|A 3D view of the structure of hemoglobin.|
In 1999, American religious philosopher-physicist Holmes Rolston, in the context of the life vs non-life debate, argued that “god as a countercurrent to entropy, a sort of biogravity that lures life upward” and went on to argue the following unbridgeable gap type of logic [reactions added]: 
“The knowhow, so to speak, to make salt is already in the sodium and chlorine:Na + Cl → NaCl
but the knowhow to make hemoglobin molecules and lemurs is not secretly coded in the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen:2932C + 4724H + 828N + 840O + 8S + 4Fe → C2932H4724N828O840S8Fe4
Life is a countercurrent to entropy, an energetic fight uphill in a world that typically moves thermodynamically downhill (despite some negentropic eddies, and despite some irreversible thermodynamics). Thermodynamics need be nowhere violated, because there is a steady ‘downhill’ flow of energy, as energy is irradiated into earth from the sun, and, eventually, reradiated into space.”
This, for course, is a stepping stone to the arrival of the defunct theory of life (2009), the life does not exist (2010), and life terminology upgrades (2011) views.
1. Feldman, Burton. (2001). The Nobel Prize: a History of Genius, Controversy, and Prestige (pg. 224). Arcade Publishing.
2. Rolston, Holmes. (1999). Genes, Genesis, and God: Values and Their Origins in Natural and Human History (entropy, pgs. 42, 155, 351, 357-58, 364-65); biogravity and god, pg. 364; thermodynamics, pgs. 357, 385, 399). Cambridge University Press.
● Hemoglobin – Wikipedia.