Gaspar Schott

In existographies, Gaspar Schott (1608-1666) (CR:33), aka "Kaspar Schottus", "Jesuit Schottus" (Boyle, 1660), "P. Gasparis Schotti" (Ѻ), or “Caspar Schott” (Shapin, 1985), was a German mathematical physicist noted for his 1657 book Mechanics of Gas Hydraulics (Mechanica Hydraulico-Pneumatic), in which he detailed the experimental work on vacuums, vacuum bulbs, vacuum pumps, and the Magdeburg hemispheres of German engineer Otto Guericke.

Guericke | Pneumatico-Hydraulical Mechanics
In 1654, Schott had come to learn about the vacuum experimental work of Otto Guericke from Johann Philipp who had obtained a set of vacuum equipment from Guericke, following the Imperial Assemby at Regensburg, who then gave this equipment to Schott to test and study.

In 1657, Schott, in his Pneumatic-Mechanical Hydraulics (Mechanica Hydraulico-Pneumatic), dedicates an appendix with illustrations and description of the the experimental work on vacuums, vacuum bulbs, vacuum pumps, and the Magdeburg hemispheres of German engineer Otto Guericke. [5] The following shows the how this publication became a vehicle for the transmission of Guericke's ideas around the continent: [8]

Guericke map 2
Guericke, in respect to this timeline map of Guericke’s movements and influence, is said to have conducted ten experiments while in Regensburg, according to a conjectured list made by Hans Schimank (1936), based on the two published accounts by Gaspar Schott (1657; 1663), as reviewed by Thomas Conlon (2011), such as: [7]

1. The crushing of an air-tight vessel as air was withdrawn from it; the air being allowed to expand into a previously evacuated receiver.
2. A number of men were only able to pull an airtight piston halfway up a copper cylinder
3. Extraction of air using a vacuum pump
4. Extinction of a flame in a sealed vessel
5. Raising water vertically inside a vacuum bulb against its natural tendency to fall


Boyle and Huygens
Schott, and his publication, acted as a sort of liaison between the work of Guericke and Christiaan Huygens and Robert Boyle, who after reading his book began to make their own vacuum-based instruments, Boyle directing the construction of the pneumatical engine (air pump and vacuum pump), built in 1658 by his employee Robert Hooke, and Huygens, working with Denis Papin, making some of the first working gunpowder engines, wherein the explosion would act to create the vacuum. [2]

The results of Boyle and Hooke were published in the 1660 New Experiments on the Spring of the Air, which lead to the 1662 second edition statement of the Boyle’s law, the first of the gas laws, that the product of the pressure and the volume of the body of gas is constant, when the particle count and temperature are held constant.

In c.1660-1661, Schott had come to learn of Boyle's vacuum experiments from Philip Ernest Vegelin, who by late 1661 or early 1662, sent Schott a copy of Boyle's New Experiments on the Spring of the Air. [4]

Technical Curiosities
In 1664, Schott, in his Technical Curiosities, published a diagram of the Berti vacuum experiment.

Schott also, following an entire chapter to Guericke's vacuum work, devoted chapter two to Boyle's vacuum work. [4]

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Schott:

“As soon as the Reverend Fathers of the Society of Jesus and the professors of the public University of Werzburg, under the chairman-ship of the same Eminent Elector, had verified these experiments of mine, they wrote out a draft of their findings and communicated them to the scholars in Rome and elsewhere and at the same time sought their opinions. Among this group of particular importance was the Reverend Father Kaspar Schott, Professor of Mathematics at the same university, who wrote me regarding the experiments and sought more information about them. Ultimately, he added, as an Appendix to his book, The Art of Mechanical Hydraulic Pneumatics (De Arte Mechanica Hydraulico-Pneumatica), published in 1657, these ‘new experiments’ of mine and called them "Magdeburgica", and these were set up in type so that they might be available for many to read and study.”
Otto Guericke (1672), New Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum of Space (pg. xix)

Quotes | By
The following are quotes by Schott:

“These and many other considerations are adduced on both sides of this question. Melchior Cornaeus (Ѻ), professor of theology at our own university of Wurzburg, has learned and at some length argued these matters in a discussion of his own dedicated to this topic. On several occasions he and I observed and carefully scrutinized the experiments in question. When I first saw them, I sent an account to Kircher at Rome and to some other friends and scholars, asking their opinion of them. All of them sided with the Aristotelians against the ‘vacuists’. Among the replies I received was this from Kircher.”
— Gaspar Schott (c.1656), summary of communications on Otto Guericke’s vacuum experiments [4]

“I do not hesitate to speak openly and declare without qualification that I have never seen nor heard of any experiments of this kind more worthy of admiration nor read nor even imagined such, and I do not believe that the sun ever shone upon anything like them from time immemorial. And I might add, this is the judgment of powerful princes and learned scholars as well, with whom I have been in communication as regards these experiments, etc.”
— Gaspar Schott (1664), Technical Curiosities (pg. 3) [3][6]

See also
Schott diagrams

1. Schott, Gaspar. (1657). Mechanica hydraulico-pneumatica (§:Experimentum Novum Magdeburgicum, pgs. 441-88). Publisher.
2. Wilson, George. (1849). “On the Early History of the Air-Pump in England”, The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, (pgs. 330-54).
3. Guericke, Otto and Schott, Kaspar. (1672). Otto Guericke’s New Experiments on (as they are called) on the Magdeburg vacuum space (Ottonis De Guericke Experimenta Nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de Vacuo Spatio) (sun quote, pg. xx; Piston tug-of-war diagram, pg. 109). Janssonius a Waesberge.
4. Conlon, Thomas. (2011). Thinking About Nothing: Otto von Guericke and the Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum (pg. 67; Vegelin, pg. 74). Saint Austin Press/LuLu.
5. (a) Schott, Gaspar. (1657). Mechanical Hydraulic Pneumatics (Mechanics of Gas Hydraulics) (Guericke, pgs. 441-488 ). Würtzburg.
(b) Findlen, Paula. (2004). Athanasius Kircher: the Last Man Who Knew Everything (Guericke, pg. 77). Psychology Press.
6. The First Vacuum Pump –
7. (a) Schimank, Hans. (1936). Otto von Guericke: Mayer of Magdeburg: a German Statesman, Thinker, and Researcher (Otto von Guericke: Burgermeister von Magdeburg. Ein deutscher Staatsman, Denker und Forscher) (name change, pg. 69). Publisher.
(b) Conlon, Thomas. (2011). “Air Pressure and the Vacuum” (Ѻ), Otto Guericke, Wikipedia Edit, Oct 22.
8. (a) Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, Simon. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (map, pg. 228). Princeton University Press, 2011.
(b) Hebra, Alex. (2010). The Physics of Metrology: All About Instruments – From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks (performed in Ferdinand III’s court in Vienna in 1657, pg. 181). Springer.

Further reading
● Schott, Gaspar. (1664). Technical Curiosities, Volume One (§: Book One: Magdeburg Miracle – Five Magdeburg Pneumatical Experiments Exhibited, pgs. 1-86) (Technica Curiosa, Volume One (§: Liber Primus: Mirabilia Magdeburgica, Five Experimenta Pnevmatica Magdeburgi Exhibita, pgs. 1-)). Publisher.
● Schott, Gaspar. (1664). Technica Curiosa, Volume Two. Publisher.
● Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, Simon. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Caspar Schott, pg. 231). Princeton University Press, 2011.

External links
Gaspar Schott – Wikipedia.
Correspondence of Caspar Schott (178 letters) – Early Modern Letters Online.

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