Gibbs energy

Gibbs energy (two phases)
A comparing the “Gibbs energy” (i.e. Gibbs free energy) or rather Gibbs energy surfaces of two minerals, α and β, both with the same composition, from the lecture notes of Bradley Hacker (Ѻ), showing that the mineral with the lowest energy is stable, namely: α is stable under some P-T conditions, and β is stable under different conditions. [3]
In science, Gibbs energy, shorthand “Gibbs free energy” (Edward Guggenheim, 1933) or Gibbs function, as compared to Helmholtz energy (i.e. Helmholtz free energy), is a term tending to be employed and or advocated (by some) in more advanced treatises and publications, wherein the historical importance of the distinction between Helmholtzian 1882 phraseology of “free energy” and “bound energy” is deemed unimportant, or wherein the shorter term seems apt, e.g. the phrase “Gibbs energy vs Gods energy” in God is dead article, or the term “molar Gibbs energy”, in recent physical chemistry treatises, etc. [1]

It is difficult to say who exactly first began to explicitly use the term “Gibbs energy”.

In 1900, the term or phrase “Gibbs energy surface” was being employed, by physical chemist J.E. Trevor, in his book review (Ѻ) of Edgar Buckingham’s 1900 An Outline of the Theory of Thermodynamics. [2]

In 1936, Frederick Donnan and or Arthur Haas, in their A Commentary on the Scientific Writings of J. Willard Gibbs, where using the phrase “Gibbs energy function”. (Ѻ)

In 1951, the following is found: (Ѻ)

“This quantity, the free energy, has come more recently to be known as the Gibbs energy after the famous mathematical physicist, Willard Gibbs. Every chemical element and compound has a certain amount of enthalpy (H) and entropy (S) at...”

In 1969, Daniel Stull, Edgar Westrum, and Gerard Sinke, in their The Chemical Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, stated things as follows: (Ѻ)

“… constant pressure conditions are more generally encountered by chemists, G is the more useful function and will be called simply the Gibbs energy. It should be noted that in the past F has been used chiefly in the United States and Russia; in European and other countries G has been commonly used to denote theGibbs energy (see discussion in Chapter 8), …”

In 1970, Defore Ginnings, of the National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., in his chapter section “General Principles and Terminologies”, in reference to heat, stated the following: (Ѻ)

“The term entropy, S, applied to calorimetric experiments, is defined simply by the relation dS = δql T, in which dS is the change in entropy in a reversible process and δq the heat involved at the temperature T. The term free energy has been used for many years to include the Gibbs energy, defined as H — TS or Helmholtz energy, defined as E — TS. Of these two quantities, the Gibbs energy has been used more frequently.

There has not been international agreement on symbols for these two quantities [see: characteristic function notation table]. European textbooks have used the symbol F and the name free energy or Helmholtz energy for the function, E — TS. These books also use the symbol G and names such as Gibbs function, Gibbs energy, or free enthalpy for the function, H TS. On the other hand, in America, the quantity, H — TS, has been represented by the symbol F, and the quantity, E TS, by the symbol A. As a result of the international confusion on these symbols, I.U.P.A.C. has recommended that the function, H TS, be named the Gibbs energy, represented by the symbol G, and the function E — TS be named the Helmholtz energy, represented by the symbol A. This notation will be used throughout in this book. A summary of notation used is given in the Appendix.”

In 2006, in Wikipedia, there was an extensive debate and discussion on whether or to name the article that dealt with the function “H – TS” by the name “Gibbs free energy” or “Gibbs energy”, the consensus siding with the former name. (Ѻ)
God vs Gibbs
A 2013 depiction of the God vs Gibbs debate, stemming from the human molecular formula work of Libb Thims. [4]

God’s energy
See main: God’s energy
Into the late 20th century, beginning generally with Ilya Prigogine’s 1972 statement that the free energy function, Helmholtz free energy function in particular, is not applicable to the explication of social organizations, chemical thermodynamics and “god talk” began to become intermixed in a subtly incongruent manner (see: human free energy). The most conspicuous of these is Indian-born Pakistani organometallic chemist Mirza Beg's 1987 assertion that God's energy (or Allah's energy) underlies Gibbs energy and thereby mediating his will via the chemical thermodynamics operations of humans, albeit in such a way that fall-back citation to Quranic proscriptions are mandatory in all questions of morality and right and wrong.

See also
Gibbs energy flow
Gibbs energy of attraction
Gibbs energy of repulsion
● Gibbs energy surface (Ѻ)

1. Chang, Raymond. (2005). Physical Chemistry for the Biosciences (§4.6: Gibbs energy, pgs. 101-02; Gibbs energy, 77+ pgs). University Science Books.
2. Buckingham, Edgar. (1900). An Outline of the Theory of Thermodynamics. Macmillan Co.
3. Gibbs energy – Carleton College.
4. Staff. (2013). “Fórmula química del ser humano” (Chemical Formula of Human), Triplenlace Quimica, i.e. Triple≡Bond Chemistry (, Sep 4.

TDics icon ns

More pages