Geniuses on the soul

In geniuses on, geniuses on the soul refers to what the big standout thinkers, from among the top 500 geniuses, have opinionated and or theorized concerning the nature of the "soul", the linchpin of the majority of the world's morality, meaning, and afterlife theories.

Overview
The following are the main genius soul theorists, ordered chronologically:

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Genius

Synopsis

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Pherecydes on the soulc.530BCThe originator of the concept of the "soul" (Cicero, c.55BC); teacher of Pythagoras.
1.Pythagoras on the soul
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2.Plato on the soul c.300BC
3.Aristotle on the soul322BC After penning his On the Soul, a 52-page treatise on historical views about the nature of the soul, surmised his view that “happiness is the settling of the soul in its most appropriate spot.” (Ѻ)
4.Lucretius on soul 55BCAsserted that the soul is made of a certain type of atoms that have a "swerve" (or clinamen) property, which thus gives humans the property of free will based choice. [1]
5.Pliny on the soul

6.Da Vinci on the soul
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7.Descartes on the soul
Posited, in a dualistic sense, that the soul resides in the pineal gland; see: Elizabeth Stuart (1643).
8.Spinoza on the soul

9.Leibniz on the soul
Posited, in a monistic sense, that the soul is comprised of monads, or something to this effect.
10.Newton on the soul


La Mettrie on the soul1745In his The Natural History of the Soul, and related materialism-advocating works, was first to openly deny and ridicule soul theory as nonsense.
11.Maupertuis on the soul 1751See: Maupertuis-Diderot debate.

Holbach on the soul1770
12.Goethe on the soul1813
[1830]
Building on Aristotle and Leibniz, in part, asserted that he soul is the “initial points from which the animation of the whole proceeds.”
13.Schopenhauer on the soul

14.Haeckel on the soul
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15.Maxwell on the soul1850
[1878]

16.Edison on the soul1910Stated: “after death the force, or power, we call ‘will’ undoubtedly endures; but it endures in this world, not in the next. And so with the thing we call life, or the soul—mere speculative terms for a material thing which, under given conditions, drives this way or that. It too endures in this world, not the other.”
17.Einstein on the soul

18.Freud on the soul

19.Teilhard on the soul

20.Heisenberg on soul
Speculated that the world needs a new electromagnetic "soul compass" (Ѻ)
21.Beg on the soul
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Quotes | Related
The following are related quotes:
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Cicero said the opinion about the immortality of the soul was first introduced by Pherecydes of Syros in the time of King Tullus (others attribute it to Thales, others to others). It is the part of the human science that is treated with the most reservation and doubt. The firmest dogmatists are forced to take cover in the shadow of the academy. No one knows what Aristotle taught about the subject (or even all of the ancients in general who handle it with unsteady belief) and he left it to his successors to battle it out about his opinion on the matter. It is marvelous how those who are stubborn in this opinion about the immortality of our souls come up short and are powerless to establish it by their human powers. They are the dreams of a man who teaches nothing, but is hopeful. As Cicero said: ‘dreams are not of a teacher, but of the wisher’ (somnia sunt non docentus, sed optantis) (Academia, 2:38).”
Michel Montaigne (c.1590), Essays (§2:12); cited by Jean Meslier (1729) in The Testament (pg. 570) [2]

“Before soul beliefs were molded into their modern form, conceptions of the soul had to pass through the sieves of history’s greatest minds. While most people were content to just believe in souls, the greatest philosophers began to reflect on them in a more systematic fashion, profoundly altering the course of their evolution.”
Julien Musolino (2015), The Soul Fallacy (pg. 43)

See also
Do atoms have souls?
Soul theorist

References
1. Hecht, Jennifer M. (2003). Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas (Plato, pgs. 14-15; Lucretius, pg. 147). HarperOne.
2. (a) Montaigne, Michel. (c.1590). Essays (§2.12). Publisher.
(b) Meslier, Jean. (1729). Testament: Memoir of the Thoughts and Sentiments of Jean Meslier (translator: Michael Shreve; preface: Michel Onfray) (pg. 570). Prometheus Books.

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