van Dam and Hans V. Westerhoff). Elsevier.

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