Greatest philosopher ever

In intellectual rankings, greatest philosopher ever (GPhE:#) is an epitaph given to a person, depending on ranking methodology, some rankings of which are listed below, that classify, list, or describe someone as being the greatest thinker in the field of philosophy of all time.

The following is a work-in-progress meta-analysis ranking of the top 100+ greatest philosophers, culled from a variety of sources, e.g. top 1000 geniuses (current), Murray 4000 (2003), Stokes 100 (2002), Perry 80 (2015), etc., along with extant top 10+ polls and rankings, as listed at bottom of this page:

Philosophy Rankings



Aristotle 75Aristotle
(Murray 4000:1|WP)
(Stokes 100:8|Academics)
(Perry 80:3|Life)
(TopXBest 51:3)
(StreetPoll 10:3)
(ListVerse 10:1)
Aristotelian Universe(Cattell 1000:6) [RGM:5|1,500+] (Murray 4000:3|CS / 1|WP) (Glenn 20:1) (Perry 80:3|Li) (EPD:M&F) [LPKE] (RE:62) [CR:537] Greek physicist-philosopher;

Plato 75Plato
(Murray 4000:2|WP)
(Stokes 100:8|Academics)
(Perry 80:1|Life)
(TopXBest 51:2)
(StreetPoll 20:2)
(ListVerse 11:1)
(OldWizard 10:2)
Plato's cave[RGM:5|1,240+] (Cattell 1000:10) (Murray 4000:2|WP) (Perry 80:1|Li) (CR:271) Greek philosopher;

“The intense yearning which lovers have toward each other does not appear to be the desire for sexual intercourse, but for something else which the soul of each desires and cannot tell, and of which he or she has only a dark and doubtful presentiment.”
— Plato (c.380BC), voice of Aristophanes, Symposium

teacher of Aristotle; known for: Plato’s cave (expositor: Socrates), Plato’s god, soul mate theory (expositor: Aristophanes), allegory of the charioteer, etc.; upgrade ↑ for his first law of affinity, i.e. likes attract; downgrade ↓for saying that to buy up and burn all the works of Democritus; downgrade ↓ for harsh reviews by d’Holbach (1770), who calls him the ‘great inventor of chimeras’, and Jefferson (1820), who says ‘no writer, ancient or modern, has bewildered the world with more ignes fatui [misleading influence]’.

Thales 75Thales
(c.624-546 BC)
(Stokes 100:1|Presocratics)
(TopXBest 51:23)
Flux + Fire(Cattell 1000:914) [RGM:84|1,500+] (Eells 100:62) (Stokes 100:1) (EvT:1|21+) [CR:91] Greek physical scientist and philosopher;

“Thales is the ‘father’ of Greek philosophy.”
— Aristotle (c.350BC), Publication

root scholar of Greek philosophy (70+ philosophers); after studying in Egypt, he reformulated Egyptian water god Nun into a secular first principle of science, i.e. water as first principle, out of which fire and earth are formed (see: three element theory; four element theory).

Descartes 75Rene Descartes
(Murray 4000:4|WP)
(Stokes 100:33|Rationalists)
(Perry 80:11|Man/Self)
(TopXBest 51:6)
(StreetPoll 20:7)
(OldWizard 11:3)
(ListVerse 10:4)
Descartes (icon) 2(Cattell 1000:23) [RGM:33|1,500+] (Murray 4000:6|CS / 7|M / 4|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:25) (GPE:13) (GME:6) (Library:2,000) [CR:441] French physicist, philosopher, and mathematician;

“Descartes is the restorer of modern philosophy.”
— Baron d’Holbach (1770), System of Nature

Outlined a matter and motion theory of everything.


SpinozaBenedict Spinoza
(Murray 4000:10|WP)
(Stokes 100:36|Rationalist)
(Perry 80:4|God)
(TopXBest 51:26)
(Cattell 1000:108) [RGM:157|1,500+] (Murray 4000:10|WP) [HD:6] [FA:50] [RMS:19] (EPD:M6) [CR:194] Dutch philosopher;

“All our modern philosophers, though often perhaps unconsciously, see through the glasses which Spinoza ground.”
Heinrich Heine (c.1835), Publication

Known as a "celebrated atheist" (Holbach, 1770), noted for, in hmolscience, his 1676 posthumously-published Ethics: Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, a treatise on morality written, supposedly, in the style of Euclid's Elements, as a series of geometrical proofs of numerous philosophical points, accompanied by definitions, axioms, demonstrations, and corollaries, as well as intervening stretches of friendlier prose (scholia).

Epicurus 75Epicurus
(Stokes 100:11|Atomists)
(Perry 80:1|Free Will)
(TopXBest 51:12)
(ListVerse 10:9)
Atomic philosophy(Cattell 1000:240) [RGM:72|1,500+] (FA:22) (GAE:3) [CR:356] Greek atomic theory philosopher;

Democritus, when at ripe old age warned him that mind and memory were failing, went freely to place his person in death’s path. Epicurus himself died when life’s light ran out, he who in mind surpassed all men—eclipsed them all, as the sun hung high in heaven, the stars.”
Lucretius (55BC), On the Nature of Things (pg. 81; 3:1039-44)

student of Democritus, mentor to Lucretius; name-dropped by nearly ever genius thereafter (e.g. Pierre Gassendi, Thomas Jefferson, etc.); eponym of Epicureanism, Epicurean atheism.

Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe
(Perry 80:2|Love)Elective Affinities 4(Cattell 1000:7) (Gottlieb 1000:131) [RGM:36|1,500+] (Murray 4000:2|WL) (GMG:1) (Perry 80:1|Li) [LUG] [LPKE] [TCG] [polymath] [uberman] (SN:1) (HD:19) (FA:56) (GA:6) (LR:2) (Re:82) (EvT:8|21+) [CR:2151] German poly-intellect; via his 1809 Elective Affinities, he has become the main expositor of "physico-chemical philosophy", a philosophy wherein people are viewed as reactive chemicals, and nature of affairs is determined by the forces of the chemical affinties; semi-classified as “philosophical romanticism” (Kompridis, 2006). [4]

Heraclitus 75Heraclitus
(Stokes 100:4|Presocratics)
(Perry 80:1|Death)
(TopXBest 51:30)
(Cattell 1000:721) (Stokes 100:4) (CR:121) Greek physicist-philosopher;

“Heraclitus, to the contemporary reader, is a philosopher of the first rank.”
— Charles Kahn (1981), The Art and Thought of Heraclitus (pg. ix)

noted for his now lost On Nature (c.500BC), on the universe, politics, and theology, wherein he outlines a three element theory, according to which the universe is comprised of three principle elements: fire, earth, and water, but that fire was the primary element, controlling and modifying the other two, and that everything is in a continuous state of flux, or change, and war and strife between opposites is the eternal condition of the universe; Nietzsche considered his world view to be Heraclitean one;

Socrates 75Socrates
(Murray 4000:12|WP)
(Stokes 100:7|Academics) (TopXBest 51:1)
(StreetPoll 20:1)
(OldWizard 11:1)
(Cattell 1000:29) [RGM:10|1,500+] (Murray 4000:12|WP) (FA:11) [CR:123] Greek philosopher, student of Anaxagoras; leader of the Plato-Aristotle school of philosophy;

Paul d’Holbach 75Baron d’Holbach

Baron d'Holbach (reason quote)[RGM:414|1,500+] [SN:12] (FA:74) (GAE:1) [CR:251] German-born French-raised atheism-explicit, anti-chance based, matter-and-motion philosopher;

Holbach’s System of Nature is the most exhaustive [and intellectually thorough-going] discussion of atheism — from a scientific, philosophical, moral, and political perspective — ever written.”
Sunand Joshi (2014), The Original Atheists (pg. #)

aka “Newton of the atheists” (Ѻ) (V|1:45); a top-ranked extreme atheist; the Hume-Holbach dinner party (1763) encounter situate him between Voltaire and David Hume in intellect, if not above [?] Voltaire; his mentally-penetrating The System of Nature turned both Goethe and Percy Shelley into the atheist natural philoosphy mode of thinking.


John Mill 75John Mill


Ernst Haeckel 75Ernst Haeckel

Haeckel evolution(Murray 4000:16|B) (FA:74) (GPhE:11) [CR:127] was a German physician, turned Goethe-promoting, Darwin-promoting zoologist;

“The fundamental unit of affinity in the whole of nature, from the simplest chemical process to the most complicated love story, [as] was recognized by Empedocles [and] Goethe, [can be] reduced, on logical analysis, to matter (space filling substance) and energy (moving force), [which] are but two inseparable attributes of one underlying substance.”
— Ernest Haeckel (1899), The Riddle of the Universe

characterized an "unabashed atheist" (Brix, 1992), noted for his "physico-chemical monism" philosophical conception "of the world" (1892); a rare Goethe and Empedocles scholar.

Nietzsche 75Friedrich Nietzsche
(Murray 4000:15|WP)
(Stokes 100:70|Existentialists)
(Perry 80:7|Life)
(TopXBest 51:16)
(StreetPoll 20:5)
(OldWizard 11:5)
Nietzsche (caricature)[RGM:30|1,500+] (Murray 4000:15|WP) (Perry 80:7|Li) [HD:44] (FA:138) (GAE:2) [RGA:21|370+] [CR:320] Polish-ethnicity German-born atheist asoulist philosopher;

“Do you know what the ‘world’ is to me? Shall I show it to you in my mirror? This world: a monster of energy, without beginning, without end; a firm, iron magnitude of force that does not grow bigger or smaller, that does not expend itself but only transforms itself.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche (1885), The Will to Power (WP:1067)

third generation student of Goethe, via Schopenhauer, noted for his 1882 "god is dead"; his unfinished magnum opus The Will to Power, wherein he grapples, via 1,067 fragments, or numbered "apothegms", as Henry Mencken (1920) calls them, with the "god void" replacement issue, i.e. what is to replace god or belief in the existence of god in the wake of his absence, via modern physical science based reformulated outlines of new classical philosophy.

Machiavelli 75Niccolo Machiavelli
(Stokes 100:26|Age of Science)
(TopXBest 51:50)
(StreetPoll 20:8)
Machiavelli quote (intelligence)(Cattell 1000:83) [RGM:54|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:40) (CR:53) Italian realism philosopher, historian, politician, and diplomat;

“We are much beholden to Machiavelli and others, that write what men do, and not what they ought to do.”
Francis Bacon (1605), The Advancement of Learning (Ѻ)

best known for his 1513 leadership advice book The Prince, political ethics discourse advocating an ‘ends outweigh the means’ (or "end justifies the means") philosophy; influential to: Francis Bacon and Vilfredo Pareto.

Thomas Hobbes 75 Thomas Hobbes
(Murray 4000:16|WP)
(Stokes 100:31|Age of Science)
(Perry 80:1|Man/Self)
(TopXBest 51:36)
(Cattell 1000:63) [RGM:127|1,500+] (Murray 4000:16|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:151) (HD:5) (FA:58) (GA:30) [RMS:18] [CR:169] English philosopher, social physicist, political theorist, and psychologist (Romanes, 1895);

“That when a thing lies still, unless somewhat else stir it, it will lie still forever, is a truth that no man doubts of. But that when a thing is in motion, it will eternally be in motion, unless somewhat else stay it, though the reason be the same, namely, that nothing can change itself, is not so easily assented to. For men measure, not only other men, but all other things, by themselves; and because they find themselves subject after motion to pain, and lassitude, think everything else grows weary of motion, and seeks repose of its own accord; little considering, whether it be not some other motion, wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves, consistent.”
— Thomas Hobbes (1651), Leviathan (§2: On Imagination) (pg. 3)

His 1651 book Leviathan, draws analogies between the laws of mechanics and the features of society.

Schopenhauer 75Arthur Schopenhauer

(Murray 4000:13|WP)
(Stokes 100:49|Idealists)
(Perry 80:3|Love)
(TopXBest 51:43)
Schopenhauer icon[RGM:89|1,500+] (Murray 4000:13|WP) (SN:15) (FA:93) (GA:10) (GPhE:#) [CR:250] German atheistic natural philosopher;

“The will of the copper, claimed and preoccupied by the electrical opposition to the iron, leaves unused the opportunity that presents itself for its chemical affinity for oxygen and carbonic acid, behaves exactly as the will does in a person who abstains from an action to which he would otherwise feel moved, in order to perform another to which he is urged by a stronger motive.”
— Arthur Schopenhauer (1844), The World as Will and Representation

his The World as Will and Representation (1814, 1844), building on Goethe's human elective affinities theory (see: elective affinity problem), explains "will" in a universal manner.

Empedocles 75Empedocles
Death does NOT exist (Empedocles, 450BC)(Cattell 1000:896) [RGM:401|1,500+] (ACR:11) (FA:8) (EvT:5|21+) [CR:276] Greek physical science philosopher;

“There is neither birth nor death for any mortal, but only a combination and separation of that which was combined, and this is what amongst laymen they call ‘birth’ and ‘death’. Only infants or short-sighted persons imagine any thing is ‘born’ which did not exist before, or that any thing can ‘die’ or parish totally.”
Empedocles (c.450BC), Fragment I21 / DK8 + Fragment I23 / DK11;

outlined a "two-force / four-element" philosophical theory of everything.

Kant 75 Immanuel Kant
(Murray 4000:3|WP)
(Stokes 100:45|Idealist)
(Perry 80:5|Life)
(TopXBest 51:15)
(StreetPoll 20:10)
(OldWizard 11:6)
(Cattell 1000:33) [RGM:19|1,500+] (Murray 4000:3|WP) (Perry 80:5|Li) (RMS:21) [CR:210] German philosopher, a fabled "last persons to know everything", an oft-cited "smartest person ever" missing candidate, noted for doing work on the Nebular hypothesis (1855), the Abraham and Brahma problem (c.1869), the categorical imperative (1785), among other areas.

Montaigne 75Michel Montaigne
(Perry 80:3|Death)
(TopXBest 51:45)
Montaigne medallion(Cattell 1000:171) [RGM:222|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:432) (HD:2) (FA:29) (CR:73) French atomic theory based realism philosopher;

Montaigne was the first Frenchman who dared to think.”
Julien la Mettrie (1751), “Anti-Seneca” (pg. 129)

His three-volume 1580 Essays, attempts to explore thoughts on existence and learning, much of which themed the 55BC On the Nature of Things, particularly those views of Epicurus, cautioned with the more conserved views of Lucretius, followed by those of Cicero, thirdly; many of the essays centered around: sex and death; wore a medallion around his neck that said "what do I know?" and "I hold back, or reserve judgment" around his neck (adjacent).

Cicero 75Cicero
(Stokes 100:13|Stoics) (Cattell 1000:15) [RGM:116|1,500+] [CR:200], aka "Tully", was a Roman philosopher and politician;

Cicero provided the ‘renaissance’ with its prime methods of philosophical dialogue, and its fullest knowledge about the ancient philosophical schools.”
Michel Montaigne (c.1580), Publication

noted for his 45BC On the Nature of the Gods, a discourse on Greek and Roman theologies, namely a dialogue on a comparison of the pros and cons of stoicism (character: Balbus), Epicurean theology (character: Velleius), and Platonic Academy based skepticism (character: Cotta); also known for thoughts on morals, society, the legal system, etc., as both religion and and Epicurean atomic theory would each see things


(Cattell 1000:134) [RGM:204|1,500+] (FA:31) [CR:116] Greek-born Roman historian and philosopher, noted for his commentary on the Osiris resurrection theory (100AD), i.e. Egyptian state religion, for his discussions on the theory of the cold element (118AD) and for his Theseus’s ship (see: turnover rate) paradox discussions.

David Hume 75David Hume
(Murray 4000:8|WP)
(Stokes 100:39|Empiricists)
(Perry 80:17|Knowledge)
(TopXBest 51:18)
(OldWizard 11:9)
Hume caricature(Cattell 1000:58) [RGM:109|1,500+] (Murray 4000:4|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:185) (SN:49) (GMG:7) (EPD|F2) [CR:90] Scottish philosopher;

“There is nothing to be learned from a professor, which is not to be met with in the books.”
— David Hume (1735), “Letter to Jemmy Birch”

aka “Newton of moral sciences” (Foley, 1990); noted for his 1740 A Treatise of Human Nature; his 1783 essay “On the Immortality of the Soul”, argued that “it appears difficult by the mere light of reason to prove the immortality of the soul”; Kant's 1788 Critique of Practical Reason and his categorical imperative, according to Miguel Unamuno, are both criticism launching points off the two latter works; his posthumous Dialog Concerning Natural Religion (1777) did a modern remake of Cicero’s The Nature of the Gods; famously-known, in atheist circles, for his encounter with Baron d’Holbach, wherein boasted “I do not believe in atheists, because I have never met one” (see: Hume-Holbach dinner party).

Marcus Aurelius 75Marcus Aurelius
(Stokes 100:16|Stoics)
(Perry 80:4|Life)
(TopXBest 51:7)
(Cattell 1000:50) [RGM:102|1,500+] (Stokes 100:16) (Perry 80:4|Li) (FA:24) (EPD:F3) [CR:46] Roman "philosopher king", politician, the 16th Roman emperor (Ѻ), thing philosopher, an adherent of stoicism, an oft-classified “anti-theist” (Ѻ), noted for his keen intellect and wisdom on a number of topics, such as atheism, nature, and change, to name a few, generally known for his Mediations (167AD), characterized as the "gospel of those who do not believe in the supernatural" (Zimmern, 1887), wherein he extols on a common sense practical Heraclitus-Zeno stylized stoicism

Bertrand Russell 75Bertrand Russell
(Murray 4000:17|WP)
(Stokes 100:77|Linguistics)
(Perry 80:|Language)
(TopXBest 51:38)
(StreetPoll 20:12)
Bertrand Russell (on Religion)(RGM:145|1,500+) (Gottlieb 1000:593) (EPD:M2/F4) [HD:51] [FA:117] (GAE:21) (Stokes 100:77) [CR:165] British mathematician and philosopher; 20th century's greatest atheism advocate.

Plotinus 75Plotinus
(Murray 4000:19|WP)
(Stokes 100:18|Neoplatonist)
(Perry 80:1|Time)
(Cattell 1000:773) [RGM:500|1,500+] (Stokes 100:18) (Murray 4000:19|WP) (GPhE:#) (CR:27) Greek-Egyptian born Italian anti-atomicist philosopher, characterized a "non-Christian" (Copleston, 1948), founder of the neoplatonic school, noted for his circa 265 collected works set Enneads, wherein he attempts to grapple with phenomena such as "passions" and concepts such as "soul" in terms of atomic theory, something rarely seen in modern time;

Thomas Aquinas 75Thomas Aquinas
(Murray 4000:6|WP)
(Stokes 100:22|Scholastics)
(Perry 80:3|God)
(TopXBest 51:8)
(ListVerse 10:6)
(Cattell 1000:384) [RGM:110|1,500+] (Murray 4000:6|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:8) (CR:54) Italian theological philosopher;

Parmenides 75Parmenides
(ACR:11)[RGM:216|1,500+] [CR:118] Greek physicist-philosopher; in his “On Nature” (485BC) he argued that a void or rather a vacuum, in nature, could not exist, per reason that “being” could not go into “non-being”; this riddled argument launched the famous 2,000-year plus nature abhors a vacuum debated and the Parmenides vs Heraclitus debate.

Voltaire 75Voltaire
(Stokes 100:41|Empirists)
(TopXBest 51:9)
(StreetPoll 20:1)
(Cattell 1000:4) [RGM:34|1,500+] (Murray 4000:7|WL) (EPD:M7) [CR:313] French writer, philosopher, scientist;

John Locke 75John Locke
(Murray 4000:7|WP)
(Stokes 100:38|Empericists)
(Perry 80:2|Free will)
(TopXBest 51:13)
(ListVerse 10:10)
(Cattell 1000:35) [RGM:108|1,500+] (Murray 4000:7|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:11) (Stokes 100:38) [HD:7] (FA:63) (CR:67) English physician and social philosopher; noted for his 1690 Essay Concerning Human Understanding, wherein, he made, supposedly, the first serious attempt to explain the functioning of the mind in purely naturalistic terms, WITHOUT the need for divine intervention in the development of reason;

image needed 75x99 headLeucippus
(ACR:18) Atomic philosophy(GCE:10) [CR:212] Greek atomic physicist and philosopher;

“Nothing happens in vain, but everything from reason and by necessity.”
— Leucippus (c.460BC), On Mind (Fragment L1)

noted for conceiving of the atomic theory, which was a reactionary theory developed in response to Greek philosopher Parmenides’ 485BC denial of the void;

Francis Bacon 75 Francis Bacon
(Stokes 100:29|Age of Science)
(TopXBest 51:20)
(Cattell 1000:5) [RGM:130|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:84) (LPKE:4|18+) (GPhE:#) [CR:149] English physicist, natural philosopher, and general polymath;

Zeno of Citium 75Zeno of Citium
(TopXBest 51:11)
(ListVerse 10:8)
Slave stealing parable 2(Cattell 1000:859) [RGM:792|1,500+] (GPhE:#) (CR:44) Greek natural philosopher, noted for employing a determinism philosophy of action, particularly in regards to crime and punishment (see: slave stealing parable; flower stealing model), and also the founder of stoicism, a philosophy which holds that the wise man should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and submissive to natural law and or one apparently or professedly indifferent to pleasure or pain.

Freud 75 newSigmund Freud
(Becker 139:119)
(Stokes 100:66)


Karl Popper 75Karl Popper
(Stokes 100:94)
(TopXBest 51:51)
(Spenko 27:14)
Falsifiability (Popper)(RGM:1182|1,500+) (Stokes 100:94) (GPhE:25) (CR:25) Austrian-born English philosopher, noted for his 1919 falsifiability model of good science, according to which to know if something is true or not, e.g. a new theory like relativity, there must be a way to test it, e.g. measure during an eclipse if the mass of the sun bends light, and for his latter discussions on the arrow of time in relation to entropy as well as his critique on general laws of science.

Hegel 75 Georg Hegel
(Murray 4000:5|WP)
(Stokes 100:48|Idealists)
(Perry 80:3|Art)
(TopXBest 51:21)
(OldWizard 11:4)
(Cattell 1000:51) [RGM:51|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:59) (Murray 4000:5|WP) (Stokes 100:48|Idealists) (Perry 80:3|Art) (GPhE:#) [CR:79] German natural philosopher;

Philosophy, if one still wants to call it that, has had to sink lower and lower, until it finally reached the lowest level of abasement in the ministerial creature Hegel, who in order to smother again the ‘freedom of thought’, which Kant had struggled for and won, made of ‘philosophy’, the daughter of reason and the future mother of truth, a tool of state aims, obscurantism, and Protestant Jesuitism. In order to cover up the disgrace and at the same time to bring about the greatest possible stupefaction of minds, he drew over it a cloak of the emptiest word rubbish and silliest gallimathias that have ever been heard outside the insane asylum.”
Arthur Schopenhauer (1839), Essay on the Freedom of the Will (pgs. 85-86)

semi-classified a “modern Aristotle” (Ladlier, 2000) (Ѻ), specifically in "young Marx's eyes" (McBride, 1977) (Ѻ).

Martin Heidegger 75Martin Heidegger
(Stokes 100:71|Existentialists)
(Perry 80:4|Language)
(TopXBest 51:42)
(Spenko 27:5)
[RGM:170|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:914) (Perry 80:4|La) (HCR:14) (FA:105) (CR:41) German atheistic existentialist philosopher (Sartre, 1945); influenced deeply by Nietzsche; teacher of Hannah Arendt; noted, predominately, for his 1927 Being and Time, in which he suggest that the meaning of our being must be tied up with time, i.e. that we are temporal beings, a logic somehow based on critique of Kant and a synthesis of Nietzsche








Thomas More 75Thomas More
(Becker 139:115)
(Stokes 100:28)
(Cattell 1000:106) (RGM:772|1,500+) (Gottlieb 1000:345) (CR:13) English lawyer and social philosopher; noted for his 1516 Utopia, a name that means “no-place” in Greek, an imaginary island, wherein its inhabitants were allowed to pursue pleasure, in the Epicurean "pleasure principle" atomic theory sense of the matter, so long as they don’t deny the existence of divine providence, i.e. think that chance rules the universe, or deny the afterlife, i.e. think that the soul dies with the body; close correspondent of Desiderius Erasmus.





Person icon 75Zeno of Elea
(Stokes 100:6|Eleatics)
(Cattell 1000:726) (Eells 100:100) (CR:19) Greek-Italian philosopher, was one of three main philosophers of the Eleatic school, founded by Parmenides, whose third member includes Melissus (500-440BC) — whose essential tenets were the denial of change, denial of the void (or non-being), denial of movement, in support of the overarching postulate of continuity of being (or being oneness), or something along these lines — generally known for his famous paradoxes, e.g. Achilles and the tortoise, which aimed to repudiate plurality and change, and thus motion.





Ludwig Wittgenstein 75Ludwig Wittgenstein
(Stokes 100:78|Linguistics)
(TopXBest 51:22)
Wittgenstein icon[RGM:219|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:634) (CR:38) Austrian-British philosopher; noted for comments on Schopenhauer’s “elective affinity will” or “will to power” (attacking one’s fears); his two biggest works are Philosophical Investigations and Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, which according to some “show more raw intellect than anything Shakespeare has written”; downgrade for having so many “god-this” and “god-that” quotes attributed to him; some have ranked him above Bertrand Russell.

























Isaac Beeckman 75Isaac Beeckman
(1588-1637) ↑



























The following is a useful key:

(Murray 4000:#|WP)
(Murray 4000:#|CP)
(Stokes 100:#|Name)
(Perry 80:#|Name)
(TopXBest 51:#)
(Spenko 27:#)
(StreetPoll 20:#)
(OldWizard 11:#)
(ListVerse 10:#)

(add) | 2008
The following is a 2008 top 10 greatest philosophes of all time listing (with accompanying top 10 philosophical works of all time) from [1]

1. Socrates
2. Plato
3. Rene Descartes
4. Friedrich Hegel
5. Friedrich Nietzsche
6. Immanuel Kant
7. Soren Kierkegaard
8. Edmund Husserl
9. David Hume
10. Martin Heidegger
11. Jean Rousseau | 2011
The following is a 2011 listing of the “Top 10 Greatest Philosophers in History” by [2]

1. Aristotle
2. Plato
3. Paul of Tarsus [fictional]
4. Rene Descartes
5. Confucius [fictional]
6. Thomas Aquinas
7. Avicenna
8. Zeno of Citium
9. Epicurus
10. John Locke
Street poll | 2011
The following are the top 10 greatest philosophers of all time according to informal in person street poll of random Chicagoans (numbers being votes received): [3]

1. Socrates (11)
2. Plato (9)
3. Aristotle (7)
4. Confucius (3) [fictional]
5. Friedrich Nietzsche (2)
6. Bruce Lee (2)
7. Rene Descartes
8. Machiavelli
9. Voltaire
10. Immanuel Kant
11. Soren Kierkegaard
12. Bertrand Russell
13. Jean-Paul Sartre
14. Ayn Rand
15. Michel Foucault
16. Friedrich Engels
17. Henry Thoreau
18. Karl Marx
19. Homer
20. Nero


TopXBestList | 2016
The following, from (2016), is a top 51 greatest philosophers listing: (Ѻ)

1. Socrates
2. Plato
3. Aristotle
4. Paul the Apostle [fictional]
5. Confucius [fictional]
6. Rene Descartes
7. Marcus Aurelius
8. Thomas Aquinas
9. Voltaire
10. Avicenna
11. Zeno of Citium
12. Epicurus
13. John Locke
14. Leo Tolstoy
15. Immanuel Kant
16. Friedrich Nietzsche
17. John Mill
18. David Hume
19. Laozi [fictional]
20. Francis Bacon
21. Georg Hegel
22. Ludwig Wittgenstein
23. Thales
24. Anaxagoras
25. Gottfried Leibniz
26. Benedict Spinoza
27. Jean Rousseau
28. Boethius
29. Diogenes of Sinope
30. Heraclitus
31. Charles Montesquieu
32. Jean Sartre
33. Jeremy Bentham
34. Zeno of Elea
35. Soren Kierkegaard
36. Thomas Hobbes
37. Adam Smith
38. Bertrand Russell
39. George Berkeley
40. Augustine of Hippo
41. Simone Beauvoir
42. Martin Heidegger
43. Arthur Schopenhauer
44. Willard Quine
45. Michel Montaigne
46. William James
47. Maimonides
48. Ayn Rand
49. Jacques Derrida
50. Niccolo Machiavelli
51. Karl Popper
Spenko | 2019
The following is Jan Spenko’s so-called “modest list” (Ѻ) of 27 post-Nietzsche era "really great philosophers":

1. Theodor Adorno; Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. The Culture Industry
2. Max Horkheimer; Eclipse of Reason. Critical Theory: Selected essays.
3. Jurgen Habermas; The Structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry Into a category of Bourgeois Society.
4. Hans-Georg Gadamer; Truth and Method. Philosophical Hermeneutics.
5. Martin Heidegger; Being and Time.
6. Walter Benjamin; Illuminations: Essays and Reflections.
7. Ludwig Wittgenstein; Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Philosophical investigations.
8. John Rawls; A Theory of Justice.
9. Willard Quine; Word and Object.
10. Jean-Paul Sartre; Being and Nothingness.
11. Alfred Ayer; Language, Truth, and Logic.
12. John Dewey; Experience and Nature.
13. Edmund Husserl; Logical Investigations. Ideas.
14. Karl Popper; Logic of Scientific Discovery. The Open Society and its Enemies.
15. Michel Foucault; Discipline and Punish
16. Jacques Derrida; Of Grammatology. Writing and Difference.
17. Emmanuel Levinas; Totality and Infinity: An essay on Exteriority.
18. Richard Rorty; Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature.
19. Ernst Cassier; An Essay on Man: An introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture.
20. Roland Barthes; Mythologies.
21. Antonio Gramsci; Prison Notebooks ( 3 volumes ).
22. Robert Nozick; Anarchy, State, and Utopia.
23. Gilles Deleuze; Difference and Repetition.
24. Jean Baudrillard; Simulacra and Simulation.
25. Herbert Marcuse; One-Dimensional Man.
26. Erich Fromm; Escape from Freedom.
27. Louis Althusser; For Marx. Reading Capital.

See also
Greatest chemist ever
Greatest physicist ever
Greatest mathematician ever
Greatest thermodynamicist ever
Greatest engineer ever
Last person to know everything
Universal genius
Last universal genius
Genius IQs (top 1000 geniuses)
IQ: 200+ | Smartest person ever
IQ: 150+ | Smartest woman ever

1. 10 greatest philosophes of all time (2008) –
2. Top 10 Greatest Philosophers in History (2011) –
3. Thims, Libb. (2011). "Street Poll", Chicago, IL, Nov 5.
4. Kompridis, Nikolas. (2006). Philosophical Romanticism (Goethe, 54+ pgs). Routledge.

External links
● Becker 144 (Ѻ) (c.2019) – Greatest Philosophers of All Time | Ranked.

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