Eduard Sacher

photo neededIn hmolscience, Eduard Sacher (1834-1903) (SN:27) (CR=10) was an Austrian science teacher noted, in human thermodynamics, for his 1881 Outline of a Mechanics of Society, in which, utilizing the second law, kinetic energy, conservation of energy, he derives some type of Mayer-Clausius based social mechanics theory.

The following are the table of contents for Sacher’s 1881 Outline of a Mechanics of Society:

Einband | Cover
Titleblatt | Titlepage
Vorrede | Preface (1-5)
Einleitung | Introduction (6-18)

1. Kraftevorrath der Gesellschaft | Reserve Forces of Society (19-30)
2. Der Kräfteverbrauch der Gesellschaft | The Every Needed Forces of Society (31-41)
3. Die Arbeit | The Work (41-52)
4. Vom Werthe der Dinge | From the Values of Things (52-63)
5. Geld | Money (63-)
6. Bewerthung der Arbeit | Job Evaluation (72-)
7. Der Reichthum | The Wealth (77-)
8. Des Capital | The Capital (83-)
9. Der Preis | The Price (95-)
10. Vertheilung des Arbeitsertrages | Distribution of Labor Income (107-)
11. Die Einzelarbeit | The Individual Work (121-)
12. Das Arbeitsprodukt und die Volksarbeit | The Work Product and the Workers (139-)
13. Der wirtschaftliche Druck | The Economic Pressure (155-)
14. Die Besteuerung | Taxation (213-246)

Inhaltsverzeichnis | Table of Contents (247)
Druckfehler | Misprints (248)

(add discussion)

In 1881, Sacher, in his Outline of a Mechanics of Society, in his opening pages, digs into citation of Robert Mayer (1840), and gives the following equation for what seems to be kinetic energy, although seems to define it as work:

W={\frac  {1}{2}}MV^{2}\,

intermixed, it seems (original is in German), with discussion of the mechanical equivalent of heat, and how heat is transformed into the a rise in one degree of temperature of water, conceptualized as an increase in the kinetic energy of the water molecules. From here, Sacher goes into further derivation and discussion of what seems to be potential energy, principle of the transmission of work, laws of motion, and then by page 18 he is citing Clausius and what seems to be kilogram-meter mechanical equivalent of version of what is now defined as the joule:

Sacher (page 18)

Here, to give some humorous retrospect comparison, one would be hard-pressed to find one 21st century, if not a 20th century, sociology textbook that cites Clausius, in spite of the fact that his The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1865) contains the foundational basis for all socio-economic phenomena.

Sacher, according to Vaclav Smil, supposedly, viewed economies as systems for winning the greatest possible amount of energy from nature and tried to correlate stages of cultural progress with per capita access to fuels. [3]

Sacher seems to be making statements to the affect that individual work, of the more abstract varieties, can be quantified, such as in his statement: "the work of an inventor can almost priceless [measured in joules] have value."
Outlines of a Mechanics of Society (1881)
Title page of Sacher’s 1881 Outline of a Mechanics of Society, wherein he outlines some type of Mayer-Clausius based social mechanics theory. [1]

Sacher's book, according to Spanish applied mathematics historian Jose Pacheco, owes its inspiration to a talk given by German physicist Rudolf Clausius’ on “The Energy Supplies of Nature” applied to humanity, which was said to be on the subject of humanity’s profligate use of irreplaceable fossil fuel, a talk that was published in book form in 1885. [2]

The following are representative quotes:

“The author believes he has found in the natural sciences, the basis for a rational economy.”
— Eduard Sacher (1881), Outline of a Mechanics of Society

1. (a) Sacher, Eduard. (1881). Grundzüge einer Mechanik der Gesellschaft, Theil I (Outlines of a Mechanics of Society, Part I) (Ѻ) (kinetic energy, pg. 8). Jena: Gustav Fischer.
(b) Note: part II was never published.
2. (a) Pacheco, Jose M. (2008). “Does More Abstraction Imply Better Understanding: Ampuntes de Mecanica Social by Antonio Porunondo). Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Preprint 351.
(b) Clausius, Rudolf. (1885). Über die Energievorräthe der Natur und ihre Verwerthung zun Nutzen der Menschheit (On the Energy Supplies of Nature and the Utilization of them for the Benefit of Mankind). Bonn: Verlag von Max Cohen & Sohn.
(c) Krishnan, Rajaram, Harris, Johathan M., and Goodwin, Neva R. (1995). A Survey of Ecological Economics (pgs. 22, 24). Island Press.
3. Smil, Vaclav. (1991). General Energetics: Energy in the Biosphere and in Civilization (Sacher, pgs. 5, 348). Wiley.

Further reading
● Sacher, Eduard. (1899). “Die Gesellschaftkunde als Naturwissenschaft” (“The Science of Social Studies”), Pierson’s Verlag, Dresden
and Leipzig.
● Sacher, Eduard. (1901). “Die Massenarmut: ihre Ursache und Beseitigung” (“Mass Poverty: Their Causes and Eliminations”), Akademische Verlag für soziale Wissenschaften, Berlin.
● Zumerchik, John. (2001). Macmillan Encyclopedia of Energy, Volume 2 (pg. 626). MacMillan Reference USA.
● Scott, John. (2011). Conceptualizing the Social World: Principles of Social Analysis (pg. 89). Cambridge University Press.

External links
Sacher, Eduard – WorldCat Identities.

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