Ctesibius

In existographies, Ctesibius (c.285-222BC) (IQ:185|#73) (EP:2) (CR:11), pronounced “Ta-sib-e-us” (Ѻ), was a Greek engineer and mathematician, noted for a number of inventions, such as the ‘aeolipile’ (heat engine), piston and cylinder, pipe organ (hydraulis), counterweight adjustable mirrors, a water clock (clepsydra), force pumps (water lifting device), the principle of the siphon; he published On Pneumatics (now lost) on the elasticity of the air.

Influence
Ctesibius’ ideas and inventions are cited by Vitruvius, Athenaeus, Pliny the Elder, Philo of Byzantium, Proclus (the commentator on Euclid), and Hero of Alexandria.

Other
In 50 ACM (AD), Hero, in his Pneumatica, was said to overview the physics of Strato and Ctesibius, via outlining an atomic theory in which matter consists of particles mixed with distributed vacua.

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Ctesibius:

“It is said that Ctesibius invented the piston and cylinder before 200BC.”
— Richard Kirby (1956), History of Engineering (pg. 154) [1]

Ctesibius had been responsible, about -230, for a simple and fundamental machine, the piston air-pump, known from the descriptions of later mechanicians. This simplest of pumps entered upon a new incarnation in the +17th century, when the virtuosi began to explore with excitement the properties of vacuous spaces, for what had been invented originally as a bellows for pumping air into something now found fresh employment as the ‘air-pump’ for getting as much air as possible out of it.”
Joseph Needham (1987), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5 (pg. 555) [2]

“Ctesibius’ pump powered what is confusingly known as a ‘water-organ’ because the air was pumped into a reservoir where it was held at approximately constant pressure by means of a water-seal. Though the Vitruvian text describes two cylinders, the Philonic and the Heronic speak only of one, and the apparatus has nearly always been so reconstructed—in any case the pump or pumps were invariably single-acting, ‘inhaling’ and ‘exhaling’ on alternate strokes. The double-acting piston-pump ‘air-bellows’ of China probably goes back well before Ctesibius (Vol. 4, pt. 2, p. 39) but it was not destined to stimulate the vacuum pumps of the +17th century because Europe did not have it until the +18th (ibid. pp. 151, 380).”
— Joseph Needham (1987), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5 (pg. 555) [2]

References
1. Kirby, Richard; Withington, Sidney; Darling, Arthur; and Kilgour, Frederick. (1956). Engineering in History (pg. 154). Courier, 1990.
2. (a) Needham, Joseph. (1987). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic (pg. 563). Cambridge.
(b) See: Heron, Pneumatica (ch. 1, no. 42); Philon, Pneumatica (App. 1); Vitruvius (x, 8). Discussion in Beck (1, pg. 24ff); Drachmann [s, pgs. 7ff, 100, 9, pgs. 206]. Woodcraft (1, chs. 76, 77, pg. 105, 108).

External links
Ctesibius – Wikipedia.

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