Greatest middle ages geniuses

In genius rankings, greatest middle ages geniuses (CR:25) refers to great shinning minds who existed amid the period of the middle ages, generally from the fall of Rome, in 474 to the beginning of the renaissance, in the 14th to 15th century, or from fall of the Roman Empire in the West (5th century) to the fall of Constantinople (1453), or, more narrowly, from c.1100 to 1453, or prior to the start of the Renaissance, loosely demarcated by the mind of Erasmus (1466-1536) as a turning point genius.

The following is a ranked ordering, according to top 1000 genius rankings, of the top middle ages geniuses:]

IQ estimatesDescription



Roger Bacon 75Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon (studying) 2(Cattell 1000:199) [RGM:364|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English natural philosopher;

“Argument is conclusive, but it does not remove doubt, so that the mind may not rest in the sure knowledge of the truth, unless it finds it by the method of experiment.”
— Roger Bacon (c.1280)

a two cultures genius, a last person to know everything claimant, a "savant with an enormous encyclopedic mind" (Hackett, 1980), and the so-called "first scientist" (Clegg, 2003), and originator of the scientific method; upgraded ↑ from 175±|#154 to 180|#109 (2017).

Albertus Magnus 75Albertus Magnus

(Cattell 1000:601) [RGM:N/A|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) German-born chemical philosopher;

“The aim of natural science is NOT simply to accept the statements of others, but to investigate the causes that are at work in nature.”
— Albertus Magnus (c.1270), “On Minerals” (De Mineralibus) (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

oft-classified "universal genius" (Waite, 1815); aka “Universal Doctor” (Doctor Universalis) for the extraordinary depth of his knowledge and learning (Ѻ); his affinity chemistry work marks the start of physical chemistry (Partington, 1937); cited by Mary Shelley (IQ:175|#225) as one of the three great pre-Newtonian “secrets of nature” probers, alongside Cornelius Agrippa (1486-1535) (Cattell 1000:c.660) (Ѻ), and Paracelsus (IQ:175|194) (Cattell 1000:553).

Avicenna 75Avicenna
(980-1037) ↑

(Cattell 1000:364) [RGM:307|1,500+] (GPhE:20±) (GCE:40±) (CR:20) (MAG:3) Persian physician, philosopher, chemist, and general polymath; Da Vinci claimed to disprove his child birth soul origin theory; first draft slating: 75 to 125 tier (Dec 2016).

Nicholas of Cusa 75 Nicholas of Cusa

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:241|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Proposed the earth was a sphere, spinning daily on its axis orbiting the sun—also, in opposition to Aristotle’s circular orbit theory, argued that perfect spherical orbits are impossible, thus predating the elliptical orbit theories of Johannes Kepler; that heavenly bodies were made of the same material as the earth; proposed dropping objects from towers to see why they fell as they did; described rules for experimentation; took the pulse; forecast the weather; argued for an infinite universe; invented reading glasses; wrote on squaring the circle, among other mathematical subjects; his best known work is his Learned Ignorance, according to which a person of learned ignorance is not a person of erudition (Ѻ); Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Giordano Bruno, and Kepler were all, supposedly, aware of his writings, the latter citing him in the first paragraph of his first published work; commonly labeled as a polymath also many-sided genius; first-draft gauged at 170-185 (2016).

Genghis Kahn 75Genghis Kahn
 IQ_B \,=180
 IQ_O \,=120-125
Mongol Empire[RGM:313|1,300+] Founder of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire (Ѻ) in history; the secret of their power, was said to be their drinking of mare’s milk, which heightened their intellect and warrior power; IQ Quora gauged (Ѻ) at 120-125 (2017); Hmolpedia gauged (Ѻ) as intellectually comparable to: Adolf Hitler (155|#573), Alexander the Great (180|#152), and Napoleon Bonaparte (180|#108), and Charlemagne (179|#180), by Morris Zucker (1945).

Boethius 75Boethius

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) (Eells 100:96) Roman philosopher, mathematician, and senator; view: “there was an intelligence to the universe, which was once called fate, and now we understand it to be a universal force”; discoursed on the laws of love and the problem of evil; first-slating: 175|#211 (Mar 2018).

Al-Marri 75Al-Marri
IQ CP c=178Al-Marri (1944 and 2013) 2(Murray 4000:3|AL) (FA:32) (CR:10) Syrian-born blind philosopher, poet, skeptic, and irreligionist, aka the "Arab Lucretius" (Issa, 2016); ; is oft-compared to the following:

Lucretius (99-55 BC) (IQ:180|#92) [RGM:N/A|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:209)
Lucian (c.120-190AD) (IQ:175|#250) [RGM:N/A|1,250+] (Cattell 1000:387)
John Milton (1608-1674) (IQ:180|#111) [RGM:330|1,250+] (Cattell 1000:16)
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) (IQ:175|#218) [RGM:51|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:42)

would yield him (Jun 2017) a four-person genius comparison synthesis intelligence of (IQ:178|#164) [RGM:191|1,260+] (Cattell 1000:164); which, rounding down on the safe side of genius ranking guesstimation, yields an first draft IQ of 175 mean position #173 (which falls in the 180 IQ ranges); therefore #206 intuited.

Geber 75Geber

Three principles[RGM:630|1,500+] (CR:20) Arabian chemist, noted for his ‘three principles’ theory of generalized chemical properties, one of which, sulphur representative of combustion, was a precursor to the formulation of entropy; first-slating: IQ:175 (c.2017).

Averroes 75Averroes
 IQ_B \,=175(Cattell 1000:347) [RGM:503|1,500+] (FA:38) (CR:16) Andalusian polymath, Aristotle commentator, and middle ages genius; his work on atheism was influential to those including: Siger of Brabant, Lucilio Vanini, and Salman Rushdie; he is associated with the “three impostors” hypothesis.

Danti 75Dante Alighieri
 IQ_B \,=175(Cattell 1000:42) [RGM:53|1,310+] Italian poet noted for his c.1310 Divine Comedy, wherein he tells the story of how he and Latin poet Virgil travel through the nine circles of hell towards, the ninth of which is frozen and at the center of the earth, where Satan resides, the location to which all heavy sinful matter is attracted; a logic based on an Aristotelian universe conception of things, where fire, being the lightest of the four elements, rises to the outer circles of the earth, in geocentric terms

Alhazen 75Alhazen

[RGM:616|1,500+] (GME:58) (CR:10) Arabic polymath;

“The seeker after the truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and, following his natural disposition, puts his trust in them, but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and questions what he gathers from them, the one who submits to argument and demonstration, and not to the sayings of a human being whose nature is fraught with all kinds of imperfection and deficiency. Thus the duty of the man who investigates the writings of scientists, if learning the truth is his goal, is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads, and, applying his mind to the core and margins of its content, attack it from every side. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it, so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency.”
— Alhazen (c.1020) (Ѻ)

Noted for work in astronomy and optics, and for his semi “scientific method” like experimental work on light; first-slating: IQ:175 (c.2017).

Frederick IIFrederick II

(Cattell 1000:204) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] (FA:34) Italian-born German king who became the head of the Holy Roman Empire during its greatest territorial extent; purportedly originated of the Treatise on the Three Impostors (see: three impostors theory); conducted human experiments to test the truths of various religious models, e.g. that Adam and Eve were the first two humans (language deprivation experiments) and soul detection experiments; first-slating: 175|#250 (Mar 2018).

Petrarch 75Petrarch

(Cattell 1000:52) [RGM:150|1,310+] Italian scholar, poet, and philosopher; regarded by humanists as their first master; his discoveries of the lost works of Cicero were said to have initiated the Italian renaissance; quote: Written in the land of the living; on the right bank of the Adige, in Verona, in the year of that god whom you never knew the 1345th” (compare: Goethean calendar); first-draft gauged at #240 (Dec, 2017).

Regiomontanus 75Regiomontanus

(Eells 100:25) (CR:6) German astronomer and mathematician;

“You, who wish to study great and wonderful things, who wonder about the movement of the stars, must read these theorems about triangles. Knowing these ideas will open the door to all of astronomy and to certain geometric problems.”
— Regiomontanus (1464), On Triangles of Every Kind (De Trianguis Omnimodis) (Ѻ)

Noted for his Epitome of the Almagest, wherein he stated that Ptolemy was wrong; was the main shoulder genius of Copernicus; first-draft slotted at #250 (Jun 2017).

Thomas Aquinas 75Thomas Aquinas
 IQ_B \,=165(Cattell 1000:384) [RGM:103|1,360+] (Murray 4000:6|WP) Italian theological philosopher;

William of Ockham 75William of Ockham
(c.1288-1348) ↑

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:222|1,330+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English theologian, scholastic philosopher, and physicist; noted, in the history of atomic theory, for being critical of Aristotle; claimed that matter could be reduced down to elementary particles; popularly known for “Occam’s razor”, a problem solving principle, which states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected; first-slating: IQ:170 (c.2017).

Al-Razi 75Al-Razi

(RGM:719|1,500+) (FA:17) (CR:7) Persian physician, chemist, and polymath;

“As a result of being long accustomed to their religious denomination, as days passed and it became a habit. Because they were deluded by the beards of the goats, who sit in ranks in their councils, straining their throats in recounting lies, senseless myths, and ‘so-and-so told us in the name of so-and-so …”
— Zakariya Razi (c.910)

generally known for his discovery of alcohol; noted, in atheism, for being one of the first outspoken religion-questioners in the Islamic world; first-gauged: IQ: 150-180 (c.2016).

Aryabhata 75Aryabhata

[RGM:345|1,500+] (GME:#) (GAE:#) (CR:5) Indian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist;

“Just as a person travelling on a boat fees that the trees on the bank are moving, people on the earth feel the sun is moving.
— Aryabhata (c.520), Publication (Ѻ); cited by Kishore Dash (2019) in The Story of Econophysics (pg. 2)

employed 62,832/20,000 (= 3.1416) for π; speculated, supposedly, that π (pi) is irrational, as later conjectured by Leonhard Euler, and proved by Johann Lambert (Ѻ); stated that the earth rotates on its axis; classified as a physicist for his explicit mention of the relativity of motion; is said to have been the first to employ a zero symbol concept, and that his later countryman Brahmagupta was to use a zero symbol and the first to show that subtracting a number from itself results in zero (Ѻ); a “24 smartest person ever” genius (Ratner, 2016) (Ѻ); first-slating: 170|#375 (Apr 2020).

Johann Reuchlin 75Johann Reuchlin
 IQ_C \,=170 (Cattell 1000:377) [RGM:262|1,310+] German-born humanist and Greek and Hebrew scholar.

Maimonides 75Maimonides

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:398|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A); Spanish-born Moroccan physician-philosopher and theologian; a top middle ages genius; noted for his circa 1190 The Guide of the Perplexed, wherein he states that we should ignore accident-based atomic theory because it denies the existence of god; first-draft slating: 170|#350 (Jan 2018).

Abu al-Suli
(854-946) ↓
 IQ_B \,=175(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,500+] Arab poet, scholar, and chess player; non-notability downgrade 175|#298 to 170|#358 (Feb 2018).

Geoffrey Chaucer 75Geoffrey Chaucer

(Cattell 1000:170) [RGM:296|1,500+] English poet and author; widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages, he is best known for The Canterbury Tales; in the film Se7en (1995), the Parson's Tale, the intended final tale of his The Canterbury Tales, is an important clue to the methods of a serial killer who chooses his victims based on the seven deadly sins; slotted at #320 based on his RGM position (Jun 2017).

Al-Batttani 75Al-Battani

Arab astronomer and mathematician; referred to as the "Ptolemy of the Arabs"; considered the greatest and best known astronomer of the medieval Islamic world; noted for his work in trigonometry; quoted by Copernicus; cited by Guericke (1663) who he refers to as the "follower [or successor] of Ptolemy"; first-slating: 165|#445 as 10 IQ points below Ptolemy (Feb 2009).

Robert Grosseteste 75Robert Grosseteste

[RGM:764|1,500+] (MAG:23) (CR:4) English scholastic philosopher, statesman, and theologian, generally noted as an early formulator of the scientific method, particularly in respect to controlled experiment; influenced: Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, and Johannes Kepler; first slating: 165|#450 (Aug 2019).

John Philoponus

[RGM:772|1,500+] Roman philosopher, scientist, theologian, grammarian (Ѻ), and astronomer (Ѻ);

“Philoponus is one of the greatest geniuses of antiquity.”
Pierre Duhem (1913), The System of the World (Le système du monde)

noted for commentary on Democritus; for his impetus theory of motion; influential to: Avicenna, Bonaventure, John Buridan (or Jean Buridan), and Galileo, the latter of whom, in his The Two New Sciences (1638), cites Philoponus, and the later development of inertia (principle of inertia); first-slating: IQ:165|#451 (Jan 2019).

Bede 75Bede

(Cattell 1000:878) [RGM:649|1,310+] (Murray 4000:N/A) English historian and monk; noted for being one of the first to connect John the Baptist with the Aquarius constellation; recounted the “warm sparrow” anecdote Christianity adoption in England; his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (1731) gained him the epitaph as the “father of English history”; first-slating: 160|#431 (Mar 2018).

Sandro Botticelli 75Sandro Botticelli

Venus and Mars (labeled)(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:160|1,320+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Italian painter; noted for: The Birth of Venus, e.g. as illustrated in the Lucretius article, Sistine Chapel works, etc.; first-slating: 160|#440 per crude artistic geniuses rankings (Feb 2018).

Omar Khayyam 75Omar Khayyam

[RGM:443|1,500+] (HD:1) (FA:18) (CR:9) Persian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, nonbeliever;

“The Koran! Well, come put me to the test; lovely old book in hideous error drest. Believe me, I can quote the Koran too; the unbeliever knows his Koran best. And do you think that unto such as you, a maggot-minded, starved, fanatic crew, god gave the secret, and denied it me? Well, well, what matters it! Believe that too.”
— Omar Khayyam (c.1120), a statement of disbelief in Islam (Ѻ)

known as a skeptic, whose poetry satirized the claims and practices of religion (Hitchens, 2007); an seeming "Persian Voltaire" so to say; first-gauged: IQ:160 (c.2017).

Hildegard von Bingen 75Hildegard Bingen
(1098-1179) ↑↑

[RGM:209|1,500+] [GMG:14] German Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, visionary, and polymath; a smartest woman ever (Ѻ) (IQ:150+) candidate; first-slating: IQ:160 (c.2015).

Virgil of Salzburg 75Virgil of Salzburg

(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Irish abbot; noted for his teaching of the “antipodal” humans theory, namely that the earth was round, had an “antipode” point, as professed by Pythagoras, Aristotle, Eratosthenes, Macrobius, and Bede, and that there were other people at these antipodes; the church condemned him has a heretic and to be burned, per reason that these other antipodal people would not be descendants of Adam and Eve, and therefore not saved by Christ; was an inspiration to Johannes Kepler; ranked as a great scientific martyr, alongside Galileo and Aristotle (Holbach, 1770); first-slating: 160|#490 (Feb 2018).

Al-Kindi 75Al-Kindi

[RGM:745|1,500+] (CR:1) Muslim Arab philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician, musician cryptographer (Ѻ); top ten middle ages genius; one of the first to initiate the import of Greek philosophy into Arabic thinking, including: Socrates, Aristotle, Plotinus, and Euclid; was one of the first blue sky problem theorists; an alchemy debunker, e.g. asserting that base metals cannot be transformed into gold or silver; first-slating: IQ:160|#556 (Jan 2019).

Al-Biruni 75Abu Al-Biruni

(GME:43) (CR:8) Iranian-born Afghanistan astronomer, mathematician, physicist, comparative religions scholar, a universal genius claimant;

“The difference between you and me is that you’re a philosopher and I’m a [mathematical] scientist.”
— Abu Al-Biruni (c.1020), “Letter to Avicenna”

A top 20 scientific genius of the middle ages. [5] First-slating: 160|#567 (Jan 2019).

Peter Abelard 75Peter Abelard

(Cattell 1000:110) [RGM:N/A|1,360+] French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician, characterized a “fine genius” (Bayle, c.1693) and “keenest thinker of the 12th century” (Chambers, 1897); first-slating: 160|#517 (Mar 2018).

[Untitled]Jan Zizka
 IQ_B \,=145(Cattell 1000:N/A) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Czech general; his Battle of Kutna Hora (1421), wherein he defeated the army of the Holy Roman Empire and Hungary, was the first case of recorded use of field artillery (previously, artillery was used only during sieges of towns); one of several commanders in history who never lost a battle (alongside Alexander the Great, Bai Qi, Scipio Africanus, Julius Caesar, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Subutai, Yi Sun-Shin, the Duke of Marlborough, Alexander Suvorov, Fyodor Ushakov, and Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck); his skin, according to his dying wish, was used to make drums so that he might continue to lead his troops even after death.

Meister Eckhart 75Meister Eckhart

[RGM:266|1,500+] German theologian, philosopher, and spiritual mystic;

“Only the hand that erases can write the true thing.”
— Meister Eckhart (c.1310) (Ѻ)

first-slating: 145|#664 (2018).

Poggio Bracciolini 75Poggio Bracciolini

(Cattell 1000:694) [RGM:N/A|1,310+] Italian papal secretary; his 1417 discovery of LucretiusOn the Nature of Things (55BC) together with Petrarch’s 1385 find of the lost Letters of Cicero (50BC) are said to have initiated the Italian renaissance; first-draft gauged at #515 (Dec, 2017).

Marco PoloMarco Polo

(Cattell 1000:127) [RGM:107|1,350+] (Murray 4000:N/A) Italian merchant, explorer, and writer; first-slating: 145|#610 (Mar 2018).

Thomas of Kempis 75Thomas of Kempis

Dutch-German cannon; noted for his The Imitation of Christ, advocating inner existence, over vanity and worldly affairs; supposedly, this was a precursor to the later reformation by Martin Luther influential to Thomas More, and Alfred Rogers; first-slating: IQ:140|#697 (Jan 2019).


The following is a chronological listing of other purported to be middle ages geniuses, albeit unranked, presently:

Middle Ages Geniuses
IQ Estimation

Isidore of Seville 75Isidore of Seville


Introduced the idea of zero; explained negative numbers, a concept thought to be “absurd” by the Greeks.
2.Paul of Aegina

4. Al-Jahiz

Expanded on Aristotle (Ѻ); known as the Voltaire (Ѻ) of the Arab language, akin to al-Marri known as the Lucretius of the Arabs.
5.Al Khwarizmi

Inventor of algebra coiner of “algorithm”.
7.Abu Isa al-Warraq

Early Islam skeptic and god doubter; friend and mentor to Ibn al-Rawandi.
8. Thabit Ibn Qurra

9. Ibn al-Rawandi

A former Shia, turned free thinker and "radical atheist"; a skeptic of Islam and a critic of religion in general.
12. Alpharabius (Abu Nasr Al-Farabi)

13.Abu Zahrawi

18. Ibn Hazm

Noted love poetry scholar.
19.Al-Ghazali (Algazel)

20. Ibn Zuhr

Described by Maimonides as “unique in his age and one of the great sages”; colleague of Averroes.

Mechanical engineering genius; author of Book of Knowledge of Mechanical Devices (Ѻ)

25. Ibn Al-Baitar

Ramon Llull 75Ramon Llull

Siger of Brabant

27.Nicole Oresme

28.Ibn Khaldun 75Ibn Khaldun
IQ SK [RGM:470|1,500+] Arabian historiographer, historian, sociologist, demographer, and economist; a 2013 rankrf “Top 10 Medieval Scientists Smarter than Einstein” [1]; gauged (Ѻ) at IQ of 190 by Sperging Kermit (Jan 2019); not too much interesting in his Wikiquote (Ѻ) page.

(add discussion)

Golden age | 750-1258
The four big scientific figures, to have flourished amid Islam’s golden age (750-1258), according to Algerian-born astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum (2010), are: [4]

1. Al Khwarizmi (780-850) | Inventor of algebra coiner of “algorithm”.
2. Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham) (c.965-1040)
3. Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037)
4. Abu Al-Biruni (973-1048) | Oft-cited universal genius; top 20 scientific genius of the middle ages [5]

Zakariya Al-Razi (865-925)

The following is a 2013 ranking of the “Top 10 Medieval Scientists Smarter than Einstein”: [1]

1. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
2. Al-Ghazali (Algazel) (c.1058–1111)
3. Paracelsus (1493-1541)
4. Abu Zahrawi (936-1013)
5. Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126-1198)
6. Al Khwarizmi (780-850) | Inventor of algebra coiner of “algorithm”.
7. Albertus Magnus (c.1200-1280)
8. Paul of Aegina (625-690)
9. Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
10. Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037)

The following is are the three middle age geniuses from Tom Siegfried’s 2014 list of top 10 unsung geniuses: (Ѻ)

8. Nicole Oresme (1320-1382)
9. Robert Grosseteste (1170-1253)
10. Brahmagupta (598-670) | Introduced the idea of zero; explained negative numbers, a concept thought to be “absurd” by the Greeks.

The others, being non-middle age geniuses, are: 1. Emmy Noether, 2. Emile Borel, 3. William Clifford, 4. Adolphe Quetelet, 5. Mary Somerville (1780-1872), 6. Antoine Parent (1666-1716), and 7. Thomas Harriot (1560-1621).

The following is a selection (Ѻ) of so-labeled "Muslim geniuses":
Muslim geniuses

Abu Al-Biruni
A 1974 cover story article middle ages genius Abu Al-Biruni (973-1048), known as a universal genius, for his his work in astronomy, history, botany, pharmacology, geology, poetry, philosophy, mathematics, geography, and comparative religion, and the humanities. [3]
The following are related quotes:

“The regions in between the gods and men were believed to be inhabited by cosmic messengers or daemons. Eventually the Greek concept of the daemon influenced the Roman genius, so that each man was said to possess a ‘soul’ (genius or daemon) born with him. The messenger daemon, under the influence of Christianity, became an evil demon or renegade angel connected with astrology, dreams, and the black arts, and was itself replaced by the good angel.”
— Jane Nitzsche (1975), The Genius Figure in Antiquity and the Middle Ages

“The three worst zindiqs [anti-religionist radicals] of Islam, according to Islamic literary tradition, were: al-Rawandi, al-Tauhidi, and al-Mararri.”
Jennifer Hecht (2004), Doubt: a History (pg. 231)

Ibn al-Haytham [Alhazen] was certainly the world’s greatest physicist in the almost two millennia gap between Archimedes and Galileo. There were others, like Biruni, Al-Kindi, Khwarizmi (it's a long list) but none of the others did physics (theory and experiment) in way we understand the subject today.”
— Jim Al-Khalili (2019), Tweet (Ѻ), Jan 10

1. Anon. (2013). “Top 10 Medieval Scientists Smarter than Einstein” (Ѻ), Feb 1.
2. (a) Nitzsche, Jane C. (1975). The Genius Figure in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Columbia University Press.
(b) Nicholls, Angus J. (2006). Goethe’s Concept of the Daemonic: After the Ancients (pg. 76). Camden House.
3. Gafurov, Bobojan. (1974). “Al-Biruni: A Universal Genius in Central Asia a Thousand Years Ago”, Courier (pgs. 4-9), Jun.
4. Guessoum, Nidhal. (2010). “Interview: Islamic Golden Age”, in: Atoms and Eden (§16:215-28; Al-Biruni, pg. 217). Oxford University Press.
5. Salah, Abeer. (2015). One Giant Step for Mankind: One Verse at a Time (pg. 61). Cedar Graphics.
6. Hecht, Jennifer M. (2003). Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas (Al-Ghazzali, pgs. 233-37; Averroes, pgs. 237-39). HarperOne.

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