Cybernetics

In science, cybernetics is the study of control and communication in the animals and machines, based on the postulate that entropy and information are two sides of the same coin, in that just as information in a system is the measure of its degree of organization, so the entropy of a system is a measure of its degree of disorganization; and the one is “simply the negative of the other.” [1]

Overview
In 1834, Andre-Marie Ampere, in his Essay on the Philosophy of Science, introduced the term cybernetics as follows: [6]
“The future science of government should be called ‘cybernetics’ (‘la cybernetique’).”
— Andre Ampere (1834), Essay on the philosophy of science; coined from (Ѻ) the French word meaning “the art of governing”, from the Greek kybernetes “navigator or steersman”; adopted by Norbert Weiner for the field of control and communication theory

In 1949, Norbert Wiener popularized the term cybernetics. [1]
In circa 1950, cybernetics was incorporated into Austrian biologist Ludwig Bertalanffy’s general systems theory. [2] French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss also, supposedly, gained his understanding of entropy from cybernetics in the 1950s.

In 1968, Robert Mueller used cybernetics to formulate a theory of mental entropy. [3]

In 1971, Bruce Lindsay, in his "The Larger Cybernetic", summarized the history of the term as follows: [7]

"Later in his career (in 1834) Ampère wrote a brilliant document, “Essai sur Ie philosophie des sciences,” in which he took a particularly broad view of the philosophy of science, including social and political studies as well as the better-established natural sciences, in his discussion. It was in this memoir that Ampère first introduced the term cybernetique to refer to the science of government. He evidently felt that this was appropriate terminology since κγβερντεσ is the Greek for helmsman or governor, the one who controls the direction of the ship. This may be considered the beginning of the formal recognition of the science of control, though it does not appear that Ampère’s definition gained much attention in the nineteenth century, nor in our own century for that matter, until Norbert Wiener resurrected the term in his book called Cybernetics, published in 1948, and attempted to put the subject on a more formal basis. "

In 1998, American electrical engineer Richard Coren published a cybernetics theory of evolution. [4] The 2008 book Entropy of Mind and Negative Entropy by Italian psychiatrist Tullio Scrimali uses cybernetics. [5]

References
1. Wiener, Norber. (1948). Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (pgs. 11-12). Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.
2. Bertalanffy, Ludwig. (1968). General Systems Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications (pgs. 39-44). New York: George Braziller.
3. Mueller, Robert E. (1968). The Science of Art: The Cybernetics of Creative Communication, (pg. 67). Rapp & Whiting.
4. Coren, Richard L. (1998). Evolutionary Trajectory: the Growth of Information in the History and Future of Earth (ch. 7: Entropy, pgs 111-26). CRC Press.
5. Scrimali, Tullio. (2008). Entropy of Mind and Negative Entropy: A Cognitive and Complex Approach to Schizophrenia and its Therapy (terms: Freud, pgs. 157, 262, 395; Thermodynamics, pgs. 32-36, 214, 219, phrenentropy, pg. 14) . Karnac Books.
6. (a) Tsien, Hsue S. (1954). Engineering Cybernetics (pg. vii). McGraw-Hill.
(b) Cybernetics (etymology) – Wikipedia.
7. Lindsay, Bruce. (1971). “The Larger Cybernetics” (abs)(Ѻ), Zygon, 6(2):126-34.

Further reading
● Wiener, Norber. (1950). The Human Uses of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society, (pgs. 26-27). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
● Corning, Peter A. (2005). Holistic Darwinism: Synergy, Cybernetics, and the Bioeconomics of Evolution. (pg. 337). University of Chicago Press.

External links
Cybernetics – Wikipedia.

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