Fermion

Fermions
quarksLeptons
Quarks and leptons are examples of types of fermions.
In particles, fermion, as contrasted with boson, is an elementary particle, or bound state of an elementary particle, e.g. an atomic nucleus or an atom, with half integer spin (½, 3/2, etc.), which conforms to Fermi-Dirac statistics. [1]

Fermions are the particles that make up what is usually conceptualized as the material world (matter), e.g. the electron and proton. Fermions are conserved, such that the total number of each kind of fermion stays the same, provided that in any interaction an antiparticle is counted as “minus one” particle. [2]

Etymology
The term “fermion”, named in honor of Enrico Fermi, was coined by English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac, during his 6 Dec 1945 lecture “Developments in Atomic Theory”, referring to quantum particles that obey the laws that he and Fermi had set out in 1926. [3]

Humans | Fermions or Bosons?
See main: Social fermion
In the late 1970s, people began to ruminate on what humans were in terms of the new fermionic bosonic classification of the universe; the following are the two dominate examples:

“Are humans fermions or bosons?”
Ed Stephan (1977), speculative discussions with physicist Louis Barrett [4]

“All entities, whether fermions or humans, need some mediating agency to interconnect them into systems. This indispensable interrelating and interacting role is ultimately played by different field particles named bosons. Unlike fermions, which are characterized by a significant mass and charge, bosons do not take partake of these to attributes. Rather, they only have spins and provide connections as they are exchanged among fermions.”
Paris Arnopoulos (2005), Sociophysics [5]

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References
1. Daintith, John. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of Physics. Oxford University Press.
2. Gribbin, John. (1998). Q is for Quantum: An Encyclopedia of Particle Physics (fermion, pgs. 113). Simon & Schuster.
3. (a) Dirac, Paul. (1945). “Developments in Atomic Theory”, Le Palais de la Decouverte, Dec 6.
(b) Farmelo, Graham. (2009). The Strangest Man: the Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of the Atom (pg. 331). Basic Books.
4. Stephan, Ed. (1995). The Division of Territory in Society. EdStephan.org.
5. Arnopoulos, Paris. (2005). Sociophysics: Cosmos and Chaos in Nature and Culture (fermions or humans, pg. xIviii). Nova Publishers, 1993 first edition.

Further reading
● Dirac, Paul. (1995). The Collected Works of P.A.M. Dirac: Volume 1: 1924-1948 (editor: R.H. Dalitz) (fermion, 2+ pgs). Cambridge University Press.

External links
Fermion – Wikipedia.

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