Freud-Schiller drive theory

Drive theorists
The four main thinkers behind the formative drive theory of morphological change and development: Blumenbach, Schiller, Goethe, and Freud.
In hmolscience, Freud-Schiller drive theory refers to the Austrian physical psychologist Sigmund Freud’s 1910 drive theory, or "theory of drives" (or instinctual drives), an ego-based sex drive and death drive, as based on the “foothold” of German poet philosopher Friedrich Schiller’s famous 1795 aphorism about the forces of love and hunger being behind the fundamental "drives" (or driving force) of human nature, itself possibly related to Johann Blumenbach's 1781 "formational drive theory" (see: bildungstrieb); both Schiller and Blumenbach both influencing Goethe and his affinity-based chemical forces theory of reactions and drives, the latter of whom influenced Freud significantly.

Blumenbach | Formative drive
In 1781, German physician Johann Blumenbach published his On the Formative Drive of the Generation Process, wherein he posited the existence of a "bildungstrieb" or "formational drive" in human development, a term that united growth, maintenance, healing, regeneration, and reproduction as variations of the single goal of maintaining form. [1] A representative exert of this position is: [2]

“In all living creatures from the human to the maggot and from the cedar up to the seed there lies a particular, inborn, effective drive active throughout life, first in order to attain their specific form, then to maintain it, and if it is destroyed, to restore it where possible.”

American German studies professor Karl Fink, to note, is of the view that Blumenbach’s formative drive theory, is a “recasting” of Johann Herder’ term "Volkgeist” used to unite mind-body-spirit in his theory of culture; and that somehow the mixture of these two terms, combined with the Latin-Greek “energia” is the etymological root of the physics term eigenenergie; though this last part may be pure speculation. [3]

Schiller | Love and hunger
In circa 1790s, German poet-philosopher Friedrich Schiller began to develop a drive theory, which or may not have connection to Blumenbach, in which argued something along the lines of the following: [4]

"The animal drives [Triebe] awaken and develop the spiritual drives"; he opposed the material drive (Stofftrieb) to the form drive (Formtrieb). The Spieltrieb (play-drive)—which expresses play, the beautiful, freedom, and the total man—is posited as an ideal nexus between the two Triebe. It is also the force that drives creation: "It is union of the unconscious and reflection that makes the poetic artist."

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In 1795, Schiller penned his poem "The World Ways", shown in the original German and English-to-German translate below:

The World Ways
(Die Weltweisen)

Der Satz, durch welchen alles Ding
Bestand und Form empfangen,
Der Nagel, woran Zeus den Ring
Der Welt, die sonst in Scherben ging,
Vorsichtig aufgehangen,
Den nenn' ich einen großen Geist,
Der mir ergründet, wie er heißt,
Wenn ich ihm nicht drauf helfe –
Er heißt: Zehn ist nicht Zwölfe. Der Schnee macht kalt, das Feuer brennt,
Der Mensch geht auf zwei Füßen,
Die Sonne scheint am Firmament,
Das kann, wer auch nicht Logik kennt,
Durch seine Sinne wissen.
Doch wer Metaphysik studiert,
Der weiß, daß, wer verbrennt, nicht friert,
Weiß, daß das Nasse feuchtet
Und daß das Helle leuchtet.
Homerus singt sein Hochgedicht,
Der Held besteht Gefahren;
Der brave Mann thut seine Pflicht
Und that sie, ich verhehl' es nicht,
Eh noch Weltweise waren.
Doch hat Genie und Herz vollbracht,
Was Lock' und Des Cartes nie gedacht,
Sogleich wird auch von diesen
Die Möglichkeit bewiesen.
Im Leben gilt der Stärke Recht,
Dem Schwachen trotzt der Kühne,
Wer nicht gebieten kann, ist Knecht;
Sonst geht es ganz erträglich schlecht
Auf dieser Erdenbühne.
Doch wie es wäre, fing' der Plan
Der Welt nur erst von vornen an,

Ist in Moralsystemen
Ausführlich zu vernehmen.
»Der Mensch bedarf des Menschen sehr
Zu seinem großen Ziele;
Nur in dem Ganzen wirket er,
Viel Tropfen geben erst das Meer,

Viel Wasser treibt die Mühle.
Drum flieht der wilden Wölfe Stand
Und knüpft des Staates dauernd Band.«
So lehren vom Katheder
Herr Puffendorf und Feder.
Doch weil, was ein Professor spricht,
Nicht gleich zu Allen dringet,
So übt Natur die Mutterpflicht
Und sorgt, daß nie die Kette bricht
Und daß der Reif nie springet.
Einstweilen, bis den Bau der Welt
Philosophie zusammenhält,
Erhält sie das Getriebe
Durch Hunger und durch Liebe.
The rate by which all things
Receive inventory and shape,
The nail what the Zeus ring
The world went to pieces otherwise,
Carefully hung,
To what I call a great spirit,
The fathomed me how he is,
When I told him it does not help -
He says: Ten is not twelve. The snow makes cold, the fire burns,
The man walks on two feet,
The sun is shining in the firmament,
This can, who knows neither logic
Know through his senses.
But who studied metaphysics,
He knows that he who burns not freeze,
Knows that the Wet moistens
And that the bright lights.
Homer sings his wedding poem,
The hero is danger;
A good man does his duty
And she did, I do not conceal,
Eh were world way.

But genius and heart has accomplished,
What Lock 'and Des Cartes never thought
Immediately is also of this
The opportunity proved.
In life, the strength is right
The weak defies the Bold
If you can not command, is servant;
Otherwise it's quite tolerable bad
On this earth stage.
But what it would be caught 'the plan
The world first only by vornen to,

In moral systems
Detail to be heard.
"Man needs of the people very
To his great aims;
Only in the whole he worketh,
Many drops to give only the sea,

Plenty of water drives the mill.
Drum escapes of wild wolves as
Ties and the state band permanently. "
To teach from the lectern
Mr. Puffendorf and spring.
But because of what a professor says,
Penetrateth not equal to all,
Mother Nature exerts the required
And ensures that the chain never breaks
And that the frost never Springet.
The construction of the world
Philosophy holds,
Receives its transmission
By hunger and by love.

In 1823, French engineer Sadi Carnot, famously stated that the “fall of caloric”, from the hot body (boiler) to the cold body (condenser), through the working substance in the operation of the steam engine, is comparable, in principle, to the “fall of water”, from the higher location, through the rotary mechanism of the water mill, to the lower location, in the machines operated by falling water, in the production of motive power.
Fall of caloric (new) 2
A water mill driven by waterpower, according to which the fall of the water "drives" the mechanical operation of the mill, which is to grind grain.
Water mill ns
In 1930, Sigmund Freud that he got his free energy/bound energy libido "drive theory", in start, from Schiller's "The World Ways" poem, which Freud encapsulates as: "hunger and love are what move the world"

In 1920, Schiller's poem, it seems (check), was paraphrased by Russian writer Yevgeny Zamyatin, as follows:

Love and hunger rule the world. Ergo, to rule the world, one must master love and hunger.”
Yevgeny Zamyatin (1920), We

The popular modern truncated versions, deriving from it seems the Zamyatin truncation, is:

Love and hunger rule the world.”
— Friedrich Schiller (1795), “The Philosophers” (Die Welteisen) (Ѻ); (Ѻ)

Goethe | Schiller | Blumenbach
In the period 1798 to 1801, Goethe’s entered into his historiography of science, which began with a brief but rich exchange of letters with his intellectual friend German author Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) and ended with an equally brief and stimulating contact with the Gottingen school of history (university professors); in Schiller, according to Karl Fink (2009), he found an irreplaceable friend, whose “reflective power” quickly focused his project; and in the Gottingen school “nowhere was I advanced so quickly as in Gottingen where I was with great generosity and active support permitted use of the invaluable collection of books”. The exchange is said to have begun with his 13 Jan 1798 letter to Schiller, wherein he comments that he had been studying “various writings in physics”, learning how Newton turned optics into a geometry, how mechanists turned light into particles, how chemists attributed everything to ‘caloric’ (warmestoff), along with new theories on oxygen. [6]

Schiller aside, Goethe also seems to have been keenly aware of Blumenbach’s formative drive theory.

American comparative literature scholar Stefani Engelstein, for example, argues rather effectively that parts of Goethe’s physical chemistry based Elective Affinities, such as his grafting of shoots (P#:C#), are derived, in part, from the bildungstrieb concept. [3]

Freud | Sex drive
In 1910, Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud began to employ Schiller's poem to help him get a "foothold" on distinguishing the sexual instincts from the ego instincts, as he stated in retrospect in his 1930 Civilization and its Discontents, wherein he quotes Schiller as follows (1961 James Strachey translation):

Hunger and love are what moves the world.”
— Friedrich Schiller (1795), quoted by Sigmund Freud, in Civilization and its Discontents (1930) (Ѻ), as basis if his drive theory (Ѻ)

Somehow, all this connects together with is earlier 1895 Project for Scientific Psychology, and his utilizations of free energy and bound energy; thought the details of this connection remain to be worked out.

In any event, in sum, Freud claims that he derived his general theory of drives: sex drive (libido energy), death drive (analysis energy), and his steam engine "id, ego, superego" model of the human mind, the basis of the "theory of instincts" of psychoanalysis, from Schiller; thought Freud also states that the reason he went to medical school was because of a poem he read of Goethe; and Schiller was Goethe's closest intellectual friend; hence, further details of origins of Freud's general drive theory remain to be mapped out.

Chemical thermodynamics
The details of how the so-called Schiller-Freud drive theory connects up into and through modern human chemical thermodynamics remains, in terms of Gibbs free energy differentials:

“The quantity '–ΔG' [is] the driving force of a [human chemical] reaction.”
Gilbert Lewis (1923)

remains a project to be worked out.
Vicente Talanquer (color)
Also, connected to this, there is Mexican-born American triple-valedictorian chemist Vicente Talanquer's 2013 so-called chemical teleology debunking opinion that, in respect to how the Le Chatelier's principle, in modern college chemistry textbooks, is often, supposedly, described by authors using "teleological" like statements, that:

“The same type of thinking can be applied to the chemical processes in equilibrium. For example, when pressure is applied on a reacting system in chemical equilibrium, the system does not shift towards reactants or products "so that" or "in order to" counterbalance the effect of the change. What happens is that the change in pressure affects the probability of the forward and backward chemical processes going on in the system. The change in pressure affects the probability of collisions for the backward and forward processes in different ways. As a result, the likelihood of one process becomes higher than the other. There is NO DRIVE to attain a new equilibrium state. There is only particles randomly moving and interacting, involved in competing processes with different probabilities.”

This will have to be studied.

1. Engelstein, Stefani. (2008). Anxious Anatomy: the Conception of the Human Form in Literary and Naturalist Discourse (pg. 13; §1: Formative Drives, pgs. 23-58). SUNY Press.
2. Blumenbach, Johann. (1781). On the Formative Drive of the Generation Process (Uber den Bildungstieb und das Zeugungsgeschafte) (pg. 12; Stefani Engelstein translation). Gottingen: Johann Dieterich.
3. Email communicate from Karl Fink to Libb Thims (15 Jul 2010).
4. Schiller and Psychoanalysis – Gale Dictionary of Psychoanalysis.
5. (a) Talanquer, Vincete. (2007). “Explanations and Teleology in Chemistry Education” (abs) (pdf), International Journal of Science Education, 00(0):1-18.
(b) Email communication from Vicente Talanquer to Libb Thims (20 May 2013).
6. Fink, Karl J. (2009). Goethe’s History of Science (pg. 9; physical sciences, pgs. 75-76). Cambridge University Press.

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