Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche nsIn existographies, Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900 ACM) (IQ:190|#29) [RGM:30|1,500+] (Murray 4000:15|WP) (Perry 80:7|Li) [HD:44] (FA:138) (GAE:2) [RGA:21|370+] (GPhE:#) [CR:320] was a Polish-ethnicity German-born atheist asoulist philosopher, third generation student of Goethe, via Schopenhauer, noted for his 1882 "god is dead"; his unfinished magnum opus The Will to Power, wherein he grapples, via 1,067 fragments, or numbered "apothegms", as Henry Mencken (1920) calls them, with the "god void" replacement issue, i.e. what is to replace god or belief in the existence of god in the wake of his absence, via modern physical science based reformulated outlines of new classical philosophy. [1]

Justice
In 1883, Nietzsche, supposedly, arrived at his model of the essence of what is “just” following a reading of Georg Schneider’s The Animal Will (188); this is summarized by Martin Heidegger (1943) as follows: [20]

“The essence of what is ‘just’, assigned this essence of justice, is determined by Nietzsche unequivocally in the following note from the summer of 1883, made on the occasion of his reading of a new book by Schneider, Der thierische Wille (Animal Will): ‘What is just = the will, to perpetuate an actual power relation’.”

Schneider argued, supposedly, that “actions arise out of the drives which come into play when the idea of pleasure to be gained arouses them”, in an evolutionary psychology theme, akin to Helvetius. Nietzsche commented (Ѻ) on this: “But the drive itself is what first produces this idea—I say.”

Schopenhauer | Education
In the years 1865 to 1868, Nietzsche encountered the works of Arthur Schopenhauer, thereafter becoming his vicarious intellectual mentor. In 1876, in “Schopenhauer as Educator”, of his Untimely Meditations, Nietzsche had the following to say about his first encounter with Schopenhauer: [13]

“If I am to describe what an event my first glance at Schopenhauer's writings was for me, I must dwell for a moment on an idea which used to come to me in my youth more pressingly, and more frequently, than perhaps any other. When in those days I roved as I pleased through wishes of all kinds, I always believed that sometime fate would take from me the terrible effort and duty of educating myself: I believed that, when the time came, I would discover a philosopher to educate me, a true philosopher whom one could follow without any misgiving because one would have more faith in him than one had in oneself ... Schopenhauer produced upon me, that magical outpouring of the inner strength of one natural creature on to another that follows the first and most fleeting encounter; and when I subsequently analyze that impression I discover it to be compounded of three elements, the elements of his honesty, his cheerfulness and his steadfastness. He is honest because he speaks and writes to himself and for himself, cheerful because he has conquered the hardest task by thinking, and steadfast because he has to be.”

Or, as some recent chronologies have summarized things, in 1865, Nietzsche abandoned the study of theology, lost his Christian faith, and began to read Schopenhauer. [21]

Chemistry | Feelings
In 1878, Nietzsche, in his Human, All Too Human, a book dedicated to Voltaire, opened to aphorism #1: “Chemistry and the Notion of the Feelings”, of 144 aphorisms (eventually expanded to 1,400 aphorisms), declared the following, using the Alexander Harvey (1908) translation, with translation alternatives: [15]

German
English
Chemie der Begriffe und Empfindungen
Die philosophischen Probleme nehmen jetzt wieder fast in allen Stücken dieselbe Form der Frage an, wie vor zweitausend Jahren: wie kann Etwas aus seinem Gegensatz entstehen, zum Beispiel Vernünftiges aus Vernunftlosem, Empfindendes aus Todtem, Logik aus Unlogik, interesseloses Anschauen aus begehrlichem Wollen, Leben für Andere aus Egoismus, Wahrheit aus Irrthümern? Die metaphysische Philosophie half sich bisher über diese Schwierigkeit hinweg, insofern sie die Entstehung des Einen aus dem Andern leugnete und für die höher gewertheten Dinge einen Wunder-Ursprung annahm, unmittelbar aus dem Kern und Wesen des „Dinges an sich“ heraus. Die historische Philosophie dagegen, welche gar nicht mehr getrennt von der Naturwissenschaft zu denken ist, die allerjüngste aller philosophischen Methoden, ermittelte in einzelnen Fällen (und vermuthlich wird diess in allen ihr Ergebniss sein), dass es keine Gegensätze sind, ausser in der gewohnten Übertreibung der populären oder metaphysischen Auffassung und dass ein Irrthum der Vernunft dieser Gegenüberstellung zu Grunde liegt:

nach ihrer Erklärung giebt es, streng gefasst, weder ein unegoistisches Handeln, noch ein völlig interesseloses Anschauen, es sind beides nur Sublimirungen, bei denen das Grundelement fast verflüchtigt erscheint und nur noch für die feinste Beobachtung sich als vorhanden erweist. — Alles, was wir brauchen und was erst bei der gegenwärtigen Höhe der einzelnen Wissenschaften uns gegeben werden kann, ist eine Chemie der moralischen, religiösen, ästhetischen Vorstellungen und Empfindungen, ebenso aller jener Regungen, welche wir im Gross- und Kleinverkehr der Cultur und Gesellschaft, ja in der Einsamkeit an uns erleben: wie, wenn diese Chemie mit dem Ergebniss abschlösse, dass auch auf diesem Gebiete die herrlichsten Farben aus niedrigen, ja verachteten Stoffen gewonnen sind? Werden Viele Lust haben, solchen Untersuchungen zu folgen? Die Menschheit liebt es, die Fragen über Herkunft und Anfänge sich aus dem Sinn zu schlagen: muss man nicht fast entmenscht sein, um den entgegengesetzten Hang in sich zu spüren? —
Chemistry and the Notion of the Feelings
Philosophical problems, in almost all their aspects, present themselves in the same interrogative formula now as they did two thousand years ago: how can a thing develop out of its antithesis, e.g. the reasonable from the non-reasonable, the "animate from the inanimate" ["sentient in the dead", Hollingdale (1986)], the logical from the illogical, altruism from egoism, disinterestedness from greed, truth from error? The metaphysical philosophy formerly steered itself clear of this difficulty to such extent as to repudiate the evolution of one thing from another and to assign a miraculous origin to what it deemed highest and best, due to the very nature and being of the "thing-in-itself." The historical philosophy, on the other hand, which can no longer be viewed apart from physical science, the youngest of all philosophical methods, discovered experimentally (and its results will probably always be the same) that there is no antithesis whatever, except in the usual exaggerations of popular or metaphysical comprehension, and that an error of the reason is at the bottom of such contradiction.

There is, strictly speaking, neither unselfish conduct, nor a wholly disinterested point of view. Both are simply sublimations in which the basic element seems almost evaporated and betrays its presence only to the keenest observation. All that we need and that could possibly be given us in the present state of development of the sciences, is a chemistry of the ‘moral’, ‘religious’, ‘aestheticconceptions and feeling, as well as of those emotions which we experience in the affairs, great and small, of society and civilization, and which we are sensible of even in solitude. But what if this chemistry established the fact that, even in its domain, the most magnificent results were attained with the basest and most despised ingredients? Would many feel disposed to continue such investigations? Mankind loves to put by the questions of its origin and beginning: must one not be almost inhuman in order to follow the opposite course?”

This is one of the earliest examples of a two cultures calls, specifically for the need for the science of: human chemistry, social chemistry, or physicochemical sociology, or some namesake variant thereof.

In 1888, Nietzsche, in one of his Will to Power fragments , expanded on the above, with the following discerning logic:

“In the chemical world, the sharpest perception of the difference between forces reigns. With the organic world, imprecision and appearance begin.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), Will to Power; cited by Gilles Deleuze (1983), commented on by John Protevi (2001) [16]

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Goethe
Nietzsche, in his The Anti-Christ (§57), according to Walter Kaufmann (Ѻ)(Ѻ), borrowed the phase “courtesy of the heart” from Goethe’s Elective Affinities (Die Wahlverwandtschaften), as follows:

“There is a courtesy of the heart; it is related to love. It gives rise to the most comfortable of external behavior.”
— Johann Goethe (1809), Elective Affinities (Die Wahlverwandtschaften) (P2C5, pg. 201)

“When the exceptional human being treats the mediocre more tenderly than himself and his peers, this is not mere courtesy of the heart—it is simply his duty”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§57)

Nietzsche, of note, seemed to believe that he was a better writer than Goethe; in letter to a friend, he wrote: [10]

“I have brought German language to a state of perfection. After Luther and Goethe, a third step had to be taken.”

He goes on, in the letter, to state that his shaping of the German language was “superior to his in strength and manliness, without becoming, as Luther did, loutish.”

In 2015, Julian Young, in her “Nietzsche’s Scientific Community: Elective Affinities” (Ѻ), devoted much discussion to the influence of Goethe on Nietzsche.

Posthumous genius
See main: Posthumous genius
Nietzsche, seemingly, was keen to his own genius and to the fact that he was well ahead of his time. The following, mentioned, in part, in a letter to Carl Fuchs, shortly before the composition of Ecce Homo (1888), is testament to this: (Ѻ)

“My time has not yet come, some people are born posthumously. I write for a species of men that do not yet exist.”

Sudanese-born American philosopher Monydit Malieth, citing this quote, claims that somewhere Nietzsche prophesied that his words would not begin to be understood until after the year 2000. [10]

Education
In 1864, Nietzsche enrolled in the University of Bonn to study theology and classical philology. In 1865, he transferred to the University of Leipzig, to pursue a doctorate in philology. It was here, according to atheism historian Michael Palmer, that Nietzsche encountered the atheist philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer. [9] In 1868, at the age of 24, he became a professor of at the University of Basil, remaining there for 10-years.

Convalescence | Hiatus period
See main: Genius hiatus effect
In 1870 to 1871, during the Prussian War, Nietzsche, while working as a hospital attendant, per resumption of his military service, contracted diphtheria and dysentery; in 1879, his health had deteriorated sufficiently so that resigned from his post at Basel, then aged 34, after which, from 1880 until his final collapse in 1889, he led a nomadic reaction existence (life), subsiding off his university pension, traveling around the spas of Europe, during which time he wrote the bulk of his work. [9]

Thermodynamics
Nietzsche advocated the conservation of force models, particularly of Friedrich Mohr and Robert Mayer, whose books he read in 1873 and 1881. [4]

Will to power
See also: Free will
In 1865, Nietzsche discovered the work of Arthur Schopenhauer and his emphasis on “will” and the concept of “will to live”, and, the following year, through a reading of Friedrich Lange’s 1865 History of Materialism, discovered the work of Roger Boscovich and his Theory of Natural Philosophy, and through these went on to develop a “centers of force” (see: atomic theory) theory of “will to power” as the embodiment of what Nietzsche believed was the main driving force in man. [2]

In American philosopher William Plank’s 2002 book The Quantum Nietzsche: the Will to Power and the Nature of Dissipative Systems, he puts a modern-day reinterpretation of Nietzsche’s 1883 theory of “will to power” in terms of the quantum theory, particularly the work of physicists Irish-born American John Bell and American-born Brit David Bohm, and thermodynamics, specifically using the Prigoginean dissipative structure logic. [5]
Nietzsche personal library
A photo of some of the books in the personal library in the home of Nietzsche. (Ѻ)

Atheism
In 1882, Nietzsche famously proclaimed that "god is dead", a pronouncement that can be said to mark the start of the modern atheism movement or popular disbelief in the existence of god.

Uberman
In 1883, Nietzsche postulated the notion of the “uberman” (1883), a person, according to Bertrand Russell, with an IQ of at least 180, who would eventually become the replacement model for the “idea of god” (theory of God); role models of whom, according to Nietzsche, are: Socrates (IQ=160), Caesar (IQ=170), Da Vinci (IQ=205), Michelangelo (IQ=180), Shakespeare (IQ=185), Goethe (IQ=230), and Napoleon (IQ=175), or a person who would become a synthesis of these eight intellectual giants (IQavg=186). [3]

Nihilism
Nietzsche devotes a considerable amount of effort to a critique and dissection of the concept or possibility of the rise of nihilism, possibly as outlined earlier by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, particularly within the framework of the decline of Christianity. [4] The following might be an example of Nietzsche’s nihilism conception: [7]

“This spirit affirmatively takes into itself the most painful aspects of existence. For this spirit, suffering is not a means to a transcendent, holy existence, because being in this world is itself holy enough to justify a tremendous amount of suffering. He can smile in the face of the most terrible thought—meaningless, aimless existence recurring eternally.”

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Eternal recurrence
In 1886 to 1888, Nietzsche penned a number of fragmented notes on eternal recurrence. [6] The following are a few fragments:

“The two most extreme modes of thought—the mechanistic and the Platonic—are reconciled in the eternal recurrence: both as ideals.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1887-1888), Will to Power (§1061)

“The law of conservation of energy demands eternal recurrence.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1886-1887), Will to Power (§1063)

The gist of this, noting his citation of William Thomson and heat death (§1066), seems to be Nietzsche’s effort to grapple with eschatology, i.e. whether the universe is cyclic or running down.

Ecce Homo
In 1888, Nietzsche published his Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is, the Latin term ecce homo meaning “behold the man” — term famously employed (Ѻ) in the Bible to unveil the bound and crowned (with thorns) Jesus Christ to the crowd before his crucifixion — wherein Nietzsche tells that the following comment by Stendhal is the best atheist joke: [11]

God's only excuse is that he does not exist.”

Ecce Homo, to note, is the last original book written by Nietzsche before his final years of insanity, and in which he gives commentary on his own work. [12] Translator Walter Kaufmann declares it “one of the treasures of the world.” [9]

Nietzsche-Dostoyevsky horse
A 2006 Tweet (Ѻ) of the Dostoyevsky-Nietzsche horse beating connection, a dream of Dostoyevsky as a child and the way Nietzsche met his reaction end, via mental breakdown.
Reaction end
On 3 Jan 1889, Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown, after he witnessed the flogging of a horse at the opposite end of a piazza; he is reported to have run over to the horse and held it in his arm to protect it before he collapsed to the ground. He never recovered, dereacting (dying) the following year.

Here, we note that Fyodor Dostoyevsky, the only “psychologist” about whom Nietzsche commented in 1887 that he had “anything to learn”, in his Crime and Punishment (1866), has a compelling opening scene of the lead character Raskolnikov dreaming about “peasants beating a horse”, which is said to be symbolic of at least five symbolic human maladies allegorized later in the book; such as: [17]

● The horse suggests the drunken young lady being stalked by the man.
● The man stands for the cruel peasants, mentioned a few pages earlier.
● The horse can represent the pawnbroker, who is beaten to death.
● The horse could also represent Raskolnikov’s sister, who is controlled by Svidrigailov.
● The horse could stand for Raskolnikov’s conscience, which has been beating down by his crime.

It is therefore possible, accordingly, as some have pointed out, e.g. as shown adjacent, that the underlying meaning of Dostoyevsky’s horse beating symbolism, e.g. the difficultly of defining right from wrong and or describing uncaught punishment amid a nihilist framework, worked to trigger a irrecoverable break in Nietzsche’s strained mind.

Collected works
See also: Power center
Nietzsche penned some 5,000+ pages in total on his thoughts and theories, estimated as to be 18-volumes (Ѻ) to 50-volumes (Ѻ) of collected works set; the magnum opus of which, slated as Will to Power (see: will to power), however, following his 1889 breakdown, never reached complete fruition, and was only published posthumously as found near-to-finished; a portion of his collected works, shown adjacent. (Ѻ) A 30-volume complete works set in German was published in 1967. [8]

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Nietzsche:

“Most men, the herd, have never tasted solitude. They leave father and mother, but only to crawl to a wife and quietly succumb to new warmth and new ties. They are never alone, they never commune with themselves.”
Hermann Hesse (1919), Zarathustra’s Return

Nietzsche’s real forefather was Heraclitus. It is in Heraclitus that one finds the germ of his primary view of the universe a view, to wit, that sees it, not as moral phenomenon, but as mere aesthetic representation.”
Henry Mencken (1920), “Introduction” to Anti-Christ (pg. 4)

Nietzsche is one of the first thinkers with a comprehensive philosophy to complete the break with religion.”
— Walter Kaufmann (1954), The Portable Nietzsche [19]

Nietzsche is the supreme philosopher when it comes to the topic of morality. His critique of religion is easily the most comprehensive attack on religiosity of all time; therefore making him the greatest atheist that has ever lived. Epicurus is the first great atheist in history; Schopenhauer is the first modern atheist; and Nietzsche is the greatest atheist of all time. Albert Camus called Nietzsche the ‘most famous of God’s assassins’.”
Monydit Malieth (2013), The Future Affects the Past [10]

Nietzsche’s philosophy is an extension of Schopenhauer’s philosophy.”
Monydit Malieth (2013), The Future Affects the Past [10]

Nietzsche. You don't need anything other after this.”
— Jan Andhisfiets (2015), post response (Ѻ) to query “where to start with philosophy?” 52+ thumbs up, Jun

Quotes | By | Dated
The following are noted dated quotes by Nietzsche:

“If you wish to seek peace of mind and happiness, then believe. If you wish to be a disciple of truth, then investigate.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1865), “Letter to Sister”; quoted in 2016 BBC “Modern Genius” documentary (Netflix)

“It sometimes seems to me I am looking at things and people like someone who is long dead—they move, terrify, and delight me, but I am quite distant from them.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1881), “Postcard to Paul Ree”, Jul 6 [14]

Historia abscondita. — Every great human being exerts a retroactive force: for his sake all of history is placed in the balance again, and a thousand secrets of the past crawl out of their hiding places — into his sunshine. There is no way of telling what may yet become part of history. Perhaps the past remains essentially undiscovered! So many retroactive forces are still needed!”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1882), The Gay Science; cited by Alex Kierkegaard (Ѻ)(Ѻ)(Ѻ)

“Is man merely a mistake of god's? Or god merely a mistake of man's?”
— Frederick Nietzsche (1888), Twilight of the Idols (Ѻ)(Ѻ), Sep 3

“The Christian church has left nothing untouched by its depravity; it has turned every value into worthlessness, and every truth into a lie, and every integrity into baseness of soul.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Antichrist [9]

“With gloomy caution I pass through whole millenniums of this madhouse of a world, call it ‘Christianity’, ‘Christian faith’ or the ‘Christian church’, as you will—I take care not to hold mankind responsible for its lunacies.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§37)

“It is indecent to be a Christian today. And here my disgust begins. I look about me: not a word survives of what was once called ‘truth’; we can no longer bear to hear a priest pronounce the word. Even a man who makes the most modest pretensions to integrity must know that a theologian, a priest, a pope of today not only errs when he speaks, but actually lies—and that he no longer escapes blame for his lie through ‘innocence’ or ‘ignorance’.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§37)

“In the world of ideas of the Christian there is nothing that so much as touches reality: on the contrary, one recognizes an instinctive hatred of reality as the motive power, the only motive power at the bottom of Christianity.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§39)

Paul simply shifted the center of gravity of that whole life to a place behind this existence—in the lie of the “risenJesus. What was the only part of Christianity that Muhammed borrowed later on? Paul’s invention, his device for establishing priestly tyranny and organizing the mob: the belief in the immortality of the soulthat is to say, the doctrine of “judgment.... That every man, because he has an “immortal soul,” is as good as every other man; that in an infinite universe of things the “salvation” of every individual may lay claim to eternal importance; that insignificant bigots and the three-fourths insane may assume that the laws of nature are constantly suspended in their behalf.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§42-43)

“Such a religion as Christianity, which does not touch reality at a single point and which goes to pieces the moment reality asserts its rights at any point, must be inevitably the deadly enemy of the “wisdom of this world,” which is to say, of science.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§47)

“The experience of all disciplined and profound minds teaches the contrary. Man has had to fight for every atom of the truth, and has had to pay for it almost everything that the heart, that human love, that human trust cling to. Greatness of soul is needed for this business: the service of truth is the hardest of all services.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§50)

“The fact that faith, under certain circumstances, may work for blessedness, but that this blessedness produced by an idée fixe by no means makes the idea itself true, and the fact that faith actually moves no mountains, but instead raises them up where there were none before: all this is made sufficiently clear by a walk through a lunatic asylum.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§51); quote is a Goethe paraphrase

“Faith means the will to avoid known what is true.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§52)

“Conviction as a means: one may achieve a good deal by means of a conviction. A grand passion makes use of and uses up convictions; it does not yield to them—it knows itself to be sovereign.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§54)

“A law-book never recites the utility, the grounds, the casuistical antecedents of a law: for if it did so it would lose the imperative tone, the “thou shall,” on which obedience is based.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§57)

Christianity is the formula for exceeding and summing up the subterranean cults of all varieties, that of Osiris, that of the Great Mother, that of Mithras, for instance: in his discernment of this fact the genius of Paul showed itself. This was his revelation at Damascus: he grasped the fact that he needed the belief in immortality in order to rob “the world” of its value, that the concept of “hell” would master Rome—that the notion of a “beyond” is the death of life.... Nihilist and Christian: they rhyme in German, and they do more than rhyme.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), The Anti-Christ (§58)

“Within my writings, my Zarathustra stands by itself. I have, with this book, given mankind the greatest gift that has ever been given it.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), Ecce Homo (pg. 4)

“My father died at age thirty-six. In the same year in which his life declined, mine too declined; in the thirty-sixty year of my life, I arrived at the lowest point of my vitality – I still lived, but without being able to see three paces in front of me. At that time – it was 1879 – I relinquished my Basel professorship, lived through the summer like a shadow in St Moritz and the following winter, the most sunless of my life, as a shadow in Naumburg.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), Ecce Homo (pg. 8); compare James Maxwell (died age 48 from stomach cancer; same age and disease as his mother)

“I am a pure-blooded Polish nobleman, in whom there is no drop of bad blood, least of all German.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), Ecce Homo (pg. 11)

God, immortality of the soul, redemption, the beyond, all them concepts to which I have given no attention and no time, not even as a child – perhaps I was never childish enough for it? I have absolutely no knowledge of atheism as an outcome of reasoning, still less as an event; with me it is obvious by instinct. I am too inquisitive, too questionable, too high spirited to rest content with a crude answer. God is a crude answer, a piece of indelicacy against us thinkers – fundamentally even a crude prohibition to us: you shall not think!”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), Ecce Homo (pg. 21)

“Another form of sagacity and self-defense consists in ‘reacting’ as seldom as possible and withdrawing from situations and relationships in which one would be condemned as it were to suspend one’s ‘freedom’, one’s initiative, and become a mere reagent.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), Ecce Homo (pg. 33); see: bachelorhood and genius

“I am not a man, I am dynamite. There is nothing in me of a founder of religion. Religions are affairs of the rabble. I have to wash my hands after contact with religious people.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), Ecce Homo (pg. 96)

“Have I been understood? What defines me, what sets me apart from all the rest of the mankind, is that I have ‘unmasked’ Christian morality. The concept of ‘god’ invented as the antithetical concept to life. The concept of ‘soul’, ‘spirit’, finally even ‘immortal soul’, invented so as to despise the body. The concept of ‘sin’ invented together with the instrument of torture which goes with it, the concept of ‘free will’, so as to confuse the instincts, so as to make mistrust of the instincts into second nature!”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1888), Ecce Homo (pgs. 101-104)

Quotes | By | Undated
The following are noted dated unquotes by Nietzsche:

“When one speaks of ‘humanity’, the idea is fundamental that this is something which separates and distinguishes man from nature. In reality, however, there is no such separation: ‘natural’ qualities and those called truly ‘human’ are inseparably grown together. Man, in his highest and noblest capacities, is wholly nature and embodies its uncanny dual character. Those of his abilities which are terrifying and considered inhuman may even be the fertile soil out of which alone all humanity can grow into impulse, deed and work.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (c.1880), from an early work [18]

“The struggle between science and religion is like the primordial struggle between bird and gravity.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (c.1885) [10]

“As an old artilleryman, I bring out my heavy guns; I am afraid that I am shooting the history of mankind into two halves. I sometimes look at my hands now with some distrust, because I seem to have the destiny of mankind in the palm of my hand.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (c.1885) [10]
Nietzsche collected works (segment)
Some of Nietzsche's circa 30 volume collected works set and his posthumous The Will to Power, derived from his remaining notes by his sister. [9]

References
1. McCarthy, John A. (2006). Remapping Reality: Chaos and Creativity in Science and Literature (Goethe – Nietzsche – Grass) (thermodynamics, 12+ pgs; Nietzsche, pg. 239). Rodopi.
2. (a) Will to power – Wikipedia.
(b) Nietzsche, Friedrich (1901). The Will to Power. 1968 Engl. Trans. Vintage.
3. Christopher Harding – Olympiq High IQ Society.
4. Schutte, Ofelia. (1986). Beyond Nihilism: Nietzsche Without Masks (pg. 205). University of Chicago Press.
5. Plank, William. (2002). The Quantum Nietzsche: the Will to Power and the Nature of Dissipative Systems (ch. 7: Human Reality as a Thermodynamics Model, pgs. 33-34). iUniverse.
6. Friedrich Nietzsche (eternal return) – Wikipedia.
7. (a) Nietzsche, Friedrich. (2012). Nietzsche’s Notebook of 1887-1888 (translator: Daniel Ferrer) (Ѻ). Publisher.
(b) Myers, David B. (1986). Marx and Nietzsche (pg. 45). University Press of America.
8. Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1967). Kritische Gesamtausgabe Werke (editors: G. Colli and M. Montinari). Berlin: de Gruyter.
9. Palmer, Michael. (2013). Atheism for Beginners: a Coursebook for Schools and Colleges (§: Freidrich Nietzsche, pgs. 205-206). Lutterworth Press.
10. Malieth, Monydit (aka Tonnerre). (2013). The Future Affects the Past: What Destination is Time Rushing To? (bird and gravity, pg. 15; greatest atheist, pg. 57; palm of my hand, pg. 53; Nietzsche's philosophy, pg. 61; born posthumously, pg. 76; year 2000, pg. 77; Goethe, pg. 77). Red Lead Books.
11. (a) Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1888). Ecce Home (pg. 39). Dover, 2012.
(b) Malieth, Monydit (aka Tonnerre). (2013). The Future Affects the Past: What Destination is Time Rushing To? (pg. 26). Red Lead Books.
12. Ecce Homo (book) – Wikipedia.
13. Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1876). “Schopenhauer as Educator”, in: Untimely Meditations:III (translator: R.J. Hollingdale) (Ѻ). Publisher.
(b) Malieth, Monydit (aka Tonnerre). (2013). The Future Affects the Past: What Destination is Time Rushing To? (pg. 62). Red Lead Books.
14. Bishop, Paul and Stephenson, Roger H. (2005). Friedrich Nietzsche and Weimar Classicism (pg. 89). Camden House.
15. (a) Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1878). Human, All Too Human: a Book for Free Spirits (txt) (translator: Alexander Harvey) (§:Of first and last things, pg. #). Charles H. Kerr & Co., 1908.
(b) Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1878). Human, All Too Human: a Book for Free Spirits (translator: Reginald Hollingdale; Introduction: Richard Schacht) (§:Of first and last things, pg. #). Cambridge University Press, 1986.
(c) Human, All Too Human – Wikipedia.
(d) Kaufmann, Walter A. (1950). Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist (§7.2:219). Princeton University Press, 2008.
16. (a) Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1888). Will to Power (not available in English translation; found in French edition at II 86 and 87). Publisher.
(b) Deleuze, Gilles. (1983). Nietzsche and Philosophy (49n3, 204n5). Publisher.
(c) Protevi, John. (2001). Political Physics: Deleuze, Derrida and the Body Politic (pg. 62). Bloomsbury Academic.
17. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. (1866). Crime and Punishment (editors: Paul Moliken and Lisa Miller) (pgs. 10-11). Prestwick House.
18. White, Daniel R. and Hellerich, Gert. (1998). “The Ecological Self: Humanity and Nature in Nietzsche and Goethe” (abs), The European Legacy: Toward New Paradigms, 3(3):39-61.
19. (a) Kaufmann, Walter. (1954). The Portable Nietzsche. Viking Press.
(b) Haught, James A. (1996). 2000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People with the Courage to Doubt (§: Nietzsche, pgs. 177-79). Prometheus.
20. (a) W.W. (Grossoktav, XIII, n. 462, pg. 205.
(b) Heidegger, Martin. (1943). “Parmenides and Heraclitus”, lecture course, University of Freidburg, Winter Semester; published as volume 54 of Collected Works; in: Parmenides (translators: Andre Schuwer and Richard Rojcewicz) (just, pg. 53). Indiana University Press, 1992.
21. Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1888). Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is (translator and notes: R.J. Hollingdale; introduction: Michael Tanner) (Chronology, pgs. xx-xxii) (Ѻ). Penguin.

Further reading
● Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1882). The Gay Science (translator: Walter Kaufmann). Vintage Books.
● Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1883-85). Thus Spoke Zarathustra (translator and introduction: R.J. Hollingdale). Penguin, 2003.
● Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1886). Beyond Good and Evil (translator: Helen Zimmern; editor: Oscar Levy; introduction: Costica Bradatan). Barnes & Noble. 2007.
● Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1887). On the Genealogy of Morals (translator: Michael Scarpitti; Introduction and Notes: Robert Holub). Penguin, 2013.
● Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1887). On the Genealogy of Morals (translator: Horus Samuel). Dover, 2003.
● Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1888). Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is (translator and notes: R.J. Hollingdale; introduction: Michael Tanner) (Ѻ). Penguin.
● Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1888). The Antichrist (translation and Introduction: Henry Mencken) (txt). A.A. Knopf, 1920.
● Nietzsche, Friedrich. (1888). Will to Power: An Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values (translator: Walter Kaufmann and Reginald Hollingdale; editor: Walter Kaufmann) (pdf) (txt). Random House, 2011.
● Plank, William. (2002). The Quantum Nietzsche: the Will to Power and the Nature of Dissipative Systems (ch. 7: Human Reality as a Thermodynamics Model, pgs. 33-34). iUniverse.

External links
Friedrich Nietzsche – Wikipedia.
The Best Friedrich Nietzsche Books – Ranker.com.

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