Evolution theorists

In hmolscience, evolution theorists (EvT:#|25+), as opposed to creationism theorists, refers to []

Overview
The following timeline gives a short chronological overview of pre-Darwin, Darwin, and post-Darwin "origin of species" (evolution) theorists. Charles Darwin, his in his 'Historical Sketch', on those who advocated variations on a theory of origin of species, prior to 1859, gives thirty-four authors who believe in the modification of species, or at least disbelieve in separate acts of creation, of which twenty-seven have written on special branches of natural history or geology, in which the two foremost of these, according to Darwin, are Goethe and Geoffroy.

#
IQPerson
DateTheory


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1.180

92
Thales 75Thales
(c.624-546 BC)
585BC “Many of the philosophers of the Ionian school believed that living organisms originated in sea slime by the action of heat, sun and air. Thus, for instance, Thales, the oldest philosopher of this Greek school, taught that living things developed from the amorphous slime under the influence of heat.”
Alexander Oparin (1936), Origin of Life (pg. 3)
2.180

117
Anaximander 75Anaximander
(c.610-c.564 BC)
575BC Ionian model (evolution)Animals [based on Thales' water origin model] come into being from moisture evaporated by the sun. Humans originally resembled another type of animal, namely fish.”
Hippolytus (c.220), Refutation of All Heresies (ΡΊ)

“Claimed that ever thing living arises in sea ooze and goes through a succession of stages in its development.”
Alexander Oparin (1936), Origin of Life (pg. 3)

Argued that fish grew from warm mud, and that humans evolved from fish. [14]
3.175

230
Xenophanes 75Xenophanes
(560-480BC)
510BCTaught that all organisms originate from earth and water and used fossil evidence as proof of his argument.
4.180

132
Photo needed 75Anaxagoras
(500-428 BC)
455BC“The role of the hands in the evolution of man's intelligence seems to have been clearly recognized by the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras (500-428 BC). He explained, as cited by Will Durant, that ‘man's intelligence by the power of manipulation that came when the forelimbs were freed from the tasks of locomotion’.”
Alfred Lotka (1925), Elements of Physical Chemistry (pg. 440)
5.190

24
Empedocles 75Empedocles
(495-435 BC)
450BC Quote: “Empedocles was the first evolutionist.” (Jonathan Wright, 1920) [16]
6.180

87
Lucretius 75Lucretius
(99-55BC)
55BCThe following statement, according to John Haldane, is the "principle of evolution in its crudest form", as cited in The Cause of Evolution (1936) (pg. 112):

“Multaque tum interisse animantum saecla necesse est, Nec potuisse propagando producer problem. Nam quaecomque uides uesci uitalibus aureis, Aut dolus, aut uirtus, aut denique mobilitas est Ex ineunte aeuo genus id tutata, reseruans.”
— Lucretius (55BC), Latin original, per Haldane (1936) citation

“And many lines of organism must have perished then, and been unable to propagate their kind. For whatever you see feeding on the vital air, either craft, strength, or finally mobility has been protected and preserving that race from its earliest times.”
— Lucretius (55BC), Latin original, per Haldane (1936) citation

“Many kinds of animals have disappeared and it is not possible propaganda producer problem. For quaecomque see ourselves vital gold, or deceit, or power, or even from an early age this kind of mobility is protected, reserving. ”
— Lucretius (55BC), Latin original, per Google (2016) translation
7.175

270
Lucilio Vanini 75 Lucilio Vanini
(1585-1619)
1616 In his De Admirandis Naturae Reginae Deaeque Mortalium Arcanis, argued that humans, particularly Africans, owing to their skin color, descended from apes; he was accused of atheism and after a long trial was condemned to have his tongue cut out, to be strangled at the stake, and thereafter burned to ashes, an ending which occurred in 1619.
8.225

1
Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe
(
1749-1832)

See: Goethe on evolution

1784 In 1784, he discovered the human intermaxillary bone, thought to be unique to animals only, thus yielding anatomical proof of common origin; in his 1790 Metamorphosis of Plants (see: metamorphosis), he outlined a theory of form change in plants; he outlined his newly discovered principle further in his 1795 “Sketch of a General Introduction to Comparative Anatomy”; from 1796 to 1809, with the publication of his Elective Affinities, he explained his principle of “moving order” (bewegliche ordnung) at the chemical level for humans and chemicals, in terms of affinity chemistry and the force of elective affinity (forerunner to the modern free energy view of evolution).
9.175

235
Erasmus Darwin 75Erasmus Darwin
(1731-1802)
1791 His 1789 poem The Love of Plants offers long footnote glimpse of his theory of evolution; his 1794/96 Zoonomia contains a chapter on “Generation”, which outline a foreshadow of modern evolution theory.
10.170

329
Jean-Baptista Lamarck 75 Jean Lamarck
(1744-1829)
1801Advocated the usage theory of evolution, e.g. that giraffes grew longer necks by reaching for leaves, and that this trait could be passed on to offspring; he the doctrine that all species, including man, are descended from other species. [4]
11.170

397
Georges Cuvier 75 Georges Cuvier
(1769-1832)
1813in his Essay on the Theory of the Earth (1813), hypothesized a periodic catastrophic flood theory, conceptualized on Biblical flood theory (see: Noah's flood), according to which new species were "created", not by a processes of evolution, such as espoused by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, but by the power of god, such that each species was "fixed" in its god-given place, after each successive flood period.

Cuvier’s theories drew the attention of those including: Saint-Hilaire (in opposition), who advocated a "deism-based materialistic evolutionary determinism" (Hecht, 2003) theory, Johann Goethe (in opposition), John Hunter (in comparison), Francis Macnab (in supportive usage), and Honore Balzac (in praised status citation usage).
12.
Robert Grant 75 Robert Grant
(1793-1874)
1826 Publicly announced his speculation that 'transformation' might affect all organisms; noted that successive strata seemed to show a progressive, natural succession of fossil animals; that these forms "have evolved from a primitive model" by "external circumstances"; he accepted a common origin for plants and animals, and the basic units of life ('monads'), he proposed, were spontaneously generated.
13.
Etienne Saint-Hilaire 75Etienne Hilaire
(1772-1884)
1830Was a supporter of Goethe's organic patterns views and the German "natural philosophy" view; in the late 1820s, Grant shared his views on unity of plan and corresponded with him while working on marine invertebrates; in 1830, Geoffroy proceeded to apply to the invertebrata his views as to the unity of animal composition, contending, in accordance with his theory of unity of plan in organic composition, that all animals are formed of the same elements, in the same number; and with the same connections: homologous parts, however they differ in form and size, must remain associated in the same invariable order, and with Goethe held that there is in nature a law of compensation or balancing of growth, so that if one organ take on an excess of development, it is at the expense of some other part; and he maintained that, since nature takes no sudden leaps, even organs which are superfluous in any given species, if they have played an important part in other species of the same family, are retained as rudiments, which testify to the permanence of the general plan of creation; it was his conviction that, owing to the conditions of life, the same forms had not been perpetuated since the origin of all things, although it was not his belief that existing species are becoming modified; Goethe’s last writings were devoted to defending Saint-Hilaire.
14.
Richard Owen 75Richard Owen
(1804-1892)
1836In 1836, work on giant fossil bones (e.g. he coined the term dinosaur), recently collected in South America, instilled the revelation that that there were exceptional similarities, particularly as evidenced by similar limb design (wings, flippers, or hands) among certain lineages; and, being influenced by Johannes Muller, believed that a special life force like “organizing energy” directed the growth of tissues, that there were six types of evolution mechanisms; his 1841 anti-transmutation discussions with Darwin forced Darwin to keep quiet about his own theory; in his 1849 Nature of the Limbs, suggested that humans ultimately evolved from fish as the result of natural laws; believed the overall design was the plan of a creator (god).
15.180

106
Charles Darwin 75 Charles Darwin
(1809-1882)
1842Sent out a tentative sketch of his "transmutation of species" ideas in a letter to Charles Lyell; in 1844, expanded ideas into a essay, which he sent to his wife (in case of his early termination), which he had Joseph Hooker read in 1847; this eventually resulted in his 1859 Origins of Species, which outlined the view that evolutionary change is the process of natural selection acting on randomly occurring variations. [2]
16.
Robert Chambers 75 Robert Chambers
(1802-1871)
1844in his Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, published anonymously for fear of charges of atheism and materialism, attempted to champion the idea of evolution directed by god.
17.175

245
Alfred Wallace 75 Alfred Wallace
(1823-1913)
1858Sent Darwin a copy of his transmutation of species theory; Darwin suggested they both publish.
18.
Hugo de Vries 75Hugo de Vries
(1848-1935)
1901Introduced the "mutation" based model of Darwinism-modified evolution.
19.
William Bateson
(1861-1926)


20.180

102
Lawrence Henderson 75Lawrence Henderson
(1878-1942)

1913Matter and energy have an original property, assuredly not by chance, which organizes the universe in space and time.”
— Lawrence Henderson (1913), The Fitness of the Environment
21.
Ronald Fisher
(1890-1962)


22.
John Haldane
(1892-1964)


23.
Harold Blum 75Harold Blum
(1899-1980)

1934Evolution (American model)Introduced the "chemical peneplanation" model of evolution.
24.185

59
Norman Dolloff 75Norman Dolloff
(1907-1984)
1975Building on Blum (1934) and Henderson (1913), he comes closest to outlining a entropy measure and Gibbs energy measure state of formation for each organism from the elements; in his Heat Death and the Phoenix (1975), he gives the following what might be called "organism synthesis equation":
Dolloff organism formation equation
He might be classified as the transition point mindset of someone grappling to switch from the entropy "order/disorder" model of everything transitioning into the "free energy" model of everything; all done in the framework of explicit atheism.
25.
William D. Hamilton
(1936-2000)



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