Greatest astronomer ever

In genius studies, greatest astronomer ever refers to an opinionated ranking of the top thinkers in the field of astronomy ordered by greatness.

Overview
The following is a meta-analysis ranking of the top 100+ greatest astronomers , culled from a variety of sources, e.g. top 1000 geniuses and Murray 4000, along with extant top 10+ polls and rankings, as listed at bottom of this page:


IQ
Person
Astronomy Rankings
Overview


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1.185

56
Copernicus 75Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473-1543)
(Murray 4000:5|A) Copernican system gif(Cattell 1000:341) [RGM:14|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:18) [Kanowitz 50:15] (GPE:35) [CR:136] Polish mathematician, astronomer, and physician;

Copernicus is the ‘master’ who dared to take the first step.”
— Galileo (1597), “Letter to Kepler”

Known as the "next Ptolemy" (Reinhold, 1542), noted for his 1514 forty-page booklet “Little Commentary” (Commentariolus), in which he began to lay out the basics of his heliocentric model of the universe, as opposed to the older geocentric model of the universe, eventually publishing the finalized version as the 1543 On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, the “first book in nearly 1,400-years to rival Ptolemy’s Almagest” (Repcheck, 2007), which introduced the revolutionary idea to the world that the “earth moves” or that "the earth is moving and the stars are at rest" (Anon, 1542), a view opposed to that of the older 350BC physics model of Aristotle that the earth is the center of the universe and stationary.
2.195

11
GalileoGalileo Galilei
(1564-1642)
(Murray 4000:2|A)(Cattell 1000:46) [RGM:4|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|CS / 5|P / 2|A) (EP:10) [GPE:5] (GAE:2) [CR:273] Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher,
3.175

221
PtolemyPtolemy
(c.100-170)
(Murray 4000:6|A)Ptolemaic system gif(Cattell 1000:80) [RGM:98|1,500+] (Murray 4000:12|CS / 6A) (Eells 100:23) (GAE:3) (CR:45) Greco-Egyptian mathematician and astronomer; in his 130AD Syntaxis Mathematica, he supposedly was the first to introduce the zero number; his 150AD Aristotle-based Ptolemaic "geocentric model" (adjacent), was not superseded for some thirteen centuries, namely until Nicolaus Copernicus established the heliocentric model (1543);
4.180

91
Kepler 75 Johannes Kepler
(1571-1630)
(Murray 4000:2|A) Kepler system (second law)(Cattell 1000:157) [RGM:18|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|CS / 2|A) (GAE:4) [CR:100] German mathematician and astronomer; a fabled "last persons to know everything", known for his 1619 three laws of planetary motion, according to which planets, based on the Copernican model, move not in spherical but rather “elliptical” orbits, which he derived from astronomical observations made by Tycho Brahe, that planets move faster at perihelion and slower at aphelion, according to geometric rules, and that "a line between the sun and the planet sweeps equal areas in equal times" (second law), as shown adjacent; his work provided foundations for Isaac Newton’ theory of universal gravitation; down-grade ↓ for believing that planets were moved by angels flapping their wings (see: Ra).
5.220

2
Newton 75Isaac Newton
(1643-1727)

(Cattell 1000:14) (Gottlieb 1000:6) [RGM:3|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|CS / 1|P / 2|M) (EPD:F0) (GR:1) (SIG:1) (RE:84) [CR:866] English physicist, chemistry, mathematician, and philosopher;
6.215

3
Einstein 75 (older)Albert Einstein
(1879-1955)

Gravitation Waves gif(Gottlieb 1000:17) [RGM:2|1,500+] (Murray 4000:9|CS / 2|P) (LGS:1) [Kanowitz 50:2]
[Cropper 30:1|R] (GPE:1)
(HD:52) (RE:76) [CR:737] German physicist, astronomer, and philosopher; his 1919 general theory of relativity predicted the existence of gravitational waves (as shown adjacent).

165

502
Tycho Brahe 75Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601)

Brahe model[RGM:78|1,500+] (Murray 4000:7|A) (Gottlieb 1000:202) (Simmons 100:22) (CR:6) Danish astronomer;

“For those [observations] that I made in Leipzig in my youth and up to my 21st year, I usually call childish and of doubtful value. Those that I took later until my 28th year [i.e., until 1574] I call juvenile and fairly serviceable. The third group, however, which I made at Uraniborg during approximately the last 21 years with the greatest care and with very accurate instruments at a more mature age, until I was fifty years of age, those I call the observations of my manhood, completely valid and absolutely certain, and this is my opinion of them.”
— Tycho Brahe (1598), description of instruments and scientific work

built on the Copernican model to make is Brahe model of the world (adjacent); colorful character (Ѻ); gather the data, used by Johannes Kepler, to formulate the laws of planetary motion
7.180

112
Photo needed 75Heraclides
(387-312BC)

earth rotatingGreek philosopher and astronomer; proposed that the earth rotates on its axis [compare: Ecphantus (c.500BC)]; posited that the soul was light; did battle with Aristotle, supposedly, on the question whether the universe is finite or infinite; and is rumored, according to Simplicius (c.590AD), to have formulated heliocentrism (or at least the precursor model to what Aristarchus (c.240BC) put into book form).
8.175

267
Hipparchus 75Hipparchus
(190-120BC)

Hipparchus(Cattell 1000:781) [RGM:637|1,330+] (Murray 4000:10|A) (GAE:8) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician;

Hipparchus was a lover of truth (phila-lēthēs).”
Ptolemy (c.150), Publication (Ѻ)


founder of trigonometry; famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes
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11.150

700
Hans Lippershey 75Hans Lipperhey
(1570-1619)

Telescope(CR:3) German-born Dutch spectacle maker; he is generally credited (Ѻ) with the invention of the telescope or “Dutch perspective glass”; a device he tried to obtain a patent for in 1608; news of this design reached the ears of Galileo, who improved on the designs; on 7 Jan 1610, Galileo had built a new improved 30 power telescope (shown adjacent), and pointed it towards Jupiter, and found three small, bright stars near the planet (Ѻ); that year, he published a small book titled The Starry Messenger, outlining his findings;
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46
Giordano Bruno 75 newGiordano Bruno
(1548-1600)

(Cattell 1000:655) (RGM:138|1,500+) (FA:47) (GAE:15) [CR:118] Italian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, and priest;

“There is no absolute up or down, as Aristotle taught; no absolute position in space; but the position of a body is relative to that of other bodies. Everywhere there is incessant relative change in position throughout the universe, and the observer is always at the center of things.”
— Giordano Bruno (1584), On Cause, Primary Origin, and the One; this, supposedly, is a close paraphrase of Epicurus (“Letter to Herodotus”)

Burned at the stake for refusing to recant his belief in atoms and a universe made of multiple solar systems;
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Karl Schwarzschild 75Karl Schwarzschild
(1873-1916)

Event horizon(GPE:95) (CR:2) German physicist and astronomer, noted in radiation thermodynamics, for his 1915 derivation of the so-called the “Schwarzschild radius”, which is the radius of the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole.
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Discussion
The following is the succession of astronomical genius, before and after Copernicus:

Aristotle
Ptolemy
Al-Battani
Regiomontanus
Copernicus
Brahe
Kepler
Galileo
Newton

In this mix, we note that Galileo, in discussion with Kepler, called Copernicus "the master" who dared to take the first step.

Murray 4000
In 2003, Charles Murray, in his Murray 4000, a top 20 category grouping from a larger analyzed collection of 4,139 biggest names of history, produced the following top 20 ranking of astronomers:

1. Galileo
2. Johannes Kepler
3. William Herschel
4. Pierre Laplace
5. Nicolaus Copernicus
6. Ptolemy
7. Tycho Brahe
8. Edmond Halley
9. Giovanni Cassini
10. Hipparchus
11. Walter Baade
12. Edwin Hubble
13. Friedrich Bessel
14. William Huggins
15. George Ellery Hale
16. Arthur Eddington
17. Ejnar Hertzsprung
18. Heinrich Olbers
19. Gerard Kuiper
20. Johannes Hevelius

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Chao top 10
In Feb 2013, Tom Chao, in his Space.com article “The Most Famous Astronomers of All Time”, gave the following chronologically ranked list: [1]

1. Ptolemy
2. Nicolaus Copernicus
3. Johannes Kepler
4. Galileo
5. Isaac Newton
6. Christiaan Huygens
7. Giovanni Cassini
8. Charles Messier
9. Albert Einstein
10. Carl Sagan

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Total History | Top 30

In 2013, the Total History YouTube channel, in their “Famous Astronomers: 30 Greatest Astronomers in History” (Ѻ), a video based on an earlier 2012 online list of “Famous Astronomers” (Ѻ), produced the following chronological listing:


1. Aristarchus of Samos
2. Hipparchus
3. Ptolemy
4. Aryabhata
5. Al-Kindi
6. Bhaskara
7. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
8. Nicolaus Copernicus
9. Tycho Brahe
10. Galileo Galilei
12. Christiaan Huygens
13. Edmund Halley
14. Charles Messier
15. Joseph Lagrange
16. William Herschel
17. Pierre Laplace
18. Caroline Herschel
19. Johann Galle
20. Annie Jump Cannon
21. Edwin Hubble
22. Fritz Zwicky
23. George Gamow
24. Clyde Tombaugh
25. Thomas Gold
26. Carl Sagan
27. Stephen Hawking
28. Jocelyn Bell
29. Neil Tyson
30. Michael Brown

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Jaramillo top 10
In 2014, Eduardo Jaramillo, in his ListVerse.com article “Top 10 Most Important Astronomers” (Ѻ), produced the following list:

1. Galileo
2. Hipparchus
3. Edwin Hubble
4. Johannes Keppler
5. William Herschel
6. Nicolaus Copernicus
7. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson
8. Tycho Brahe
9. Ptolemy
10. Charles Messier

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Star-Name | Top 11
In 2017, an anon writer, in their “The Most Famous Astronomers of All Time” (Ѻ), produced the following list:

1. Ptolemy
2. Nicolaus Copernicus
3. Johannes Kepler
4. Galileo
5. Isaac Newton
6. Christiaan Huygens
7. Giovanni Cassini
8. Charles Messier
9. Albert Einstein
10. Carl Sagan
11. Stephen Hawking

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Google | Top Astronomers
In Apr 2020, the Google search term “greatest astronomer ever”, yielded an algorithmic order of images, as shown adjacent, ranked as follows:


1. Galileo
2. Albert Einstein
3. Nicolaus Copernicus
4. Johannes Kepler
5. Isaac Newton
6. Ptolemy
7. Edwin Hubble
8. Carl Sagan
9. Tycho Brahe
10. William Herschel
11. Hipparchus
12. Charles Messier
13. Christiaan Huygens
14. Edmond Halley
15. Aristarchus of Samos
16. Henrietta Leavitt
17. Giovanni Domenico
18. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
19. Caroline Herschel
20. Eratosthenes
21. Robert Wilson
22. Arno Penzias
23. Annie Cannon
24. Frank Drake
25. Harlow Shapley
26. Kip Thorne
27. George Gamow
28. Clyde Tombaugh
29. Arthur Eddington
30. Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi
31, Michael Brown
32. Jocelyn Burnell
33. Neil Tyson
34. Pierre Laplace
35. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
36. Brahmagupta
37. William Hartmann
38. Georges Lemaitre
39. Karl Jansky
40. Thomas Gold
41. Joseph Lagrange
42. Hans Bethe
43. Antony Hewish
44. Jean Richer
45. Fred Hoyle
46. Pythagoras
47. Joseph Fraunhofer
48. John Herschel
49. Eudoxus of Cnidus
50. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

The following is a screen shot of this Google top 50 listing:

50 Greatest Astronomers (Google, 2020)

The above list, of note, ends with: Maria Mitchell (#51), for some reason.

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

Al-Battani and al-Fargani are astronomers of the first rank among Arabs.”
Otto Guericke (1672), New Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum of Space (pg. 57) [1]

References
1. Chao, Tom. (2013). “The Most Famous Astronomers of All Time” (Ѻ), Space.com, Feb 5.
2. Guericke, Otto. (1663). New Magdeburg Experiments: on the Vacuum of Space (Ottonis de Guericke Experimenta Nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de Vacuo Spatio) (translator and preface: Margaret Ames) (Albattani, 5+ pgs). Publisher, 1672; Kluwer, 1994; Springer, 2012.

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