|A 2012 depiction of economic pressure used in a an article about the results of survey which found that over half of China’s urban residents feel they are under “high economic pressure” (Ѻ).|
In 1996, Japanese ecological economist Kozo Mayumi together with Italian plant scientists Gianni Pastore and Mario Giampietro presented the paper on “Bio-Economic Pressure as Indicator of Standard of Living”, at the fourth biennial meeting of the International Society for Ecological Economics, Boston University, wherein they proposed that bio-economic pressure was an indicator of development.  In 2013, Giampietro, Mayumi, together with Alevgul Sorman, in their Energy Analysis for a Sustainable Future, expand on their “bio-economic pressure” concept in terms of a jumble of layered acronym filled formulas. 
In 2006, German physicist Jurgen Mimkes, in his “A Thermodynamic Formulation of Economics” chapter, discusses “economic pressure” in thermodynamic formula terms.  In 2013, Mimkes together with physicists Peter Richmond and Stefan Hutzler formulated a version of “economic pressure” in a quasi-thermodynamic equation framework. 
1. Pastore, Gianni, Giampietro, Mario and Mayumi, Kozo. (1996). “Bio-Economic Pressure as Indicator of Standard of Living” (Ѻ), at the fourth biennial meeting of the International Society for Ecological Economics, 4-7 Aug., Boston University.
2. Giampietro, Mario, Mayumi, Kozo and Sorman, Alevgul H. (2013). Energy Analysis for a Sustainable Future: Multi-scale Integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (bio-economic pressure, 17+ pgs.). Routledge.
3. (a) Chakrabarti, Bikas K. Chakraborti, Anirban, and Chatterjee, Arnab. (2006). Econophysics and Sociophysics: Trends and Perspectives (§1: “A Thermodynamic Formulation of Economics” (PDF); §10: “A Thermodynamic Formulation of Social Science”; economic pressure, pg. 10). Wiley-VCH.
(b) Mimkes, Jurgen. (2006). “A Thermodynamic Formulation of Social Science”, In: Econophysics & Sociophysics: Trends & Perspectives (pgs. 277 – 308). Bikas K. Chakrabarti, Anirban Chakraborti, Arnab Chatterjee (Eds.). WILEY-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany.
4. Richmond, Peter, Mimkes, Jurgen and Hutzler, Stefan. (2013). Econophysics and Physical Economics (economic pressure, pgs. 169-70). Oxford University Press.
● Economic pressure – BusinessDictionary.com.