Heliocentric model

Copernican system (1543)
The 1543 version of Copernicus' heliocentric model. [1]
In science, heliocentric model or ‘heliocentrism’, as contrasted with geocentric model (earth at center of universe) or geocentrism, is the model of the universe where planets revolved around the sun and there are many suns in a vast universe.

In 399BC, Greek Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus, according to Cyril Bailey (1928), speculated on the germ of the idea of a helio-centric world. [4]

In circa 250BC, Greek mathematical astronomer Aristarchus (310-c.230BC) presented the first known model that placed the sun at the center of the known universe with the earth, and the other planets, in their correct order of distance, revolving around it.

In circa 1514, Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, citing Aristarchus and Philoaus, in an early manuscript (Ѻ) of his book which survives, began making distributing a short forty-page manuscript to close friends called “Little Commentary” (Commentariolus) which described his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis. It contained seven basic assumptions. Thereafter he continued gathering data for a more detailed work and some of his work began to be discussed in various lectures

In 1536, Cardinal Nikolaus von Schönberg, Archbishop of Capua, wrote to Copernicus from Rome, stating that some year ago he had heard rumors of Copernicus’ theory, which he summarized tersely as follows: [2]

“The earth moves and the sun occupies the lowest, and thus the central, place in the universe.”

The finalized format of the heliocentric model was published in 1543 by Copernicus, the year of his cessation, in his On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, which following the Galilean inquisitions (1633), would go on eventually overthrow a mixture of Greek philosopher Aristotle's 350BC geocentric model of the universe and as well as Greek astronomer Ptolemy’s 150AD geocentric model. [1]

German theology reformer Martin Luther (1483-1546) (IQ=170) described Copernicus as a fool in one of his after-dinner speeches: [3]

“[Copernicus is a] new astrologer who wanted to prove that the earth was moving and revolving, rather than the heaven or the firmament, sun and moon, just as if someone in a moving carriage or on a sailing ship believed that he was motionless and in rest, but that the earth and the trees were moving. But such are the times we live in: he who wants to be clever must invent something all his own and what he makes up he naturally things is the best thing ever! This fool wants to turn the whole art of astronomy upside down! But as the Holy Scripture testifies, Joshua ordered the sun to stand still, and not the earth.”

Luther's associate German theology reformer Philipp Melanchthon (1497-1560) described Copernicus’ heliocentric theory as an “old joke” (see: crackpot), implying that it was a superfluous revival of a frivolous circa 250BC suggestion by Aristarchus of Samos. Moreover, upon reading the Rheticus’ First Account (Narratio Prima), the first condensed summary of Copernicus’ theory, Melanchthon commented: [3]

“[Some think it] a distinguished achievement to construct such a crazy thing as that Prussian astronomer who moves the earth and fixes the sun. Verily, wise rulers should tame the unrestraint of men’s minds.”

In 1600, Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake for, among other things, his support of Copernicus.

1. Copernicus, Nicolaus. (1543). On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres (De revolutionibus orbium coelestium). Publisher.
2. Schonberg, Nikolaus von. (1536). “Letter to Copernicus”, Nov 01.
3. Crowther, James G. (1995). Six Great Scientists: Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Marie Curie, Einstein (pg. 36-38). Barnes & Noble.
4. Bailey, Cyril. (1928). The Greek Atomists and Epicurus: a Study (Ѻ)(pdf). Russell & Russell, 1964

Further reading
● Guericke, Otto and Schott, Kaspar. (1672). Otto Guericke’s New Experiments on (as they are called) on the Magdeburg vacuum space (Ottonis De Guericke Experimenta Nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de Vacuo Spatio) (15+ diagrams, various pages). Janssonius a Waesberge.

External links
Heliocentrism – Wikipedia.
Geocentric model – Wikipedia.
Aristotelian physics – Wikipedia.

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