Essay on Social Mechanics

Essay on Social Mechanics (1967)
Cover of 1967 (315-pg) edition of Leon Winiarski's 1898 Essay on Social Mechanics (collected works) compiled by Swiss sociologist Giovanni Busino. [6]
In famous publications, “Essay on Social Mechanics” or Essai sur la Mécanique Sociale is a collection of twelve-articles, published in various journals, culminating in 1898, with a four-part essay on social mechanics, latter compiled into a book, by Polish economist Leon Winiarski. [1] The main essay, according to Winiarski, is divided into three parts: one on economic equilibrium and social equilibrium, a second on transformations of social energy, and the third on social dynamics, all defined in the context of Rudolf Clausiusthermodynamics and Joseph Lagrange’s mechanics. [1] Partial (and full) English translations are underway below.

In 1967, a 315-page collected works of Winiarski, in French, entitled Essais Sur la Mecanique Sociale, was compiled (with an introduction) by Swiss sociologist Giovanni Busino. [1] This edition indicates that Winiarski’s theory is dominated by the terms: energy, potential energy, biological energy, sexual selection, social evolution, partial equilibriums, division of work, anthropology, Karl Marx, Leon Walras, and constant capital, amongs. [5] There also exists a 1898, 38-page, book Essai sur la Mécanique Social by the University of France Press. [1] An Italian-to-English translation of an 1899 Italian reprint (or variant) of the article "Theory of Property and Family: Essay on Social Mechanics" (chapter 9 collected works), found in the Italian Journal of Sociology, is shown below. [2] Other parts of the essays comprising Winiarski's Social Mechanics, as they are found, are being linked to below (and translated).

Overview
In this essay, Winiarski supposedly applied the principle of equivalence of transformation (transformation equivalents) to argue that, since the transformation of hunger and love into the higher wants of means the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy, the evolution of a civilization involves a lowering of the potential of a people and its eventual replacement by a fresh, unexhausted race. [3] In terms of personal energies, Winiarski argues that things such as examples, ideas, and commands radiate from people of greater energy to those of lesser energy, and that this radiation takes the form of authority and influence of the social superior over that of the social inferior. In this logic, it is reasoned that this passage of energy tends to terminate in an equalizing of intensities and a state of equilibrium. [3] On the interesting topic of prediction, in the context of Winiarski’s view of desire as a form of energy, American sociologist Edward Ross states:

Desire may or may not be a form of energy. In any case it is certain that a mechanical interpretation cannot help to predict the choices of people.”

Ross seems to base this argument in the view that prediction can be made on the lower animals, whose behaviors are simply stimulus and reaction processes, but that in higher organisms, factors such as memory, psychic energy, consciousness, spontaneous sportive or festive activities, etc., except humans from mechanical simplicity. [3]

Collected works
English translations of this essay are difficult to find. The following table of contents, comes from the collected works of Winiarski, which seem to be grouped under the heading of Essai sur la Mécanique Sociale, as compiled by Swiss sociologist Giovanni Busino in 1967. It seems to be that all of the articles are were published originally published in French, except the one shown in chapter 9, on family property, which is in Italian. It also seems that chapter 7 (and the three chapters to follow) is the core of the group of essays.

Contents (French/Italian)Ch
Contents (English)
Preface par G. Busino

La method mathematique dans la sociologie et dans la sociologie et dans l’economie politique (pgs. 1-14)

Le materialism economique et la psychologie sociale (pgs. 15-35)

Essai d’une nouvelle interpretation de phenomenes sociologiques. Introducion a la sociologie (pgs. 36-75)

Deux theories d’equilibre economique (pgs. 76-97)

Etude critique sur le troisieme volume du Capital de Karl Marx (pgs. 98-129)

L’anthropo-sociologie (pgs. 130-161)

Essai sur la mecanique sociale: I (pgs. 162-192)

Essai sur la mecanique sociale: II. L’equilibre Esthetique (pgs. 193-225)

Saggi sulle meccanica sociale pura: III. L’equilibrio sociale, la teoria della proprieta e della famiglia (pgs. 226-243)

Essai sur la mecanique sociale: IV. L’energie sociale et ses mensurations (pgs. 244-290)

L’enseignement de l’economie politique pure et de la mecanique sociale en Suisse (pgs. 291-295)

Le principle economique et la classification des sciences socials (pgs. 296-306)

Index (pg. 307)


1


2

3


4

5

6


7

8


9


10


11


12
Preface by G. Busino

The mathematical method in sociology and the sociology and political economy (pgs. 1-14)

The economic materialism and social psychology (pgs. 15-35)

Testing a new interpretation of sociological phenomena. Introduction has sociology (pgs. 36-75)

Two theories of economic equilibrium (pgs. 76-97)

Critical study on the third volume of Capital by Karl Marx (pgs. 98-129)

Anthropo-Sociology (pgs. 130-161)

Essay on the social mechanics: I
(pgs. 162-192)

Essay on the social mechanics: II. The equilibrium Aesthetics (pgs. 193-225)

Essays on pure social mechanics: III. The balance of social, family and property theory (pgs. 226-243)

Essay on the social mechanics: IV. Social energy measurements (pgs. 244-290)

The teaching of pure political economy and social mechanics in Switzerland (pgs. 291-295)

The economic principle "and the classification of sciences socials (pgs. 296-306)

Index (pg. 307)

1898: Gaultier's review
The following is a 1898 two-page review of Winiarski’s Essay by French philosopher Jules de Gaultier: [7]

In a booklet whose text was first published in the Philosophical Review, Winiarski proposes a methodology to provide sociology with a guiding principle and give it a scientific rigor. The various factors - geographical, intellectual, moral or ethnicity - which in turn was attributed significant importance to the point of view of social evolution, not exclusive to the author's eyes, but they are only the partial elements of a more general phenomenon, as well as cosmic phenomena or organic, is subject to the laws of mechanics. Already, the pure economics, seeking action of mechanical laws to the facts it studies has built a system a satisfactory cohesion. It belongs to the sociology of engaging in a similar way.

Individuals, identified as the molecules of a social aggregate, are sought, and the atoms of a material system, by forces of attraction and repulsion. The biological energy, which is in each of them tends to achieve maximum pleasure, and competition between individuals, to obtain the maximum each for himself, sets the price of property, both tangible and intangible. The setting of this course of values, that the pleasure has achieved a measure, certify that bioenergy has a quantitative value as well as cosmic energy from which it derives. But this quantitative value, which science may one day no doubt determine the exact equivalent can now be applied to social facts the general principles of mechanics.

I am tempted to send Mr. Winiarski criticism. Why he called selfish and altruistic one hand on the other hand the forces of competition tends to be the balance of the moral world? Selfishness is it not by itself a principle sufficient to reconstruct the moral world the forces of attraction and repulsion that occur in any cosmic system? If these forces must be given a new name when carried out in this moral field, the words love and hate, or sympathy and antipathy, does not correspond with a more precise symmetry in attraction and repulsion, are not they not to each other more closely balances?

It does not appear in fact that altruism can be contrasted with selfishness as if the concepts contained in these words applied to two equal states, and antagonists of the same fore earlier. Selfishness is itself an anterior force. It is the only possible act of principle, because we cannot think of an act which originates outside the individual who runs it. Altruism is a more complex form of egoism, selfishness, taking the name of altruism when the person requires as a condition of his happiness, the support of the happiness of others. Because of this complexity, it presents a number of different cases, and although they all show their roots immersed in the ego, their genesis lends to different interpretations: it seems they can in turn be derived from a surplus of ego strength, manifested in feelings of protection, or rather a failure of me retires fun things they contain. Altruism is when a loan has the power to remove the others happy things, hidden and borrowing that accompanies the logical desire to provide others, taken as a necessary intermediary, opportunities for fun. Such is the case of the ambition of the fathers achieved by the son. This is idealized in the field of fiction, by the genius of Halzac, the meaning of the pact reached between Vautrin and Rubempre. But in one as in the other cases, altruism appears a direct manifestation of selfishness, leading, as selfishness luimême form of hatred of what opposes it and love for the favors, the forces of repulsion and attraction. It is not itself inherently one of those forces. '

This criticism, which deals only with the terminology, support also seems to me rather than contradicts the general theory of Winiarski. It aiiisi in Chapter II on the island social energy transformations, the author specifically a reconstruction of psychological tendencies and moral complex, on the one linse mobile selfish as basic: hunger. It is impossible in this limited space to list a series of ideas presented in their already low volume in the shortcut substantial pamphlet. I'll post at least to readers of Celtic magazine they find, among the developments of this begs a framework in which to return the ideological curious essay on the genius they enjoyed here the original value.

In de Gaultier's review, we note his issues with Winiarski's formulation of how love and hate act in human dynamics; this topic, to note, has only recently been resolved in the discovery of the Gottman stability ratio.

8: Aesthetic Equilibrium | L’Equilibre Esthetique

The following is one paragraph of page 221, from chapter eight, in the paragraph to follow the term thermodynamics is used:

Du reste le sentiment de la beaute de la natural inanimee it de la beaute en general a des souce beaucoup plus profondes dans l’attraction universelle, don’t l’attraction sexualle n’est qu’une des manifestations. Le sentiment de beaute n’est ainsi qu’une des manifestations de l’unite de toute la nature. Helmholtz se demande, dand sa Physiologie de la musique, d’ou il resulte que certains tons qui representent une quantite de vibrations donnee, mathematiqueuement determine, nous paraissent beaux, cependant que d’ autres, non, et il cherche une reponse possible dans l’affirmation des philosophes que la beaute consiste dans ce que nous retrouvons dans le monde les lois de notre esprit. Pour nous, nous dirions justement le contraire. L’univers est plus ancient que l’homme. Nous ne sommes, au foud, que des atoms soumis aux lois de l’attraction universelle. Et puisque dans un system tout est lie, tout changement qui se fait dans l’univers, de meme que la totalite de ces changements reguliers embrasseee par le nom de lous, se reflete dans tous les atoms de matiere animee ou inanimee. Notre sentiment de beaute est une des preuves que nous nous trouvons dand le rytheme des lous generals de la nature, que nous sommes des atoms qui se balancent en harmone avec les mouvements du systeme solaire, et avec le rythem de l’evolution de choses naturelles, des arbres et des vents, des nuages et de la mer. Besides the feeling of the beauty of the natural beauty of the inanimate it generally has an essential source of much deeper into the universal attraction wherein sexual attraction is only one manifestation. The sense of beauty and is one manifestation of the unity of all nature. Helmholtz requires, in his Physiology of Music, it follows that certain shades that represent a given amount of vibration, mathematical measurement is determined, we look good, while others, no, and he is looking for a possible answer in assertion of the philosophers that beauty is in what we find in the world the laws of our mind. For us, we would say just the opposite. The universe is more ancient than humans. We are at Fouda, that atoms subject to the laws of universal gravitation. And since everything is in a bound system, any change that takes place in the universe, even as all of such changes by regular embrasseee name lous, is reflected in all atoms of animate or inanimate matter. Our sense of beauty is an evidence that we are the Rhythm of Dand lous generals of nature, atoms that we are swaying in harmony with the movements of the solar system, and with the Rhythm of the natural evolution of things , trees and wind, clouds and sea


9: Theory of family property | L’equilibrio sociale, la teoria della proprieta e della famiglia
No English translation, as yet, seems to exist. Shown below is the partial start of a straight Italian → English Google translation of it seems one of Winiarski's collected essays (Essay on Social Mechanics: Theory of Property and Family), on property and family, found in the Italian Journal of Sociology (likely chapter 9 of his collected works): [2]
(572-576)
Since the theory of energy is fundamental to the social mechanism, I begin by summarizing the state of studies on energy in general and in particular biological energy. [4] The mechanical theory of the universe reduces the social order, the order of life and the physical order to a single order, in which all phenomena can be reduced to transformations of matter or motion. The molecular mechanics is complete in all exactness in the energy theory, which is not only a basis of modern physics, but also penetrates into the biology and sociology. Mechanics, including energy, claims to embrace and unite all the sciences, since only precariously they are independent from each other, but everything in the universe has a related scheme, science, reflecting the ideal of the universe, must also submit such a system.

The law of indestructibility of matter was proposed by Lavoisier, that of the indestructibility of energy by Robert Mayer. So we must get used to this truth, namely, that there are no isolated phenomena in the world, they are linked to each other in constant transformation from a state of things to another. Heat, electricity, light, etc., no longer considered as independent phenomena. There is an exact relationship between the state and physical characterization of a system.

In each phenomenon, this exact ratio depends on a constant and eternal passing from one state to another, changing only the outward form of this conversion. This conversion element is the energy, and can manifest as mechanical chemical, thermal, and electrical, etc. These forms go into each other with certain quantitative relations closely. Energy might have, generally speaking, two states: kinetic and potential, a body raised to a certain height, spread, falling, work equal to that which is used to lift the body. Work as well developed in the fall can be used in different ways, e.g. to set in motion a clock. When the weights have not yet begun to fall, we say that they have some ability to do the work, a certain potential energy, which subsequently, by the measure of their descent, is transformed into kinetic energy which manifests itself in motion clock.

The daily experience convinces us that the mechanical work is transformed into heat and science has already measured accurately the quantitative relation of this transformation. The chemical energy may give rise to all other forms of energy: heat, electricity, mechanical work, etc. The physical world presents to us that the transformation of one kind of energy into another. Similarly, the living world shows us only mutations of matter and energy changes. The activity of living beings corresponds to transformations of energy, to change from one species into another, according to fixed rules of equivalence.

Already R. Mayer, CI. Mayer, CI. Bernard and Helmholtz observed phenomena of life from the viewpoint of energy, and in this organic energetics has made great progress the work of Chauveau mercy of Loeb, the Lalaunié and several others. Indeed it has come to make some more very interesting. These law are:

1. The biological energy comes from energy food chemistry and ends in the energy heat. The phenomena of life there thus appears as a movement of energy, which, starting from a point in the physical world, returns to this world after a run through the animal organism. The circle is a circle of energy matters, nutrition, i.e. a stream of material that draws from outside the body through food and rejects coli'escrezione.

2. Maintaining vital not consume any power that is characteristic of life, rather it takes from the outer world that puts all that energy into work and takes the form of chemical energy potential. This principle shows us the source of that energy, which, at a stage of its transformations, will be biological energy. That source is the chemical energy of the elements stored in body tissues. "When the movement has produced", says C.I. Bernard, "the contraction of a muscle, when the will and awareness arise, when the thought is exercised, when the gland secretes the substance of the muscles, nerves, brain, glandular tissue is disorganized, it destroys and consumes." Energetics explains the biological reason for this coincidence between the operation and the destruction of organic chemistry: a portion of organic material decomposes, it simplifies chemically, descends to a lower potential in this defense and leaves the chemical energy that transformed into biological energy, which is the essence of all vital phenomena. The energy expenditure should be reconstituted because the body is kept in balance: the power supply provides the necessary materials for this purpose, digestion incorporates them into the body to the state reserve.

3. The energy emanating from the chemical potential of food, after going through the body and produced the phenomena of vitality, he returns to the physical world in the form of heat. The biological energy has therefore a very specific place, lies between the chemical and thermal energy and can also say that it is a chemical thermal energy conversion. We do not know what is the biological energy in its core, but even we know what it is electricity or heat; know them only at the escort of the phenomena in which they arise, how do we know the energy only organic form of vital phenomena, which are all our movements, our feelings, our thoughts, etc. This being totally science in either case. Energy belonging to organic acts silent and invisible even if you do not recognize their effects, it is all that happens, e.g. in preparing its muscle contraction, the nerve that leads to the influence nervous. And that is what we must now consider how mutual equivalence hill energies because of the physical world, as these are among them. Biological energy is repeated in the case of ordinary physical energy, known apparently not knowing what is reality.

The three principles listed show that takes place throughout the life of the universe. Since the chemical energy of food is prepared from plants, we can say that the animal spends the energy the plant world has accumulated. The same plant world takes its activity by the energy radiated by the sun. Eventually the animals return to the heat dissipated: in this way the whole universe is a concatenated system. Must still add something important: bio energy, although drawn from the chemical energy of food, must be regarded as existing in the substance of the organs and tissues active in food, not brutes. These must first be digested, modified, processed and incorporated as integral parts of the fabrics that you spend. This observation clearly applies not only to individuals but also to aggregations of individuals: the food are not a part of their biological energy are treated as if they had no body.

As to energy in biological it is necessary to distinguish, as in every other, two states: potential and kinetic. Potential, when it's been a reserve in the tissue, as they instinctively unconscious, while each event instead of movement by the body, or, in other words, every action and every conscience, a movement nervous in the case of feelings, ideas or the will, belongs biological kinetic energy. Now, in our opinion, social energy that is not composed of these two kinds of energy. And that becomes the physical energy of the natural or artificial? If you must have some social value, must first cause a biological reaction energy. Thus X-rays had no social value before Roentgen had discovered them, that is, before they had caused a nervous reaction, before him, back in all of us, as awareness of their existence, as a form of biological energy kinetic. Food assimilated by the body become a source of biological energy potential. But all that does not take any of these forms of biological energy is not part of social energy, which undergoes constant change. What are these changes?

Hunger and love are the two main forms of biological energy: hunger and love are two fundamental forces that reign in the living world, are the primary source of all phenomena, mental and social. Not suffer a single direction, that of seeking the maximum of pleasure. Of these two forces hunger has also broader and more general importance. Seize food, assimilate, digest, here is the phenomenon that is grounds to life. The increase and multiply the percentage is not a continuation of the process of digestion. Take the amoeba, one of the lowest living beings. Man mano che assimila il cibo, il suo corpo cresce, ma sino a un dato limite. As we assimilate food, your body grows, but up to a specified limit.

When he reached certain definite proportions, is divided into two parts: the multiplication is therefore not a result of digestion. Beings higher organisms multiply glue fertilization, but even in this case, procreation does not begin only when the individuals have added their full development, that is when they can no longer grow by assimilation of food. The seizing of food and the assimilation process is a purely selfish, which puts the individual in relations of enmity with the outside world. Is the domain of hatred and struggle for existence. In contrast, proliferation is the source of a different kind of feeling, that is. Feelings of sympathy, which is not extended, moreover, that self-interest, in the same manner that procreation is but the extent of digestion. The son is but a part of parents and separates from it when they touch the limit extremes of their Crescenzi.
(577-581)
Loving children, parents love themselves: it is therefore not surprising that protect them and try to make them like himself through education. The feelings of sympathy have been the main source for the bonds of blood and were expanded over time to people outside. The amoeba is divided into two parts, each of these in two others and so on ad infinitum; elementary cells so appeared or group together in colonies or in complex organisms, and they naturally tend to unite, because so may make it easier for their struggle with the outside world, their struggle for nutrition. At the heart of union sympathy reigns based on blood ties, but towards the outer world it is dominated by hate and leaning on hunger. The same occurs at the superior organizations: the union with the child's biological mother becomes longer, lasting several months, after which appears the care of parents, especially her mother, her children, the influence of education on young generations, etc.. The biological constraints and claims is complicated by sociological constraints, but these are only the continuation and development of those. The new generation assimilates the qualities of the old by another way, as well as heredity. The descendant is in the living conditions and environment are similar to those of their ancestors. For this you can see the transition from generation to generation, to create habits for a long time, and this fact forms the origin of 'tradition in the series of generations. On the other hand education in the common youth and his giuoclii are the source of solidarity among members of the same generation. It is therefore easy to see how all these social sentiments the following procreation: the union between parents and children or between brothers and sisters can be regarded as a union between members of that body, a union may not exceed certain limits. So the association itself-is divided into groups, but the affection between them always exists. These are the simplest manifestations of tilt procreative love. The manifestations of hunger then are: hatred, cruelty, which knows no limit and devoured in origin living thing that is weak or is beyond the limits of the social union. Let's see how these two needs brutality, hunger and love, more and more subtleties, physical and social phenomena have produced very complicated.
(582-###)

10: The Social Energy | L’Energie Sociale
The following is from page 257:

...primitive, il s’etablit déjà automatique ment un certain ordre, ou certain pouvoir, un certain droit et une certaine morale : tout simplement parce que l’energie passé d’en haut en bas et non inversement. Mais justement parce que le raymonnement de l’energie se fait ainsi, il y a tendance vers l’egalisation de ses intensites differentes, jusqu’a un etat d’equilibre indifferent ou toutes les transformations s’arretent. C’est ce qu’on appelle dissipation de l’entropie, une nouvelle function de la thermodynamique, appelee ainsi par Clausius.

Le caractere imperative de la morale, du droit, etc., ne presente rien de special et de mysterieux; il entre tres bien sous l’action des lois de la mecanique et veut seulement dire que certaines transformation d’energie, qui leur correspondent, sout irreversibiles. Mais comme tous les cycles irreversible tendent dans leur evolution vers un etat de reversibilite complete qui seule assure un maximum, le caractere obligatoire et imperative des institutions socials s’affaiblit avec le cours de tempt. [19]

Note 19 (full)
...primitive, he moved over automatically have a certain order, or some power, some right and some moral: just because the energy spent to up and down and not vice versa. But precisely because of the energy Raymone is so, there is a tendency toward the equalization of its different intensities, until a state of indifferent equilibrium or all changes have drawn up. This is called the dissipation of entropy, a new function of thermodynamics, so called by Clausius.

The imperative nature of morality, law, etc., does nothing special and mysterious it very well in between the action of the laws of mechanics and just means that some transformation of energy, which correspond to irreversibilities. But like all irreversible cycles tend to their evolution towards a state of full reversibility ensures that only a maximum, the binding nature and imperative of social institutions weakens over the course of time. [19]

Note 19:
With the conditions of complete reversibility in the second principle:
\int \frac{dQ}{T} = 0
is in fact the starting point for another reason. If experience leads us to establishing the equation:
Note 19 [or  \oint \frac{dQ}{T} = 0 \,meaning closed line or path integral?]
for a closed cycle and reversible, it should be a function of independent variables do not sear the differential an exact differential. In other words:
 \frac{dQ}{T} = dS \,
or S is a function of x and y, such that dS, will be an exact differential on a plot of x and y. It is this function that S that Clausius has called the name of entropy, a function which presents some analogy with that of the energy (U). Indeed, the like energy, entropy is a property of the body completely determined by the current values of variables and it follows that pet always be translated by a formula which expresses the function of these independent variables. As for energy incurs, its value should not depend of the path followed by a body to reach its current state, in case this is not a full cycle of operations. One can always express entropy by the equation:
 \frac{dQ}{T} = dS \,
but only, of course, for a reversible cycle.


The following is a bit from page 259:

Comme, en thermodynamique, la chaleur uniformement repandue et qui pour cela ne peute plus passer en travial utile n’est qu’un etat ideal que l’universene realisera jamais peut-etre, de meme dans l’univer social, l’egalisation complete des egoism des classes et individus qui rendrait tout travial utile impossible n’est qu’un etat purement theorique. As in thermodynamics, heat uniformly spread and for that reason can not go into a state travial useful is ideal universene will realize that may never be, the same in the university office, complete equalization egoism of classes and individuals which would make that impossible is useful travial state purely theoretical.


11: The teaching of political economics and social mechanics in Switzerland | 1894-1900
The following is the translation of Winarski's article "L’enseignement de l’economie politique pure et de la mecanique sociale en Suisse", from a reprint in a collection of memoirs by various authors published in 1901 by the Commission permanent International Education office. [8]

Dr LÉON WINIARSKY

Privat-Docent
ù l'Universi Je Genève, membre de rAcailémio américaine • les sciences sociales et politiques.

L'ENSEIGNEMENTDE L'ÉCONOMIE POLITIQUE PUREET DE LA MÉCANIQUE SOCIALE

Toute science a deux parties : une partie rationnelle, pure, qui étudie la forme la plus générale et abstraite des phénomènes respectifs et une partie appliquée qui étudie leur forme concrète et détaillée. La distinction rigoureuse entre ces deux parties, acceptée dans les sciences physiques, tend de plus en plus à s'introduire dans le domaine des sciences sociales.
Pour l'enseignement, cette distinction est de première importance en habituant pratiquement les étudiants aux nécessités logiques d'une méthode vraiment scientifique et -en leur facilitant la conception claire et méthodique des faits. Elle les prépare en même temps au travail indépendant et personnel en leur fournissant des procédés d'investigation sûrs et nécessaires pour toute recherche productive.

Des logiciens de premier ordre comme MM. les professeurs Ad. Naville, Goblot et d'autres, nous montrent avec raison qu'il est désormais impossible d'opposer la méthode de la physique, de la psychologie ou de la sociologie à celle des mathématiques aussi absolument qu'on le faisait autrefois. Les procédés du physicien, du psychologiste ou du sociologiste ressemblent toujours plus à ceux du mathématicien, à mesure qu'ils se perfectionnent.

Toutes les sciences ont une partie abstraite qui étudie les rapports entre des concepts. Ces sciences de lois ont du reste un point de départ expérimental. Les mathématiques ont eu au début une phase tout empirique ; ce n'est qu'avec le développement ultérieur qu'elles ont pris une apparence de plus en plus aprioristique : les constructions rationnelles refoulent dans l'ombre les données d'observation, qui n'en existent pas moinsDès maintenant, dans certaines parties de la physique, la construction rationnelle a un rôle non moins grand que l'observation. Le développement de la psychologie et de la sociologie va du même côté. De telle façon que sans diminuer l'importance de la partie historique et descriptive qui se base principalement sur l'observation, il faut reconnaître le rôle de premier ordre de la partie abstraite et rationnelle. Il est d'une bonne méthode logique et en même temps d'une bonne méthode d'enseignement d'introduire et de maintenir strictement cette distinction.

Parmi les sciences sociales, c'est l'économie politique qui, la première, a introduit cette distinction de la façon la plus rigoureuse, en acceptant pour la partie rationnelle la forme mathématique.
Cournot en fut le vrai fondateur, pour avoir dans ses Recherches sur les principes ?nathématiques de la théorie des richesses (1838) nettement indiqué en quoi consistait l'application des mathématiques à l'économie politique, pour avoir posé la courbe de demande d'une marchandise en fonction décroissante du prix et pour en avoir déduit la théorie mathématique du monopole.

En 1854, Gossen, dans sonDie Entwicklung der Gesetze des menschlichen Verkehrs, pose une autre courbe, celle de l'intensité du dernier besoin satisfait en fonction décroissante de la quantité consommée de marchandise et il en tire la formule du partage autoritaire de deux marchandises entre deux individus en vue du maximum absolu d'utilité, par l'égalité des intensités des derniers besoins satisfaits de chaque marchandise chez les deux individus (partage communiste).

En 1862, Jevons pose la même courbe que Gossen et il en tire la formule du troc libre de deux marchandises entre deux individus impliquant la proportionnalité inverse chez chaque échangeur des intensités des derniers besoins satisfaits (final degree of v'.ility) aux quantités troquées des marchandises (partage individualiste).

Enfin, en 1873, M. Walras expose, dans un mémoire intitulé Principe d'une théorie mathématique de l'échange, la théorie de l'échange économique de deux marchandises entre un nombre quelconque d'échangeurs. Pour cela il introduit dans le problème, en qualité d'inconnues à déterminer, les prix des deux marchandises (que Jevons avait remplacés par les rapports inverses des quantités échangées). Puis, de la courbe d'utilité de Gossen, il déduit les courbes de demande et d'offre, en vertu de la condition de satisfaction maxima des besoins, exprimée dans une formule identique à celle de Jevons.

De telle façon, M. Wairas trouve rationnellement la courbe de demande, posée empiriquement par Cournot, et aussi la courbe d'offre. Et enfin il détermine les prix courants d'équilibre, en vertu de la condition d'égalité, de l'offre et de la demande effectives, par l'intersection de deux courbes de demande et d'offre.

Dans ses « Éléments d'économie politique pure », M. Wairas a tiré successivement des principes mathématiques ci-dessus indiqués : 1° la théorie de l'échange d'un nombre quelconque des marchandises entre elles; 2° la théorie, de la production de ces marchandises considérées comme produits résultant de la combinaison de services de capitaux producteurs entre eux ; 3° la théorie de !a capitalisation ou de la production des capitaux neufs et, enfin, 4° la théorie de la monnaie, soit la théorie de la détermination des prix des produits, services et capitaux en une marchandise servant non seulement d'étalon pour la mesure de valeurs, mais aussi d'intermédiaire d'échange. Enfin, de toutes ces théories prises ensemble, M. Wairas tire une théorie d'équilibre économique général.

Ainsi la statique économique fut définitivement constituée. Il reste encore à faire la dynamique économique. C'est dans cette voie que se sont engagés quelques économistes, comme M. Petten en Amérique.

D'autre part, quelques écrivains comme MM. Wicksteed, Barone, Clark, Montemartini, complètent la théorie de l'utilité marginale par une théorie de la productivité marginale qui constitue en même temps le point de départ d'une théorie de la distribution des richesses. Une grande activité règne dans ce domaine de la science, comme le prouve la liste des économistes-mathématiciens : Marshall, Edgeworth, Launhardt, Lehr, Auspitz, Lieben, Wicksell, Rossi, Giddings, Fisher, etc. Il faut y ajouter les représentants de l'économie pure qui s'appuient sur la déduction sans recourir aux mathématiques, comme Menger, Wieser, Sax, Bôhm-Bawerk, etc.

Suivre pas à pas tout ce mouvement, en exposer le progrès dans les phases successives et les résultats acquis, c'est le problème que nous nous sommes posé dans un cours que nous faisons depuis six ans à l'Université de Genève.

De plus, entraînés par l'exemple de l'économie politique pure, et convaincus que c'est dans cette voie que la science sociale devra nécessairement s'engager pour aboutir à une constitution définitive, nous avons tenté d'appliquer les mêmes méthodes d'investigation et de raisonnement dans tous les autres domaines de la sociologie générale et abstraite.

C'est ainsi que nous sommes arrivés à la conception que la théorie de l'équilibre peut être étendue des phénomènes économiques à tous les phénomènes sociaux : politiques, juridiques, moraux, esthétiques, religieux et scientifiques, les deux modes de partage Gossenien et Jevonien s'adaptant très bien au régime communiste des sociétés primitives et au régime individualiste des sociétés historiques.

En étendant les résultats acquis par l'économie politique pure à la science sociale, nous sommes arrivés à la constatation que le» équations fondamentales de M. Wairas — exprimant, pour un échangeur, l'équivalence des quantités offertes et des quantités demandées des diverses marchandises à certains prix et la proportionnalité des intensités des derniers besoins satisfaits à ces prix — peuvent être déduites des équations générales du mouvement de Lagrange et nous avons montré analytiquement de quelle façon cette déduction peut être faite. Ayant fourni les équations de l'équilibre social, nous avons fondé les bases de la mécanique sociale — dans sa partie statique — sur le principe de Lagrange, celui du minimal effort ou de l'énergie maximale, c'est-à-dire sur le principe qui sert de base à la mécanique cosmique.

Passant ensuite à la partie dynamique du problème, nous avons donné une définition de l'énergie sociale-biologique dans ces deux formes : potentielle (faim et amour) et kinétique (économique, politique, juridique, morale, esthétique, religieuse et scientifique). Ceci nous amena à l'application des principes de la thermodynamique, dont le troisième, celui de Clausius, explique en même temps la spiritualisation progressive de tout agrégat social fermé et la baisse de son potentiel. C'est la dissipation de l'eutropie qui s'effectue dans le monde social, comme dans le monde physique.

Enfin, nous avons montré de quelle façon le principe du moindre effort et de l'accélération de vitesse explique la différenciation et l'intégration progressive des agrégats sociaux par leur adaptation toujours plus parfaite au milieu naturel et artificiel. Tout ceci fait l'objet d'un cours de mécanique sociale que nous faisons sous le titre de : « Bases économiques de la science sociale », parallèlement à notre cours d'économie politique pure. — En effet, le point de départ de nos recherches fut, comme nous l'avons montré, l'économie politique pure, à laquelle nous ramenons toute la science sociale, en la ramenant elle-même à la mécanique.

Dans notre cours, nous ne nous contentons pas de la partie abstraite et pure, mais nous la faisons suivre des applications aux sociétés primitives et historiques par une étude détaillée des faits.


Les résultats de nos recherches en mécanique sociale pure ont été publiés dans la Revue philosophique (mars 1898) sous le 'titre : « Essai sur la mécanique sociale », qui contient trois parties : 1° L'équilibre économique et social; 2" les transformations de l'énergie sociale, et 3° la dynamique sociale.

Une année après la publication de notre travail, nous avons été heureux de constater l'apparition de deux livres de grande valeur, celui de M. le professeur Haurion : Leçons sur le mouvement social, et celui de M. le professeur A. Lalande : La Dissolution opposée à révolution dans les sciences physiques et morales. Ces travaux, tout en différant sur certains points de nos conclusions formulées dans la Revue philosophique (mars 1898), s'inspirent des mêmes principes et tendent dans la même direction, vers une application de la mécanique et de la thermodynamique à la science sociale.

En 1899, nous avons appliqué ces principes à la théorie de la famille et de la propriété, publiée dans la Rivista italiana di Sociologia (novembre 1899). Nous avons montré que c'est la famille et la propriété qui se trouvent à la base de la société et que toutes les autres institutions en constituent la superstructure. Enfin, au courant de cette année, nous analysons plus profondément (dans la Revue philosophique, février-mars 1900) certains points de notre théorie et nous montrons de quelle façon on peut appliquer des méthodes quantitatives à la mécanique sociale, en vue de la création d'une sociométrie.

Certains de ces travaux ont suscité l'intérêt à l'étranger et ont été traduits en polonais (Athenaeum de Varsovie), en allemand (Soc. Monatshefte de Berlin) et en russe (Revue Scientifique de SaintPétersbourg). Ils ont été analysés, entre autres, dans la Rivista Italiana di Filosofla1 par M. le professeur Groppoli qui, tout en reconnaissant la nécessité d'une science générale et abstraite de la société, voudrait lui conserver le titre de sociologie pure. Mais je préférerai le titre de mécanique sociale, que j'ai donné à cette science, d'autant plus que M. le professeur Lester Ward, de l'Université de Columbia, l'auteur de Dynamic Sociology, suit maintenant la même voie et présente au Congrès International de Sociologie de cette année un mémoire intitulé : Social Mecanics.

Telles sont les étapes de la carrière parcourue jusqu'ici par la « mécanique sociale ». En l'enseignant depuis six ans à l'Université de Genève, je ne pense pas qu'elle puisse remplacer la sociologie descriptive et comparée, représentée chez nous avec tant d'autorité et de maîtrise par M. le professeur L. Wuarin, mais je pense qu'elle peut devenir une discipline indépendante et complémentaire, se rattachant en même temps aux mathématiques, à l'économie politique et à la sociologie.

J'ai tenu à renseigner Je Congrès sur cette tentative isolée et Ja première dans son genre. Quant à l'économie pure, elle est déjà enseignée dans une vingtaine d'universités (en Angleterre, Amérique, Allemagne, Autriche et Suisse) et il serait désirable que cet exemple fût suivi par celles de la France. Je suis heureux d'ajouter que l'enseignement de ces sciences, qui pourraient paraître arides, intéresse les auditeurs, dont le nombre va en croissant.

1. March-April 1900.D
Dr. LEON WINIARSKY

Privat-Docent
ù the Universi ty I Geneva, member of rAcailémio • American social science and policy.

EDUCATION of POLITICAL ECONOMICS and SOCIAL MECHANICS


All science has two parts: a wise, pure, which studies the most general and abstract phenomena and respective applied part that examines their concrete and detailed. The strict distinction between these two parties accepted in the physical sciences, tends more and more to enter the field of social sciences.
For education, this distinction is of paramount importance in virtually accustoming students to the logical necessities of a truly scientific method, and by facilitating the design of the facts clearly and methodically. She prepares the same time self-employed and employees by providing safe and investigative procedures necessary for any productive research.




Logicians of the first order as MM. teachers Ad Naville Goblot and others, show us with reason it is now impossible to oppose the method of physics, psychology or sociology to that of mathematics as they did formerly absolutely . The processes of the physicist, the psychologist or sociologist increasingly resemble those of the mathematician, as they develop.



All sciences have some abstract studies the relationship between concepts. These laws have the science remains an experimental starting point. Mathematics has been an early phase, while empirical only with further development they have become increasingly apparent aprioristic: rational constructions repress the shadow of observational data, which does 'not exist in moinsDès now in some parts of physics, the rational construction has a role no less great than observation. The development of psychology and sociology is the same side. So that without diminishing the importance of the historical and descriptive based mainly on observation, we must recognize the leading role of rational and abstract part. It is a good logical method and yet a good teaching method to introduce and to strictly maintain this distinction.





Among the social sciences, economics is that, first, introduced this distinction as the most rigorous in accepting the rational for the mathematical form.
Cournot was the real founder, to have in his Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth (1838) clearly stated in what was the application of mathematics to political economy, to have raised the demand curve of goods according to declining prices and have deduced the mathematical theory of monopoly.



In 1854, Hermann Gossen, in his The Development of the Laws of Human Interactions, poses another curve, the intensity of the last want satisfied according to the decreasing quantity of goods consumed and it takes the form of sharing of two authoritarian goods between two individuals for the absolute maximum value, with equal intensities of the last wants satisfied with every commodity in the two individuals (sharing communist).


In 1862, Jevons, raises the same curve as Gossen and takes the form of barter free two commodities between two individuals involving the inverse proportionality of intensities in each of the last exchanger needs met (final degree of v '. Ility) quantities bartered goods (share individualistic).


Finally, in 1873, Mr. Walras explains in a paper entitled Principle of a mathematical theory of exchange, the theory of economic exchange of two commodities between any number of exchangers. To do this he introduces the problem, as unknowns to be determined, the prices of both goods (that Jevons was replaced by the inverse relationships of quantities traded). Then, the utility curve of Goshen, he deduces the curves of demand and supply, under the condition of maximum satisfaction of needs, expressed in a form identical to that of Jevons.



So, Mr. Walras is rationally demand curve, empirically raised by Cournot, and also the supply curve. And finally it determines the current price equilibrium, under the condition of equality of supply and effective demand, by the intersection of two curves of demand and supply.


In his "Elements of pure economics," Mr. Walras fired successively mathematical principles listed above: 1, the theory of trade of any number of goods between them, 2 the theory, production of these goods considered as products resulting from the combination of capital services producing them; 3 theory "has funded or production of new capital and, finally, 4 the theory of money, the theory of pricing of products, services and capital goods used not only standard for measuring values, but also through trade. Finally, all these theories taken together, Mr. Waira derives a theory of general economic equilibrium.





Thus the static economy was constituted. It remains to economic dynamics. This is the road that have committed some economists, like Mr. Petten in America.


On the other hand, some writers like MM. Wicksteed, Barone, Clark Montemartini complete theory of marginal utility theory of marginal productivity, which is also the starting point for a theory of wealth distribution. A great activity prevails in this area of science, as evidenced by the list of economists, mathematicians: Marshall, Edgeworth, Launhardt, Lehr, Auspitz, Lieben, Wicksell, Rossi, Giddings, Fisher, etc.. Added to the representatives of the economy that rely on pure deduction without using mathematics, as Menger, Wieser, Sax, Bohm-Bawerk, etc..




Follow this step by step movement, exposing the progress in the successive phases and the results obtained, that is the problem we posed in a course that we have been doing for six-years at the University of Geneva.


In addition, trained by example of pure economics, and convinced that this is the way that social science will necessarily have to commit to reaching a permanent constitution, we tried to apply the same methods investigation and reasoning in all other areas of sociology in general and abstract.



Thus we arrived at the conception that the equilibrium theory can be extended to all economic phenomena of social phenomena: political, legal, moral, aesthetic, religious and scientific, both ways of sharing Gossenien and Jevonien adapting very well to the communist regime of primitive societies and historical societies individualistic regime.


By extending the results obtained by pure economics to social science, we have come to the realization that "the fundamental equations of Mr. Walras - expressing for an interchange, the equivalence of quantities supplied and quantities required for various goods at certain prices and the proportionality of the intensities of the last wants satisfied at these prices - can be deducted from the general equations of motion of Lagrange and we have shown analytically how this deduction may be made. Having provided the social balance equations, we have laid the foundations of the social mechanics - in its static part - the Lagrange principle, that of minimum effort and maximum energy, that is to say the principle is the basis for the mechanical universe.




Turning to the dynamic part of the problem, we gave a definition of social-biological energy in two forms: potential (hunger and love) and kinetic (economic, political, legal, moral, aesthetic, religious, and scientific). This led us to the principles of thermodynamics, including the third, the Clausius same time explains the progressive spiritualization any closed social aggregate to show a decrease in potential. This dissipation of entropy that occurs is the same in the social world as in the physical world.



Finally, we show how the principle of least effort and explains the acceleration of speed differentiation and the gradual integration of social aggregates by ever more perfect adaptation to natural and artificial. All this is subject to a social mechanics course that we have fashioned by the title: "Economic Foundations of Social Science", parallel to our course of pure economics. - Indeed, the starting point for our research was, as we have seen, pure economics, to which we bring all social science, taking it herself mechanics.




In our course, we're not just part of the abstract and pure, but we do take applications in primitive societies and by a detailed historical facts.


The results of our research in pure social mechanics were published in the Philosophical Review (March 1898) under the 'title: "Essay on the social Mechanics", which contains three parts: 1 The economic and social balance; 2 "the transformations of social energy, and 3 social dynamics.



A year after the publication of our work, we were pleased to note the appearance of two books of great value, that of Professor Maurce Haurion: Lessons Social Movement (1899) and that of Professor Andre Lalande: The Dissolution Opposed to Revolution in the Physical and Moral (1899). These studies, while differing on some points of our findings in the philosophical journal (March 1898), based on the same principles and tend in the same direction, toward an application of mechanics and thermodynamics to social science.



In 1899, we applied these principles to the theory of the family and property, published in the Rivista Italiana di Sociologia (November 1899). We have shown that the family and property located at the base of society and all other institutions that constitute the superstructure. Finally, later this year, we analyze more deeply (in the philosophical journal, February-March 1900) some points of our theory and show how one can apply quantitative methods to the social mechanism, for creating a sociometric.



Some of this work has attracted interest from abroad and have been translated into Polish (Athenaeum Warsaw), German (Soc. Monatshefte Berlin) and Russian (Saint Petersburg Scientific Review). The samples were analyzed, among others, in the Rivista Italiana di Filosofla1 by Professor Groppoli which, while recognizing the need for a general science of society and abstract, it would retain the title of pure sociology. But I prefer title social mechanism, which I gave to this science, especially since Professor Lester Ward, Columbia University, author of Dynamic Sociology, now follows the same path in memoir presented at The International Congress of Sociology of this year a entitled: "Social Mechanics". [2]



Such are the stages in the career thus far pursued by social mechanics. Though teaching it for six years at the University of Geneva, I do not think it can replace descriptive and comparative sociology represented with us with so great authority and mastery by Prof. L. Vuarin, but I do think that it may become an independent and complementary discipline, allying itself at the same time to mathematics, political economy, and sociology.

I have ventured to inform the congress of this isolated experiment, and the first of its kind. As to pure economics, it is already taught in a score of universities in England, America, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, and it would be desirable that this example be followed by those of France. I am happy to add that the teaching of these sciences, which might appear dry, interests its hearers, whose number is constantly increasing.



1. March-April 1900.
2. Ward, Frank. (1900). “Social Mechanics”, Read before the Fourth Congress of the Institute International de Sociologie at Paris, Sep, 25, 1900; Reprinted in: Sociology at the Paris Exposition of 1900 (pgs. 1579-93).


References
1. (a) Winiarski, Leon. (1898). Essai sur la Mécanique Social. Presses Universitaires de France.
(b) Sanger, C.P. (1898). “Work Reviewed: Winiarski, Dr. Léon, Essai sur la Mécanique Social (Essay on Social Mechanics)”. The Economic Journal (pgs. 387-88). MacMillan.
2. (a) Winiarski, Leon. (1898). “Theory of Property and Family: Essay on Social Mechanics” (Italian → English) (pgs. 572-76, 577-81, 582-86, 587-92) ("La Teoria Della Proprieta E Della Famiclia: Saggi Sulla Meccanica Sociale Pura") (pgs. 572-594) In: Rivista Italiana di Sociologia (Italian Journal of Sociology), Volume 3. Fratelli Bocca, 1899.
(b) Appeared in the Revue Philosaphique (April 1898).
3. (a) Ross, Edward A. (1907). Foundations of Sociology (Winiarski, pgs. 156-60). MacMillan Co.
(b) Winiarski, Leon. (Date). “Article”, Revue Philosophique, Vol. XLV, pgs. 351-86; Vol. XVIX, pgs. 113-334.
4. (a) This work is a follow him Sayglo drop the social mechanism, which appeared in the Revue Philosaphique (April 1898) and contains the following parts: the economic and social balance, the processing of social energy, the social dynamics. See also: our Saygio balance aesthetic, in the Revue Philosophique, June 1899.
(b) The reader will find more details in the following works: a. Chauveau, the trmail musculairc. Paris, 1891; Du travati physiologique et de san equivalent (Revue scientifìque, 1888); La ' routes et the energies that ' the animals, Paris, 1894; Cl. Maxwell, Materand motion; Balfour-stewart, Conservalion de energies; f. Lalauxik, Knei-giìtique musc.ulaire,Paris, 1898; a. Gautieb, Lecons de chimie bioìogique, Paris, 1897; Dastre, Dans energies monde vivant (Revue des deux mondes).
5. Busino, Giovanni. (1967). Leon Winiarski es la Mecanique Sociale. Cahiers Vilfredo Pareto, Revue Europeenne D’Histoire des Sciences Sociales, Vol 14. Librairie Droz, Geneve.
6. Winiarski, Leon. (1967). Essais Sur la Mecanique Sociale: Textes reunis et presents par Giovanni Busino (Essay on Social Mechanics: Collected Works presented by Giovanni Busino) (Thermodynamique, 13+ pages; entropy integrals, pg. 257). Librairie Droz.
7. (a) Gaultier, Jules de. (1898). “History, Societies, Governments – Review: Doctor Leon Winiarski: Essay on Social Mechanics”, Revue Blanche, 16: 636-38.
(b) Jules de Gaultier – Wikipedia.
8. Winiarsky, Leon. (1900). “L’enseignement de l’economie politique pure et de la mecanique sociale en Suisse” ("The Teaching of Pure Political Economics and Social Mechanics in Switzerland") (see: translation), Privat-Docet, University of Geneva; reprinted in: Le Premier congres de l’enseignement des Sciences Sociales: Comte rendu des séances et texte des memoirs publies par la Commssion permanente international de l’enseignement social (The First Congress of the Social Science Education: Count summary records and texts of memoirs published by the Commission permanent International Education office) (pgs. 341-46), 1901; and Essai sur la Mécanique Sociale: Collected Works(pgs. 291-295), compiled by Giovanni Busino, 1967.

Further reading
● Winiarski, Leon. (1900). “Essay on Social Mechanics: The Social and Energy Measurements” (Essai sur la Mecanique Sociale: L’energie Sociale et ses Mensurations), Part II, Revue Philosophique, XLIX, 265, 287.
● Winiarski, Leon. (1967). Essais sur la Mecanique Sociale (Essays on Social Mechanics). Geneva: Droz.

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