HMS pioneers


CPK coloring scheme
chemical mechanism (verticle)Evolution of man (molecule view)
Depiction of the "evolution of the human molecule" by Canadian communications designer Shawn LaPaix, a spin on English biologist Thomas Huxley’s famous 1863 evolution of man drawing, using the 1952 CPK atomic color scheme: red = oxygen, blue = nitrogen, gray = hydrogen, black = carbon (not shown); for a poster for the 2005 University of British Columbia Art Gallery exhibit “The Human Body in History”, alluding to the idea that human is a body of evolving atoms, formed into the structure of a molecule, that has been chemically synthesized into its current form, over long spans of evolutionary time.
In science, HMS pioneers, or human molecular science pioneers, page chronologically lists the various 122+ pioneers of the science (or philosophy) of the human molecule; or hmol science, in short. The following 1991 query by American philosopher Robert Pirsig (IQ=170) gives a decent summary of an hmol science pioneer's perspective:

“Why should a group of simple, stable compounds of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), 'struggle' for billions of years to organize themselves into a professor of chemistry? What's the motive?”

This group includes individuals, categorized as human molecular theorists, who have pioneered the use of atomic reductionism, whether metaphorical, analogy, theoretical, or actual to the modeling of a human as human molecule or its derivative terms: human atom, human atomism, human chemical, human chemical element, human particle, social atom, social molecule, economic molecule, corporate molecule, etc., in theory or discussion, or specifically in the subjects of human chemistry, human physics, and human thermodynamics. The known human molecular science theorists and pioneers are listed below.

A person's photo-size is indicative of a combination of originality, contribution density, impact, and deepness of theory insight: the largest photo width (75px) is indicative of an 'originator', someone who developed deep theory, on their own, directly from hard science, particularly physics or chemistry; the smallest photo size (25px) may indicate a one-time theory contributor (as little as one quote), or something to this effect; middle sized photos (44px) are indicative of thinkers in between these two ranges. The molecule manmolecule man 35icon (31+) indicates that the individual used the specific term "human molecule" [s], which differs significantly than say comparing a person to a "point atom" or "human element". The lightbulb iconlightbulb icon white 25indicates from where that person learned of the concept. The YouTube iconYouTube 40x17links to a video on the topic. The University iconUniversity iconindicates that the concept (human molecule, human atomism, dissipative structure, etc.) is or has been taught as part of a university course. The globeglobe iconicon links to a webpage on that person's human molecular theory (or its derivative) run by either that person (or a follower of that person's work). The WikipediaWikiicon links to a Wikipedia article on that person. Individuals highlighted with red tabs are objectors to human molecular theory (sixty-seven percent of detractors objecting on religious grounds). The religion iconReligion icon 20x27is used to signify that the person intertwines their description of the human molecule, either for or against, religious grounds, e.g. that a human has a soul, whereas molecules don't. The atom symbolGenius icon (f) 30, links to a specific IQ page of tabulated historical IQ listings and signifies that the person is a certified genius (with a 200-range IQ plus or minus) or close friend of a certified genius.

Earlier HMS pioneers
The following is a chronological listing of core biographies in hmol science theories, ideas, and opinions professed up until the year 1800.:


Empedocles 75Empedocles (495-435 BC)
Greek philosopher
450BCWikiTheorized that humans are 'entities' made of four elements: fire (θ∆ics - Encyclopedia of Humanthermodynamics), earth (θ∆ics - Encyclopedia of Humanthermodynamics), air (θ∆ics - Encyclopedia of Humanthermodynamics), water (θ∆ics - Encyclopedia of Humanthermodynamics), whose 'interactions' are governed by two forces: philia (●→|←●), i.e. attraction (or love) and neikos (←●|●→), i.e. repulsion (or hate). This was the first standard model of physics.

Jean Sales 75Jean Sales (1741-1816)
French philosopher
1789 Wikimolecule man 35(Genius icon (f) 30Voltaire) Quote: “we conclude that there exists a principle of the human body which comes from the great process in which so many millions of atoms of the earth become many millions of human molecules.”

Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe (1749-1832)
German polymath
1799WikiGenius icon (f) 30Conceived a human chemical reaction theory in which relationships are chemical reactions in which people, as chemical entities, attract and reply, neutralize each other, separate again, and reestablish themselves; and in 1808, using Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman's 1775 chemistry textbook A Dissertation on Elective Attractions, as a basis, wrote out a 36-chapter novella, in which each chapter is a different human elective affinity reaction (human chemical reaction) occurring between the various characters; the process in which two people, A and B, in the state of a dull marriage union, AB (Bergman's notation), can be made to break apart by the introduction of a third single unattached human C, brought into the picture, is exactly same process, according to Goethe (see: chapter four), by which calcium carbonate  CaCO_3 \, can be broken up into its constituent parts,  Ca \, and  CO_3 \,, by contact with sulfuric acid  H_2SO_4 \, to form gypsum  CaSO_4 \cdot 2H_2O \, and the release of carbon dioxide  CO_2 \, gas, the gas being representative of the displaced marriage partner, gypsum representative of the newly formed couple.

Schiller 75Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805)
German author (IQ=175)
1799Genius icon (f) 30Wiki(lightbulb icon white 25Goethe) Goethe confided in him his theory that intimate relationships are chemical reactions in which people, as chemical entities, attract and reply, neutralize each other, separate again, and reestablish themselves.

19th century HMS pioneers
The following is a chronological listing of core biographies in hmol science theories, ideas, and opinions professed in the years 1800 to 1899:


Christoph Wieland 75Christoph Wieland (1733-1813)
German poet and writer
1810WikiReligion icon 20x27(lightbulb icon white 25Goethe) Considered the modeling of humans as chemicals to be "nonsense and childish fooling around".

Humphry Davy 75Humphry Davy (1778-1829)
English chemist (IQ=185)
1813WikiGenius icon (f) 30Compared man to a "point atom", or point center of force.

Alphonse Esquiros 75Alphonse Esquiros (1812-1876)
French religious writer
1840Wikimolecule man 35Argued: “unity can be held in effect by the assent of human molecules to carry all toward each other; the law of attraction is a law of love.”

Hector Berloiz 75Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
French composer
1854Wikimolecule man 35Compared the visual sight of a children's choir to that of a "crystal of human molecules."

Henry Carey 75Henry Carey (1793-1879)
American sociologist and economist
1858WikiStated that: “man, the molecule of society, is the subject of social science”; explained how chemical affinity must govern human social movement and outlined a theory of social heat associated with the rubbing together of human molecules in daily activity; outlined a theory of social gravitation to explain how people attract into the aggregation of large cities, each mutual city acting as an attractive 'sun' with a certain brightness to it.

Nassau Senior 75Nassau Senior
English economist
1860 Quote: “The human 'will' obey laws nearly as certain as those which regulate matter.” [6]

Helmholtz 75Hermann Helmholtz (1821-1894)
German physicist and physician
1862WikiIn his series of lectures entitled "On the Conservation of Force", delivered at the Carlsruhe, winter 1862-63, he made a comparison between the behavior of a swam of gnats and a system of gas particles, where by the particles were said to probably cross one another in rectilinear paths in all directions, until, striking another particle, or against the side of a vessel, they are reflected in another direction.

Person icon (29x43)Francois Massieu (1832-1896)
French engineer
c.1869WikiQuote: “they cut the man into two parts, soul and body, the philosopher took one, and another naturalist, they both have worked, studied on their behalf have lost sight and we find ourselves today in the presence of a duality, convenient perhaps, but unwise, in that it overlooked the man to deal with only two elements that constitute it. But in doing so we run the risk of being wrong. If one wanted to know the chemical properties of water  H_2 0 \,, seek it in those of oxygen O_2 \, and hydrogen  H_2 \,? No, because he knows that there is little relationship between the characteristics of a substance and those of simple bodies which enter into its composition.”

“To study humans, it is perhaps even more reserve, his corpse is certainly different from his living, his soul is a being whose morality tells us in existence, but whose philosophy can boast of acquire specific knowledge, since it can be studied in a free state, the revelation can only speak in this regard. But what science and philosophy can and should perhaps only study, is a man indivisible and tangible for us, where the angel and the beast are inseparable, which has a body and ailments, but also passions and faculties, such as intelligence, memory and reason.”

Hippolyte Taine 75Hippolyte Taine (1828-1893)
French historian
1869Wikimolecule man 35Presented the view that objective of the historian is to "write the psychology of the human molecule, or a particular group of human molecules, in their various transformations."

Leo Tolstoy 75Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)
Russian writer
1869 Wiki(lightbulb icon white 25Buckle) Quote: “A particle of matter cannot tell us that it is unconscious of the laws of attraction and repulsion and that the law is not true; but man, who is the subject of history, says bluntly: I am free, and am therefore not subject to laws.”

Person icon (29x43)Antoine Poincare (1825-date)
French civil engineer and meteorologist
c.1870In his book On Science, chapter "New Concepts of Matter", made a comparison between the behavior of a cluster of midges and a system of gas molecules. [1]

Thomas Huxley 75Thomas Huxley (1825-1895)
English biologist
1871WikiOutlined the view that society as a whole is a "social molecule"
13.Boltzmann 75 newLudwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)
Austrian physicist
1872Wiki(lightbulb icon white 25Buckle) Quote: “molecules are like to many individuals, having the most various states of motion, and the properties of gases only remain unaltered because the number of these molecules which on average have a given state of motion is constant.” [5]
14.Maxwell 75James Maxwell (1831-1879)
Scottish mathematical physicist
1873 Wiki(lightbulb icon white 25Buckle) “These uniformities which we observed in our experiments with quantities of matter containing millions of molecules are uniformities of the same kind as those explained by Laplace [material points] and wondered at by Buckle [people] arising from the slumping together of multitudes of causes each of which is by no means uniform with the others.” [5]
15.Leon Walras 75Leon Walras (1834-1910)
French sociologist and economist
c.1874WikiViewed people as "economic molecules".
16.icon 75 (test)Ernst Gryzanowski (1824-1888)
German physician and diplomat
1875 molecule man 35(lightbulb icon white 25Taine) Quote: “Civil law, commerce, political economy, and international ethics are all based on the assumption that the social body consists of such human molecules, and there is no reason why the methods of physical science should not be applied to the statics and dynamics of that society, the passions and rights of the individual man corresponding exactly to the chemical and physical forces inherent in the material molecule.”
17.Henry Adams 75Henry Adams (1838-1918)
American historian
1885Wikimolecule man 35(lightbulb icon white 25Taine) Defined 'social chemistry' as the study of the attraction [and repulsion] of equivalent 'human molecules'; applied the chemical thermodynamics phase rule work of Willard Gibbs to society (1909); outlined a second law version of history studies of human molecules (1910), in which contractions of human molecules act like suns to create energy opposite to entropy.
18.Ferdinand Schiller 75Ferdinand Schiller (1864-1937)
German-British philosopher
1891Wikimolecule man 35In his Riddles of the Sphinx, outlined philosophical views on sex and love in relation to social life, wherein he considers people as atoms and bound sets of humans in relationships as molecules; specifically describing the couple in love as a 'human molecule'; he discusses the forces of attractions and repulsions at work in the most intimate unions, such as jealously.
19.Person icon (29x43)Max Leclerc (1864-1932)
French education reformer
1894molecule man 35(lightbulb icon white 25Taine) Views that France, in its schools and military, consists of “even numbered piles of human molecules, in a huge wheel turning, under the pedal of the stroke of the Minister, which crushes and destroys humanity down to the pulp.”
20.icon 75 (test)Leon Winiarski (1865-1915)
Polish economist and sociologist
c.1894Wiki (lightbulb icon white 25Walrus) Quote: “a social aggregate is nothing but a system of points, i.e. individuals, who are in perpetual movement of approaching or withdrawing from one another.”
21.Vilfredo Pareto 75Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923)
French-Italian mathematical engineer
1896 Wikimolecule man 35(lightbulb icon white 25Walrus) Quote: “Society is a system of human molecules in a complex mutual relationship.”
22.William Ramsay 75William Ramsay (1852-1916)
Scottish chemist
1898 Wikimolecule man 35Noted for his ‘football players’ explanation of kinetic theory, where the players are likened to a ‘throng of human molecules’.
23.Albion Small 75Albion Small (1854-1926)
American sociologist
1899WikiOutlined the possibility of defining "general sociology", on the model of "general chemistry", as the study of "human atoms" and their behaviors.

20th century HMS pioneers
The following is a chronological listing of core biographies in hmol science theories, ideas, and opinions professed in the years 1900 to 1999:


1.Yves Guyot 75Yves Guyot (1843-1928)
French economist
1903 Wikimolecule man 35Explained civilization changes as “fluid human molecules rolling over each other.”
2.William Adams 75William Adams (1832-1906)
English radical journalist
1903WikiPublished his two-volume opus Memoirs of a Social Atom, using the philosophy that he is a “social atom—a small speck of the surface of society.”
3.Emile Boutmy 75Emile Boutmy (1835-1906)
French political scientist and sociologist
1904Wikimolecule man 35In his The English People: a Study of Their Political Psychology, uses the term 'human molecule' as the definition of the component of the masses to argue that equality of human molecules is the essential law of society and that royalty is a modern-day anomaly on the decline.
4.icon 75 (test)Mary Mesny (c.1980-c.1950)
American philosopher
1910Human Molecules (1910) 200pxmolecule man 35Outlined a short chemical philosophy in her one-page article "Human Molecules", defining people as atoms or molecules, who have various "satisfied" and "unsatisfied" bonds of affinity, which define the level of happiness of a person.
5.Thomas Dreier 75Thomas Dreier (1884-1976)
American editor, writer, and business theorist
1910We Human Chemicals (1948)WikiWrote the article "Human Chemicals"; later expanded into the 1948 book We Human Chemicals, the dedication section of which states "to my fellow human chemicals: may we all learn the knack of getting along"; the first chapter of which is 'We are All Human Chemicals and Human Chemists'.
6.Person icon (29x43)George Herbert Perris (1866-1920)
English journalist
1913 molecule man 35Explained that “war is often a process of evolution—an explosive process which occurs when the progressive movement of human molecules towards a reorganization making for equality of opportunity and a betterment of the law, is unduly held back by the forces of standpatism and vested interests.”
7.William Fairburn 75 newWilliam Fairburn (1876-1947)
English-born American naval architect, marine engineer, chemical engineer, and industrial executive
1914WikiWrote the booklet Human Chemistry, in which he defined people as "human chemicals" or sometimes "human chemical elements" and the foreman as the "master human chemist" whose job it is to facilitate reactions between his or her employees.
8.Pierre Teilhard 75Pierre Teilhard (1881-1955)
French philosopher, chemist, physicist, paleontologist, and priest
c.1916Wiki globe icon|molecule man 35|Religion icon 20x27Quote: “there is neither spirit nor matter in the world; the stuff of the universe is spirit-matter. No other substance but this could produce the human molecule” (source: A Sketch of a Personalistic Universe, 1936). Human molecule perspective used throughout his corpus of work, e.g. in his 1938 The Phenomenon of Man, he digs into the evolution question of how is it that human faculties, mind, consciousness, human spirit, etc., originated from the simple hydrogen atoms and other basic components of matter in the universe, over the last billions of years.
9.Jacob Moreno 75Jacob Moreno (1889-1974)
Romanian-born American psychologist
1917WikiDeveloped an elaborate psychology-type of social atom theory
10.George Carey 75George Carey (1845-1924)
American physician
1919WikiStated that a human is a "chemical formula in operation."
11.Person icon 75William Patten (1861-1932)
American zoologist
1919Wikimolecule man 35Attempted to outline how the modern person might go about deriving a science-based system of morality and future governing constitution for a ‘molecular society’, of people considered as ‘human social atoms’ (social atoms) or ‘human molecules’, based on chemistry, physics, and astronomy. Defined a person as "Mr. Molecule" (similar to Mark Janes' 2009 Mr. Carbon Atom)
12.Pitirim Sorokin 75Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968)
Russian-born American sociologist
1928Wikimolecule man 35(lightbulb icon white 25Carey)(lightbulb icon white 25Pareto) In his Contemporary Sociological Theories, he seems to have been the first to outlined the thermodynamic-energetic views of society as a mechanism of systems of human molecules and or human particles, particularly the views of Leon Winiarski, Eugene Roberty, Henry Carey, and Wilhelm Ostwald.
13.Howard W. Odum 75Howard W. Odum (1884-1954)
American sociologist
1929 Wikimolecule man 35(lightbulb icon white 25Carey)(lightbulb icon white 25Sorokin) Quote: “Thus human molecules gravitate toward one another through association, which generates heat, which produces motion, which in turn constitutes progress. This gravitation is measurable through physical laws of direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. Forms and process such as centralization and decentralization come about through the operation of centripetal and centrifugal forces with association and progress varying inversely as the differences between the units and groups of populations …”
14.Person icon (29x43)Katharine Jocher (c.1889-c.1969)
American sociologist
1929molecule man 35Co-author with Howard W. Odum.
15.Joseph Schumpeter 75Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950)
Austrian economist and political scientist
1942Wikimolecule man 35Quote: “It can be shown that in all cases, that human molecules rise and fall within the class into which they are born, in a manner which fits the hypothesis that they do so because of their relative aptitudes; and it can also be shown, second, that they rise and fall across the boundary lines of their class in the same manner. This rise and fall into higher and lower classes as a rule takes more than one generation. These molecules are therefore families rather than individuals. And this explains why observers who focus attention on individuals so frequently fail to find any relation between ability and class position.”
16. Person icon (29x43)Emyr Hughes (1905-1978)
Welsh physical chemist
1947 Quote: “energy among molecules is like money among men. The rich are few, the poor numerous.”
17. Tjalling Koopmans 75Tjalling Koopmans (1910-1985)
Dutch-born American mathematician, theoretical physicist, economist
1947WikiQuote: “while it was long possible and sometimes tempting for physicists to deny the usefulness of the molecular hypothesis, we economists have the good luck of being some of the ‘molecules’ of economic life ourselves, and of having the possibility through human contacts to study the behavior of other ‘molecules’.” In 1970s, began speculating on how entropy applies to the study of these molecules of economic life.
18.George Lundberg 75George Lundberg (1895-1966)
American sociologist
1948WikiSocially models people as ‘electron-proton configurations’.
19.Person icon (29x43)Leslie Zeleny (c.1905-70)
American sociologist
1949Diagrammed Moreno's social atom model using data of sociometric findings of the attraction-repulsion aspects of the relationships surrounding various people
20.C.G. Darwin 75C.G. Darwin (1887-1962)
English physicist
Grandson of Charles Darwin
1952Wikimolecule man 35In the opening chapter, Introduction, to his book The Next Million Years, introduced the human molecule concept as the subject of study in human thermodynamics.
21.Robert Heilbroner 75Robert Heilbroner (1919-2005)
American economist
1953 WikiQuote: “there is an unbridgeable gap between the ‘behavior’ of [subatomic particles] and those of human beings who constitute the objects of study of social science. Aside from pure physical reflexes, human behavior cannot be understood without the concept of volition—the unbridgeable capacity to change our minds up to the very last minute. By way of contrast, the elements of nature ‘behave’ as they do for reasons of which we know only one thing: the particles of physics do not ‘choose’ to behave as they do.”
22. Eric Fromm 75Eric Fromm (1900-1980)
German psychologist and philosopher
1956 WikiIn his best-selling The Art of Love, defined people as “human atoms”, and argued that the desire for interpersonal fusion between two human atoms is the most powerful striving in human life.
23.Person icon 75Werner Stark (1909-1985)
Austrian social economist
1962Wikimolecule man 35(lightbulb icon white 25Henry Carey) Quote: “in the physical universe, heat is engendered by friction. Consequently the case must be the same in the social world. The ‘particles’ must rub together here, as they do there. The rubbing of the human molecules, which produces warmth, light and forward movement, is the interchange of goods, services, and ideas.”
24. Edward Hall 75Edward Hall (1914-2009)
American anthropologist
1966 WikiQuote: “as more and more is learned about both men and animals, it becomes clear that the skin itself is a very unsatisfactory boundary or measuring point for crowding … like molecules that make up all matter, living things move and therefore require more or less fixed amounts of space.”
25.Person icon 75Elihu Fein (c.1916-)
American physicist
1970His article "Demography and Thermodynamics" outlines a "molecular sociology", as cited in the 1971 New Scientist article "Molecular Sociology Arrives at Last", in which he explains how social activity is analogous to molecular activity; uses concepts such as adiabatic and entropy in social systems; but cautions his readers, in that although his analogies seem to have validity, he emphatically states that “the conclusion is not that people act like molecules”, but that the goal is to understand ourselves and the world through abstract concepts.
26.Robert Nisbet 75Robert Nisbet (1913-1996)
American sociologist
1970Wiki(lightbulb icon white 25Adams) Considers people to be ‘elementary human particles’, refers to the adhesion between two human particles as a ‘social bond’, and the attachment of two or more human particles to be a ‘social molecule’.
27.Person icon 75Daedalus (c.1930-)
1971Cited several times, in a column of New Scientist magazine (1971, 1972), as as having originated a thermodynamics-based "molecular sociology".
28.Person icon 75Roy Henderson (c.1935-)
Australian mechanical engineer
1971Views people as chemical "particles" and men and women as non "identical particles"; his article “The Statistics of Crowd Fluids”, presents his findings of measured movements of college students on a campus and children on a playground, finding that in both cases their movements fit the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, meaning that both velocities of gas particles and the speeds of students follow a Gaussian distribution and that this is explained by "the concept of chemical purity in molecular systems." [13]
29.Prigogine 75Ilya Prigogine (1917-2003)
Russian-born Belgian chemist and thermodynamicist
University icon
1971Wikiglobe iconDefined humans as social systems as "dissipative structures" analogous to the phenomenon of Bernard cell formation. Quote: “the bifurcation introduces history into physics and chemistry, an element that formerly seemed to be reserved for sciences dealing with biology, social, and cultural phenomena” [8]
30. Person icon 75Erich Jantsch (1929-1980)
Austrian astrophysicist
1975molecule man 35Quote: “… dream of a pressure-free end state of maximum entropy in physical and social energy, in which action is neither possible nor necessary in any direction, only a kind of thermal (so-called Brownian) motion of the human "molecules" ...
31. Jonathan Borofsky 75Jonathan Borofsky (1942-)
American sculpture artist
1977 Molecule man (blue) 250 (s)Wiki|(WikiMM)globe iconNoted for his internationally-known multi-story aluminum hole-filled “Molecule Man” sculptures, at locations all over the world, consisting of three human shapes, each pushing towards each other, the bodies filled hundreds of holes, varying in size from about seven inches to one foot or more, each of which is said to be representative of “the molecules of all human beings coming together to create our existence”; the first sculptures were built in Los Angeles, originating because he was “fascinated by this ‘molecule idea’, the simple fact that even though we appear to be quite solid, we are in fact composed of a molecular structure which in itself is mostly composed of water and air.”
100-foot high statute of 3 human molecules
32.Jean Baudrillard 75Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)
French social philosopher and pataphysicist
1981 Wikimolecule man 35In his Simulacra and Simulation, considers people to be “hydrocarbons”, that combine to form a “cultural molecule”, which can be recombined and synthesized into products or “broken cultural molecules”; in his 1994 book The Illusion of the End, gives a noted quote about “human molecules” in the context of history and gravity.
33.Steve McMenamin 75Steve McMenamin (c.1950-)
American business executive
c.1986Conceived the idea that certain workers act as "free electrons", since "they have a strong role in choosing their own orbits."
34.Tom DeMarco 75Tom DeMarco (1940-)
American business consultant
1987Wiki(lightbulb icon white 25McMenamin) Devote ch. 25 "Free Electrons", of the popular book Peopleware, to the concept of the "free electron" to the idea that a person who works non-traditional jobs, such as freelance work, self-employment, contracting, consulting, etc. can be likened to a valence shell electron.
35.Timothy Lister 75Timothy Lister (c.1950-)
American consultant
1987(lightbulb icon white 25McMenamin) (co-author with DeMarco)
36.Arthur Iberall 75Arthur Iberall (1918-2002)
American physicist and engineer
University icon
1987YouTube 40x17|YouTube 40x17|WikiSpent decades working out the details of an intricate social physics theory (1971-93), called homeokinetics, in which he defined generic entities as “atomisms” and people as “human atomisms”, whereby he set out to investigate the thermodynamics of the exchanges between hierarchies; which he applied in the teaching of college courses on the thermodynamics of living systems, with focus on social, political, and economic applications. Taught at UCLA.
37. Norval Morrisseau 75Norval Morrisseau (1932-2007)
Canadian aboriginal-themed artist
1988 Human Molecule (1988) Norval MorrisseauWiki|globe icon|molecule man 35Did a acrylic on canvas work entitled ‘Human Molecule’ (adjacent), alluding to the idea that a human being is a molecule that is an evolved animal of sorts, part bird, part fish.
38. Alan Nelson 75Alan Nelson (c.1956-)
American philosopher
1989Human Molecules (chapter 3) (1992) (small)molecule man 35(lightbulb icon white 25Koopmans) Began circulating the manuscript "Human Molecules"; later published in chapter form (1992), wherein "economic agents" are viewed as human molecules, and a followup response chapter, by Bruce Caldwell, criticizing this view; followed by a response chapter by Nelson to Caldwell's criticism.
39.Serge Galam 75Serge Galam (c.1945-)
French physicist
c.1989 When Humans Interact Like AtomsHas argued, for over 15-years, a theory that “humans behave like atoms” a logic according to which the hard sciences could be applied, only to be told that his theory was nonsense, something to be condemned; publishing chapters such as the 1996 “When Humans Interact Like Atoms”, among others.
40.Person icon (29x43)Cornelis Hoede (c.1955-)
Dutch social mathematician
1990His article/chapter/book “Social Atoms”, modeled people or society some way on the atoms of physics, employing concepts such as “social velocity”, based on ego theory and kinetics.
41.Robert Pirsig 75Robert Pirsig (1928-)
American writer-philosopher (IQ=170)
1991WikiGenius icon (f) 30“Why should a group of simple, stable compounds of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen struggle for billions of years to organize themselves into a professor of chemistry? What's the motive? If we leave a chemistry professor out on a rock in the sun long enough the forces of nature will convert him into simple compounds of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and small amounts of other minerals. It's a one-way reaction.”
#Bruce Caldwell 75Bruce Caldwell (1952-)
American economics historian
1992Published a objection "Commentary" chapter section response to Alan Nelson's 1992 "Human Molecules" chapter.
42.Harrison White 75Harrison White (1930-)
American sociologist
1992Outlined a social molecule theory in which each human is viewed as being in more than one social molecule.
43.Pierre Levy 75Pierre Levy (1956-)
Canadian cyberspace philosopher
1994 WikiUses a sort of metaphorical chemical philosophy to discuss bulk human behavior as molar behavior; example quote:“based on identities of adhesion, individuals are seen as a mass, as numbers, independent of their molecular wealth; the molar group organizes a kind of human thermodynamics, an exteriorized channeling of behavior and character that squanders individual qualities”; discusses concepts such as 'molecular politics', the molecular group, etc.
44.Daniel Hausman 75Daniel Hausman (1947-)
American philosopher-economist
1994 WikiQuote: “we have much information immediately at our disposal about our own behavior as economic molecules, if we would only examine the grounds of our beliefs.”
45.Bernard Poitevin 75Bernard Poitevin (c.1955-)
French physician
1995Investigated and modeled the human organism as a molecule, assuming there to exist no inherent difference between the mind and the body, and that they are essentially one and the same, a large differentiated structural molecule. [1]
46.Thomas Rawski 75Thomas Rawski (c.1943-)
American economics historian
1996 Quote: “the individual choices by rice buyers and factory owners in the economy are like the movement of air molecules in a balloon … economic molecules in the modern world huddle, of course, in markets, which gives another sense in which economics is bourgeois, the townsman’s science.”
47. Eric Olson 75Eric Olson (c.1970-)
American-born English philosopher
1998WikiWrote the philosophical article "Human Atoms" in the Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
48.Erich Muller 75Erich Müller (c.1969-)
Venezuelan-born English chemical engineer
University icon
1998In his 1998 Chemical Engineering Education article "Human Societies: A Curious Application of Thermodynamics", used a "loose analogy" human molecule model; in his 2006 thermodynamics lectures, at Imperial College London, according to the interview article "A Thermodynamic Personality", by Laura Gallagher, he frequently "compares people to molecules to help his students understand interactions between molecules so to visualize how they behave"; uses these models to explain, e.g., how gettos are formed or how certain people act as "surfactant molecules"
49.Daniel Goleman 75Daniel Goleman (1946-)
American psychologist and emotional intelligence theorist
1998Wikimolecule man 35Quote: “virtually everyone who has a superior is part of at least one vertical ‘couple’; every boss forms such a bond with each subordinate. Such vertical couples are a basic unit of organizational life, something akin to human molecules that interact to form the lattice work of relationship that is the organization.”
50.Joseph Dewey 75Joseph Dewey (1945-)
American newage spiritual philosopher
1999 The Molecular Relationship (1999)YouTube 40x17|YouTube 40x17|globe icon|molecule man 35Wrote the book The Molecular Relationship, with a synopsis: “from atoms to society, synergy fosters greater unity and potential for good. Explore what may be our true purpose and reason for our existence, and what may be the ultimate relationship”, which outlines a rather convoluted human molecule theory, in which the perfect marriage is defined as a “simple molecule” or “completed atom”; mixed with a view of the man is the positive ion and the female the negative ion; extrapolated with concepts such as molecular politics, molecular success, etc., all mixed together various new age theories and religion.
51.Thomas Prugh 75Thomas Prugh (c.1955-)
American ecological economist
1999 molecule man 35Quote: “the welfare of human society is best served by the view of people as ‘human molecules’ who, by pursuing their own interests through the market, inevitably promote the general good.”
52.Robert Costanza 75Robert Costanza (1950-)
American ecological economist
1999Wikimolecule man 35(co-author to Prugh quote)
53.Person icon (29x43)Forbes Allan (c.1960-)
American writer
1999Quote: “People are like particles, they behave in groups as if they were molecules in a test-tube.”

21st century HMS pioneers
The following is a chronological listing of core biographies in hmol science theories, ideas, and opinions professed in 2000 or later:.


1.Christopher Hirata (small)Christopher Hirata (1983-)
American physicist
c.2000 globe icon |Genius icon (f) 30His “Physics of Relationships” (see 'fun' adjacent globe) outlines the a combination reaction: X + Y ↔ XY (couple formation) between single students at Caltech, using symbols of X = girl, Y = boy, and XY = paired relationship; with single people considered as “basic elements”; comments that in his human chemical reaction modeling he is leaving out other poly-amorphous relationships, such as “rare and non-traditional” products or compounds that may form such as “the gay molecule Y2, the lesbian molecule X2, and the middle-Eastern polygamous molecule X4Y.”
2.Robert Sterner 75Robert Sterner (c.1958-)
American limnologist
University icon
2000globe icon|molecule man 35Did first calculation (with Elser) of a 22-element empirical human molecular formula, published in Ecological Stoichiometry (2002), which they defined the formula for one 'human molecule' as:

H375,000,000 O132,000,000 C85,700,000 N6,430,000 Ca1,500,000 P1,020,000 S206,000 Na183,000 K177,000
Cl127,000 Mg40,000 Si38,600 Fe2,680 Zn2,110 Cu76 I14 Mn13 F13 Cr7 Se4 Mo3 Co1

Teaches subject at the University of Minnesota.
3.James Elser 75James Elser (c.1959-)
American limnologist
University icon
2000Wikipedia user icon|molecule man 35Did empirical human molecular formula calculation (with Sterner) as shown above. Teaches subject at Arizona State University.

Francisco Louca 75Francisco Louca (1956-)
Portuguese politician and economist
2001Particles or humansHis chapter “Particles or humans? Econometric Quarrels on Newtonian Mechanics and the Social Realm”, in which discusses late 19th century new wave of mechanical analogies met with considerable resistance from some of the more established economists.
4.David Hwang 75David Hwang (c.1980-)
American computational chemist
2001 globe iconHis article “The Thermodynamics of Love”, explains that love is the process where two elements, "male" (M) and "female" (F), combine to form a new compound called "couple" (M-F), through the following male-female reaction: M + F → MF.
5.Karl Fink 75 newKarl Fink (c.1960-)
American Germanic studies professor
2001 In his article “Goethe’s Intensified Border”, in which he draws out nine reactions likely used by Goethe in his Elective Affinities, he defines the illicit child, created out of the double elective affinity reaction AC + BD → AC + BD + P, as a “precipitate” (P), with the other molecular entities being: Charlotte (A), Eduard (B), Captain (C), and Ottilie (D).
6. Jim Eadon 75Jim Eadon (1968-)
English physicist
2001 Are you a molecule pollglobe iconConsiders a person to be a "human chemical"; started the running online poll “Are You A Giant Molecule?”, which has found, over the last ten years of polling people [N=350+], that 57 percent of people answer yes to this question or, in other words, believe they are a "giant molecule".
7. Peter Farrelly 75Peter Farrelly (1956-)
American screenwriter
2001 YouTube 40x17Shallow Hal (well formed molecules)|WikiInserted the explanatory comment, said by Hal's coworker (right), “when are you going to get it, they’re just well formed molecules”, in the 2001 Beckhap’s law stylized comedy film Shallow Hal, as a dumbed-down chemistry description of beautify women.
8. Bobby Farrelly 75Bobby Farrelly (1958-)
American screenwriter

2001 WikiCo-writer of the 2001 film Shallow Hal; the likely creative source behind the “beautiful people are well-formed molecules” quote, as he is a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, whereas his older brother Peter is a graduate of Columbia University, where he studied writing.
9.Person icon (29x43)Paul Peachey (c.1927-)
American writer
2001molecule man 35Wrote the chapter “The Marital Bond as the Human Molecule”, the view that each person can be considered as an atom and that attachments of human atoms, in families and marriage, constitute a human molecule.
10.Thims 75 newLibb Thims (c.1975-)
American chemical engineer, electrical engineer, and thermodynamicist
University icon
The Human Molecle (300px)
YouTube 40x17|YouTube 40x17|YouTube 40x17|YouTube 40x17|Wikipedia user icon|globe icon|molecule man 35Arrived at the "human molecule" perspective in 2002, after ruminating on the human chemical reaction perspective, i.e. A + B → C, for seven years, and in September, independent of Sterner and Elser, calculated a 26-element molecular formula for the average human being:

H2.5E9 O9.7E8 C4.9E8 N4.7E7 P9.0E6 Ca8.9E6 K2.0E6 Na1.9E6 S1.6E6 Cl1.3E6 Mg3.0E5 Fe5.5E4
F5.4E4 Zn1.2E4 Si9.1E3 Cu1.2E3 B7.1E2 Cr98 Mn93 Ni87 Se65 Sn64 I60 Mo19 Co17 V

Began making evolution tables in 2005; wrote the first chapter on the human molecule in 2007; wrote the first booklet on the history of the human molecule, The Human Molecule, in 2008.
11.Person icon 75John Hodgson (c.1950-)2002molecules humans (2010)globe iconWrote the 2002 book Little Fun Book of Molecules Humans; retitled as molecules humans in the 2010 second edition. Synopsis:

"This book looks at the similarities existing between two entities. If we understand more of each entity there may be clues to hold new scientific information leading to new research."

The book contains ninety-eight chemical aphorisms.
12.Philip Ball 75Philip Ball (1962-)
English chemist and physicist
2003Critical Mass (2004) Wiki|globe iconStates, in his 2003 talk on physical modeling of society, that: “we have begun to regard complex modes of human activity as collections of many interacting ‘agents’—somewhat analogous to a fluid of interacting atoms or molecules, but within which there is scope for decision-making, learning and adaptation”. His followup 2004 book Critical Mass (outlining a critical mass theory), introduces the view:

“To develop a physics of society, we must take a bold step that some might regret as a leap of faith and others as preposterous idealization. You may have guessed it already: particles become people. To make that bold step a little easier, I shall introduce a stepping-stone that will bring life into the picture before we have to worry about such things as free will.”

This book, which sparked heated responses, e.g. Fuller (below), outlines a human particle themed social physics that: “treats people as though they were just so much insensate matter (a contentious business), which is why we shall approach the physics-based modeling of society with cautious steps, showing how life (I am tempted to say ‘mere life’) need not in itself present a boundary to the application of statistical physics; the human physics theories of Thomas Hobbes, Lewis Mumford, Emyr Hughes, Ludwig Boltzmann, James Maxwell, etc.
13. Jeff Vail 75Jeff Vail (c.1970-)
American air force intelligence officer and trial attorney
2004 globe iconArgues, in his A Theory of Power, that humans are a “complex assemblage of particles”, but that the true substance and nature of a person, in the modern quantum-mechanical particles-physics view, is the nexus of fluxating and changing connections to others, each of which constitutes a "power-relationship", specifically: “the networks of connections, not the elements connected, appear to constitute a more accurate map of reality”; people are a “nebulous web of constantly changing energies and waves of probability: these energies and connections may represent all that actually exists; the connections, the power relationships between perceived entities make up the world around us, not the illusion of particles.”
14.Michael Brooks 75Michael Brooks (1970-)
American quantum physicist
2005globe iconWikiHis popular New Scientist article on things that don't make sense resulted in the followup 2008 book 13 Things that Don't Make Sense, in which "life", was listed as one of the top five things in modern science that doesn't make sense, the subtitle for the chapter being "are you more than just a bag of chemicals", which outlined the basics of the defunct theory of life.
15. Shawn LaPaix 75Shawn LaPaix (c.1976-)
Canadian communications designer
2005 Evolution of man (molecule view)globe iconDepicted English biologist Thomas Huxley’s 1863 famous evolution of man diagrammatic as the evolution of molecules or the evolution of the human molecule, shown adjacent, for a University of British Columbia Art Gallery Poster “The Human Body in History: Medicine, Biology, and Culture”; the atoms falling off seem to be depicting the turn-over factor.
16.Steve Fuller 75Steve Fuller (1959-)
American philosopher and sociologist
2005WikiReligion icon 20x27(lightbulb icon white 25Ball) Wrote the New Scientist article "I Am Not a Molecule", arguing against atomic reductionism in sociology, wherein he argues that the recent social physics attempts, in particular English chemical physicist Philip Ball’s 2004 Critical Mass, wherein masses of people are treated as bulk systems of atoms, is "infuriating the social scientists".
17.Lev ShneiderLev Shneider (1946-)
Russian-born American science fiction writer
2005Dialog: “Talk is cheap. Talk is safe. Let’s talk about love. Lust flares and dims. Relationships start and end. Love is or isn’t. Love is a person, a separate entity with its own body, metabolism, and dreams. Love is two human molecules bound to make a third.”
18. Person icon (29x43)John Claxton (c.1970-)
American creative advertising director
2006Hu 250px In 2006, Dow Chemical, the world’s second largest chemical manufacturer, in coordination with advertising agency Draftfcb Chicago, particularly creative director John Claxton, launched their popular multi-year advertising campaign
The Human Element, the “missing element” of the periodic table, depicting visceral images of people, many from third world countries, with the element symbol box, symbol Hu, and atomic number 7E+9, overlaid on the picture, in aims to convey the message that the human is a type of chemical element that is somehow missing from the standard chemical periodic table, but one that should be the focus of beneficial-to-humanity chemical applications.
19.Person icon 75John Wojcik (1938-)
American physical chemist
2006 Religion icon 20x27(lightbulb icon white 25Rossini) In the Rossini debate, argued that there is great “danger” in the use of “anthropomorphism in chemistry” in that some may “come to believe that there is substance in them”; moreover: “worst of all, there is the danger that chemical thermodynamics will have ascribed to it a power that it simply does not have, namely, the power to 'explain' the human condition.”
20.Person icon 75Natalia Roubanenko (c.1980-)
Russian-born American language studies scholar
2006 (lightbulb icon white 25Thims) Quote: “One day instead of (or in addition to) regular math, chemistry, physics, etc., kids in school will be learning something like one human molecule + another human molecule = ? ... it's just a crazy thought, but hey, we'll see or somebody will.”
21.Gladyshev 75 newGeorgi Gladyshev (1936-)
Russian physical chemist
2006 YouTube 40x17|Wikipedia deleted|Wikibin(lightbulb icon white 25Thims) |molecule man 35Concluded, in his Journal of Molecular Sciences article “The Principle of Substance Stability is Applicable to all Levels of Organization of Living Matter”, that the “conclusions of hierarchical thermodynamics correspond excellently to Libb Thims’ conception of the thermodynamics of human molecules.”
22. Mark Janes 75Mark Janes (1973-)
English biological scientist
2006 Mr Carbon Atom (2010)YouTube 40x17|YouTube 40x17|globe icon|molecule man 35In circa 2006 began to model a person to be a type of ‘amplified atom’ or ‘gigantic carbon atom’, with wave and particle properties, and uses aspects of thermodynamics, particle physics, and the atomic model logic to explain facets of humanity in his “carbon entromorphology” theory; in 2009, on a whim invitation to a Halloween party, dressed up as “Mr. Carbon Atom” (adjacent), which was a hit, decorated with the various atomic orbitals and properties of carbon; the 2010 follow-up video was 'Mr. Carbon Atom' (see also: Mr. Molecule, Patton, 1919).
23.Peter Pogany 75Peter Pogany (c.1939-)2006 Quote: “accumulated knowledge suggests that humans are billions of highly evolved, overgrown super-molecules (or ‘intensely conscious mice’?) that swarm in ever larger numbers on a piece of rock that wobbles, spins, revolves, and soars into nothingness at break-neck speed with an agitated, burning furnace in its interior.”
24.Pierre Rousseau 75Pierre Rousseau (c.1950-)
American philosopher-photographer
2006Constant flow of human molecules (2006)globe icon|molecule man 35Photographed a flow of commuter traffic and described it as "a constant flow of human molecules" in tribute to Kant's categorical imperative.
25. Morrow 75Andrew Morrow (1961-)
American chemical engineer
2006 YouTube 40x17|globe iconOutlined a type of internet-connectivity philosophy on the view that people are “mosaics of atoms with a mind”, whereby, aware of this reality, one should attempt to see reality from the viewpoint of reactions of one’s fellow human beings to oneself, so to see if further insight can be found. Comments, in his 2009 video We are Made of Atoms, “you are made of atoms and there is no escape from this knowledge. Peace and happiness but first you must be wiser”; as of 2010 is working on a new book, A Periodic Table of Civics, aimed at incorporating philosophy application.
26.Mark Buchanan 75Mark Buchanan (1961-)
American physicist
2007The Social Atom (250px)YouTube 40x17|Wiki|globe iconTheorizes on power laws (2000) of human behavior and wrote the 2007 book The Social Atom, in which he outlined a social atom theory; quote:

“We should think of people as if they were atoms or molecules.”

Buchanan has chapters such as the adaptive atom, the imitating atom, the cooperative atom; builds on Thomas Schelling's 1971 Empedocles-style, oil and water, physics theory of racial separation; and attempts to outline a social physics that "in no way conflicts with the existence of individual free will."
27.Octavian Ksenzhek 75Octavian Ksenzhek (c.1945-)
Russian bioelectrochemist
2007 Quote: “the economy of mankind is a very large and extremely complicated system [and] people are the 'molecules' of which it consists”; on this view outlined an economic thermodynamics theory.
28.Minkin 75Viktor Minkin (c.1965)
Russian biometrist
2007(lightbulb icon white 25Thims) Quote: “if we have rules form molecular behavior, why not adopt these terms for human behavior”; says he finds no arguments against the modeling of humans as molecules or the application of chemistry and thermodynamics to explain their behavior.
29.Chris Gash 75Chris Gash (c. 1980-)
American illustration artist
2009 Walking molecule (human atomic stick  figure)globe iconHumorously illustrated the 2009 New York Times article “Experiments Show that Molecules Can Walk, but Can They Dance?” with the a stick figure (adjacent) of a little running human molecule, poking fun at the idea of a walking molecule. [10]
30.Surya Pati 75Surya Pati (1983-)
Indian chemist and business management theorist
2009 globe iconDefined human as “chemical molecules”; explains how the basic principles of chemical thermodynamics can facilitate the understanding of ‘bonding’ between people, such as in basic combination reaction A + B → AB, in which two persons, A and B, as he says, “come together to form a molecule”.
31.Person icon 75Bruce Bathurst (c.1945-)
American geological thermodynamicist
2009 Religion icon 20x27|(lightbulb icon white 25Thims)|molecule man 35|Wikipedia user iconCommented a his response tread “Why I’m Not a Molecule” that he is not a molecule because (a) one need not slavishly adopt terminology from the physical sciences; (b) new terms are of value only if they are synonyms of terms in other sciences, mathematics, or everyday language; (c) being made of atoms is not sufficient to be a molecule; (d) humans have a soul which is something that only God can examine, then that's not a question science is qualified to address. Quote: “here the human molecule of the social sciences fails. Sometimes, when discussing giving birth or dying, one want instead the chemical substances of human beings, as the quantity or mass of the unit NaCL in a halite-bearing rock. At other times, one wants a collection of separate but equivalent entities whose bonds one can define in psychological terms. These should be different terms. Each of these have some properties of a molecule, but not all. 'Molecule' now brings to the mind a discrete substance (floating about) made of the same number & kinds of atoms, bonded in the same manner. They differ only in the physical properties 'isotopic mass' and 'handedness'. Geologists use instead 'substance', a much more flexible term. Substances react, and classical thermodynamics studies them. Chemical formulae above represent chemical compositions of the human substance.”
32.Philip Moriarty 75Philip Moriarty (c.1965-)
English thermal physicist and nanoscientist
2009(lightbulb icon white 25Thims) |molecule man 35Quote: “what's flawed is [Thims’] remarkable assertion that thermodynamic principles can be applied to ‘human molecules’. His view: 'It is only a matter of extrapolation to apply this logic to systems of human molecules...', beggars belief! No, it is not a matter of extrapolation. Just as it is not a matter of extrapolation to take fundamental quantum mechanics and apply it to 'human molecules'. What physical evidence does [Thims’] have for a 'human wavefunction'? Has [he] somehow carried out the equivalent of the double slit experiment for humans?! Does [he] understand what is meant by decoherence or complementarity in the context of QM?”
33.Lynn Liss 75Lynn Liss (1977-)
American consultant and business executive
2009(lightbulb icon white 25Thims) Quote: “after reading the background on this debate, it seems that Moriarty may simply be scared of what humans as molecules driven by entropy would mean to the mind of civilization and his own mental state! It's a common reaction by many people, scientists and layman alike, thus not surprising. There once was a time when humans we're certain our evolutionary history was most definitely not tied to a furry animal...and this debate still continues today. At least there are an enlightened few that continue to push our quest for human understanding further along ... versus remaining status quo.”
34.Wallace 75Thomas Wallace (c.1937-)
American physical chemist
2009 In his Wealth, Energy, and Human Values, argues that the socioeconomic operations of society are “analogous to the scientific concepts and principles of molecular reactivity”; argues that the functional steps of societal processes and the related energy considerations occur in the same manner as the mechanisms of net chemical reactions (initial state to final state); that the principles of molecular events are also applicable to the social, economic, and political processes of civilizations; that the dynamics that drive civilization are based on thermodynamics.

Juan Aguado 75Juan Aguado (c.1970-)
Spanish sociologist
2009In his Technology and Social Complexity, attempts to argue that Erwin Schrodinger’s 1944 statistical thermodynamics explanation of life, in some way, does not apply correctly to people viewed as ‘social atoms’ or ‘social molecules’ so as to make deterministic laws for society, on the argument that there are not enough people in a given society “to make stochastic or thermodynamics behavior negligible.” [14]
35. Bogdan Anghel 75Bogdan Anghel (1984-)
Romanian electronic music producer
2010 Human thermodynamics (Bogdan EP 2010)YouTube 40x17|globe icon(lightbulb icon white 25Thims) Produced the electronic music EP Human Thermodynamics, with the tracks 1. Pressure correlations (5:27) - themed on the gas laws; 2. Phase transition (7:10) - themed on phase transitions topics, e.g. Gibbs phase rule, enthalpy of vaporization, etc.; 3. Aerospace race (7:07) - themed on human molecules flying or racing about like gas molecules; 4. Transport phenomena (8:03) - themed on heat or mass transport of humans; with a cover art depicting futuristic humans flying about like semi-attached gas particles over the surface of a futuristic earth.
36.Vineet Nayar 75Vineet Nayar (1962-)
Indian business executive
2010 WikiQuote: “when a critical mass of employees [activate] (usually, 5 or 10 percent is all you need), throughout the company, it creates a kind of fusion – a coming together of the human particles in the corporate molecule that releases a massive amount of energy.”
37. Martin GardinerMartin Gardiner (c.1950-)
Brazilian psychologist and writer
2010 globe icon|globe icon|globe icon|globe icon(lightbulb icon white 25Thims) |molecule man 35Wrote the four-part article “Inside the IoHT: I am not a molecule”, for the Ig Nobel Prize publication Improbable Research, a look at the human molecule theories of American chemical engineer Libb Thims in connection with the Institute of Human Thermodynamics. [2]
38.Person icon (29x43)Brother Greg (c.1960-)
American religious studies scholar and ex-minster
2010 We are but complicated molecules (quote) 200pxglobe iconBlog-posted with the query: “quarks, atoms, molecules, amino acids, cells, tissues, critters, human critters … what is a human being, anyway?”; followed by the popup snap-shot quote as pictured adjacent. [11]
39. Person icon (29x43)Provident Peterson (c.1950-)
American writer
2010 Religion icon 20x27|molecule man 35Outlined the view, in his book The Universe, God, and Us, that humans are material substance made of atoms that formed from a descendant of the first God-infused Alpha ‘human molecule’, which itself formed from the first God-infused Alpha atom, which Peterson posits was carbon.

1. (a). Poitevin, Bernard. (1995). “Mechanism of Action of Homeopathic Medicines: Recent findings and Hypothesis 1. Physicochemical Mechanisms.” British Homeopathic Journal, 84: 32-39.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (Poitevin, pg. 29; Helmholtz, Poincare, pg. 136). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(c) Pointevin, Bernard. (c.2001). “Homeopathy: Experimental Evidence” (French → English),
2. (a) Gardiner, Martin. (2010). “Inside the IoHT: I am not a molecule (parts 1, 2, 3, 4)”, Improbable Research, Jun 04-06.
(b) Martin Gardiner (about) –
3. Gladyshev Georgi P. (2006). "The Principle of Substance Stability is Applicable to all Levels of Organization of Living Matter", International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 7, pgs. 98-110 (quote pg. 107).
5. Ball, Philip. (2004). Critical Mass - How One Thing Leads to Another (Maxwell quote, pg. 68; Boltzmann quote, pg. 69). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
6. Senior, Nassau W. (1860). "Opening address of Nassau W. Senior, Esq.,...", Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 23:359; cited in Philip Ball (2004), page 6.
8. (a) Prigogine, Ilya. (1980). From Being to Becoming (pg. 106). W.H. Freeman.
(b) Ball, Philip. (2004). Critical Mass - How One Thing Leads to Another (quote, pg. #). Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
10. (a) Gash, Chris (illustrator) and Fountain, Henry (writer). (2009). “Experiments Show that Molecules Can Walk, but Can They Dance?”, New York Times, Science, Apr 07.
(b) Chris Gash (about) –
11. Greg. (2010). “Complicated Molecules”, Brother Greg’s Buffet, Jul 21,
14. Aguado, Juan. (2009). Technology and Social Complexity (pg. 31). EDITUM.

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