IQ: 200+ (references)

The following is the listing of case by case IQ references (top table) and numbered references (below) to the IQ pages listed in the EoHT.

Case-by-case references
Other case-by-case individual references, giving citations of 200+ IQs, which consist in larger of IQ estimates, and childhood ability, include:


Maxwell 75James Maxwell (1831-1879)
● Estimate: IQ_? \,=190-205 (extrapolated/influence/deepness/variety)
● Millennium poll voted Maxwell as the third greatest physicist of all time, after Newton (IQ=190-200) and Einstein (IQ=160-225)" (link)
● #1 greatest equations of all-time (Crease, 2004); #3 greatest equation to change the world (Guillen, 1995); originator of Maxwell's demon; founder of electromagnetic theory a founders of thermodynamics; first color photograph; work formed the basis of Einstein's work; Mahon’s 2003 book The Man who Changed Everything, gives an idea of the density of Maxwell’s mind, etc.

Clausius 75Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888)
● Estimate: IQ_? \,=190-205 (density/influence)
● See: Euler genealogy (to seen the deep influence of Clausius)
● His 1865 mechanical theory of heat, according to Einstein (IQ=160-225), is the only the theory, in science, of universal content, least likely to be ever be overthrown.

Euler 75Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)

● See: Euler genealogy timeline (with listed known IQs of other mathematicians, for comparison).

● Estimate: IQ_? \,=180-200 (embeddedness/comparison/influence)
● IQ estimates for Euler seem to be non-existent, in spite of the fact that he is often cited as the most prolific mathematician of all time and generally considered the #1 greatest mathematician of all time; or at least in the top four or five (#4) (#1) (#4) (#5) (#4 in W.C. Eells’ 100 greatest mathematicians of all time, Mathematics Teacher, 7(55), 1962) (#1) .
● He is often compared to Einstein (160-225) in intellect, to Gauss (Sidis compared IQ=250-300) in mathematical-physics ability, or a ranking above that Euclid (Buzan IQ=182) in straight greatest mathematics rankings.
Ettore Majorana
Ettore Majorana 75Ettore Majorana (1906-1938)

● Zichichi, Antonino. (2006). “Ettore Majorana: Genius and Mystery”, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Center for Scientific Culture.

● Mantegna, Rosario N. (2006). “The Tenth Article of Ettore Majorana” (abs),, Aug 29; in: Bassani G.F (ed) (2006) Ettore Majorana Scientific Papers: on the Occasion of the Centenary of the Birth (pgs. 250-26). Springer.

● (a) Amaldi, Edoardo. (1966). “Ettore Majorana: Man and Scientist: Commemoration Speech” (pgs. 25-95; quote: 57-8); “La Vita e l'Opera di E. Majorana” (Accademia dei Lincei, Rome, 1966); "Ettore Majorana: Man and scientist," in Strong and Weak Interactions (pgs. 10-77). Present problems, A. Zichichi, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966).
(b) Majorana, Ettore. (c.1935). “The Value of Statistical Laws in Physics and Social Sciences” (online reprint, with biography by Carlos Allones Pérez); Spanish version in: C. ALLONES (2004): “El valor de las leyes estadísticas en la Física y en las Ciencias Sociales”, Empiria, núm. 7: 183-209 Madrid.

In 1938 (age 32), Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, who had previously took him in his group when he was a student, ranked Majorana with Galileo Galilei (IQ=183-200) and Isaac Newton (IQ=190-200):

“There are several categories of scientists in the world; those of second or third rank do their best but never get very far. Then there is the first rank, those who make important discoveries, fundamental to scientific progress. But then there are the geniuses, like Galilei and Newton. Majorana was one of these.”

This would corroborate Majorana with an extrapolated IQ of 183-200, which seem probable based on the a reading of his 10 published papers, his quantum social physics paper, his independent discovery of the neutron, his independent formulation of the exchange force, and his two papers on the chemical bonds of molecules (age 25), his 1932 paper on quantum-relativistic equations for higher spin values (1, 3/2, etc.). In a 1938 letter to Mussolini, asking the government to intensify the search for Majorana, Fermi commented further:

“I have no hesitation to state to you, and I am not saying this as an hyperbolic statement, that of all Italian and foreign scholars that I have met, Majorana is among all of them the one that has most struck me for his deep sharpness.”

This comment would seem to situate Majorana at a higher intellectual rank than thinkers such as Werner Heisenberg (Buzan IQ = 173). The penetrating mind aspect of Majorana is corroborated by the views of Dutch-American theoretical physicist George Uhlenbeck, as recalled by Edoardo Amaldi (1966): [6]

“Feenberg remembers attending one of Heisenberg’s seminars on nuclear forces, in which Heisenberg also mentioned the contribution made by Majorana to this subject; he said that he author was present and invited him to say something about his ideas, but Ettore refused. When he left the seminar, Uhlenbeck told Feenberg how much he admired Majorana’s penetrating ideas which had been mentioned by Heisenberg.”

This inside view, as recalled by American physicist Eugene Feenberg, further corroborates Majorana as having been a deep thinker.
Tesla 75 Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)

● Barth, David. (2009). “Nikola Tesla”, Jan 13,
● Wilson, Daniel H., Long, Anna C., and Heard, Danile. (2008). The Mad Scientist Hall of Fame (IQ=very superior range, pg. 62). Citadel Press.
Who was smarter Einstein or Tesla? (2008) – Yahoo Answers.

● Quote: “Tesla’s IQ is estimated to be 200”.
● Quote: “as a child, Tesla’s IQ would likely have fallen in the ‘very superior’ range (140-160)” (link).
● Quote: “I have read Tesla’s IQ was rated at 230” (link)
● Quote: “Some people consider him to have a 230 to a 310 IQ. I have asked around and no one contacted has knowledge of Tesla ever having been tested for IQ.” (link)
● Quote: “300 is the highest human IQ score, 169 is not correct as that information is not verified by anyone. Tesla had one of the highest IQ scores, but nobody confirms the actual number. Tesla most definitely falls into 200 or above area.” (link)
● Facts: at age five, he informed his father he was going to harness the power of water; his resulting invention was a water-powered egg beater; at age nine, he made an egg beater powered by the motion of captured bugs; at age 10, he was solving math problems with such speed that his teachers suspected him of cheating.
● Note: He owned a thorough collection of Goethe’s scientific texts and read these to the exclusion of all other philosophies; his idea for a self-starting electric motor came to him one evening as he was reciting a poem of Goethe and watching a sunset, at which point he imagined a magnetic field rapidly rotating inside a circle of electo-magnets (link).
Gauss 75● Carl Gauss (1777-1832)
● Daniel Comstock (Quote): "Gauss is the only example in history, of all prodigies, whom Sidis [IQ=250-300] resembles" (Comstock, the person behind the character to Gerald Lambaeu, in the 1996 film Good Will Hunting, was a mentor, so to speak, and later employer, to the young William Sidis, ages 10 to 20).
● Born into a layperson family, Gauss was correcting his father’s payroll additions at age three; and would go onto make contributions in varied fields, number theory, geometry, probability, statistics, astronomy, and electromagnetism; described by (link); ranked as “second greatest” mathematician, behind Newton, and ahead of Euler (#4), (according to James Dow Allen); ranked #44 most influential scientists of all time by John Simmons (2000); described as the “prince of mathematics”, by M.B.W. Tent (2008); Gauss is one of the backbones to Crease’s twenty greatest equations, determined by vote, of all-time (2004).
● Glenn, Jim. (1996). Scientific Genius: the Twenty Greatest Minds. Crescent Books.
Pierre Laplace (Quote): “Gauss is the greatest mathematician in the world.”
● Hawking, Stephen. (2005). God Created the Integers (pgs. 563, 893). Running Press.
Stephen Hawking (IQ=165) (Quote): “Unquestionably the greatest mathematician of all time.”
Henri Poincare considered the three greatest German mathematicians to be: Gauss, Riemann, and Weierstrass.

Goethe 75 newJohann Goethe (1749-1832)

Cox, Catharine, M. (1926). Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred Geniuses (Genetic Studies of Genius Series) (pgs. 155, 163). Stanford University Press.
● Mai, Francois F. (2007). Diagnosing Genius (pg. 177). McGill-Queen’s Press.

● Quote: “One rater (M) has scored on the basis of the record of Goethe’s youth an IQ of 225 … Goethe’s true IQ may in the history of mankind have been equaled in a few instances; one may well wonder whether it has ever been exceeded.”
● Cox IQ=210.
● Quote: “the intelligence of these individuals was uniformly high, with the highest being that of Goethe, whose IQ was estimated to be 210.”
Da Vinci

Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

● Sharp, Evelyn. (1972). The IQ Cult. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan.
● Buzan, Tony and Keene, Raymond. (1994). Buzan’s Book of Genius: And how to Unleash Your Own. Publisher: Stanley Paul.
Cox, Catharine, M. (1926). Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred Geniuses (Genetic Studies of Genius Series)
● (IQ=225) Seems to have originated in the fake 2006 “Quigly Anderson Ten Highest IQs” list.

● Quote: “…but assigned each a fairly exact number: Da Vinci, 180; Galileo 185;”
● Da Vinci assigned highest rank (IQ = 220).
● Cox IQ=180
● IQ=225?

Adragon De Mello
Adragon De Mello ● Adragon Eastwood De Mello (1976-)
(renamed: James [de Mello] at age 12)

● McFarlan, Donald. (1989). 1989 Guinness Book of World Records (de Mello, pg. 437). Sterling Publishing.
● Robert, Kurson. (2002). “Just another father-son story.” Esquire, Nov. 01.
(b) Staff. (2000). "What Price Genius?" 60 Minutes, Feb. 15.
● Ferrari, M.D. and Sternberg, Robert J. (1998). Self-Awareness: its Nature and Development (pg. 220). Guilford Press.
● Winner, E. (1996). Gifted Children (201-02). Basic Books.
Adragon De Mello – Wikipedia.
● Lait, Matt. (1988). “11-Year-Old Faces Life after College; Rejected by Grad Schools (because of age), Boy May Be Forced Back to Junior High.” The Washington Post, Jun 14.

● Quote: “Adragon Eastwood De Mello (b. Oct. 5, 1976) obtained his BA in mathematics from Univ of Calif, Santa Cruz on June 11, 1988, aged 11 years 8 months” (Guinness Book, 1989).
● Quote:Agustin tested AD's intelligence when the boy turned five. He calculated an IQ of 400, meaning AD might rank as the greatest intellect in history.”
● Notes: at 6.5 weeks AD said hello; at age 3 he stated that “electric chemicals make boys” and could do cube roots; at age six he was giving video recorded lectures on astrophysics and black holes; at 8 he was enrolled at Cabrillo College, a two-year community college in Santa Cruz, California, where he studied physics and mathematics getting straight As; by nine he learned calculus and stated that he desired to discover the origin of the universe; at 10 he transferred to the University of California at Santa Cruz to major in computation mathematics, graduating a year later in 1987 (age 11). He was listed in the Guinness Book as being the youngest college graduate in history (only to be beat by Michael Kearney in 1992).
Michael Kearney 75 Michael Kearney (references)

● Gardner, Howard. (1998). “Extraordinary Minds: Portraits of Exceptional Individuals and an Examination of Our Extraordinariness” (pg. 37). Basic Books.
● Quote: “Michael is an extreme example of a child from the high end of the bell curve. His IQ is clearly in the 200 range—his parents have sometimes claimed it closer to 300.”
Kearney, Kevin J. and Kearney Cassidy Y. (1998). Accidental Genius (pgs. 71-41). Woodshed Press.
● Excerpt: "At age four, two psychologists and one sociologist gave Michael Kearney the Stanford-Binet IQ test (L-M version), a test designed for highly-gifted children age six and above. Michael scored 168, the ceiling of the test. Michael’s parents, Kevin and Cassidy, in their own words, “discovered in the library that the Stanford-Binet L-M version test gives a mental age which can be ratioed with chronological age for a true IQ … Kevin and I did the math and came up with Michael’s IQ at 325.”
Gardner, Howard. (1998). Extraordinary Minds (pg. 37). Basic Books.
Quote: "IQ in the 200 range" (Kearney)
Shoron, Sandra. (2002). The Book Lists for Teens (pg. 152). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Quote: "IQ above 200, at age 8" (Kearney).
Michael Kearney – Wikipedia.
● Facts: completed associates degree in geology from Santa Rosa Junior College (age 8), BS in anthropology from the University of South Alabama (age 10), MS in biochemistry from Middle Tennessee State University (age 14), and MS in computer science from Vanderbilt University (age 17).
Sidis 75 William Sidis (references)

(a) Source: Abraham Sperling, director of New York City's Aptitude Testing Institute.
Quote: "he easily had an I.Q. between 250 and 300. I have never heard of the existence of anybody with such an I.Q. I would honestly say that he was the most prodigious intellect of our entire generation." (Sidis)
(b) Sperling, Abraham. (1946). “A Story of Genius” (pgs. 322-339), in Psychology for the Millions, F. Fell.
Quote: “Helena Sidis told me that a few years before his death, her brother Bill took an intelligence test with a psychologist. His score was the very highest that had ever been obtained. In terms of I.Q., the psychologist related that the figure would be between 250 and 300.”
(c) Wallace, Amy. (1986). The Prodigy: a Biography of William James Sidis, America's Greatist Child Prodigy (pg. 283). Dutton Adult.
Quote: “I have tested more than five thousand people. Of all the mentally superior individuals that I have seen, nobody begins to approach the intellect and perspicacity of William Sidis. According to my computations, he easily had an IQ between 250 and 300.” [Abraham Sperling]
(d) Lyons, Viktoria and Fitzgerald, Michael. (2005). Asperger Syndrome (ch. XII: William James Sidis (1898-1944); pgs. 163-74). Nova Publishers.
Quote: “IQ between 250-300."
Kim Ung-Yong Kim Ung-Yong (references)

(a) McWhirter, Norris. (1981). Guinness Book of World Records (pg. 35). Sterling Publishing Co.
Quote: “a figure of 210 has been attributed to Kim Ung-Yong”.
(b) Author. (1977). "Whatever Became of Geniuses?", Time Magazine, Monday, 19 Dec.
Quote: “Kim Ung-Yong, a 14-year old prodigy who was speaking four languages and solving integral calculus problems at age four, is said to tip the mental scales at 210.”
(c) Kim Ung-Yong – Wikipedia (Korean → English)
Facts: admitted to the physics department of Hanyang University (age 5), completed PhD in nuclear physics from Colorado State University (age 14); completed PhD in civil engineering from Chungbuk National University (age 22).
Savant 75 Marilyn vos Savant (references)

● Listed in Guinness Book of World Records (for five years), circa 1990, under “highest IQ” for both child and adult scores.
● Fact: Savant took her first test in September 1956, scoring 167+; her ceiling mental age at 22 years and 10 months (22-10+) yielded a ratio IQ of 228, meaning that at ten years of age she was as intelligent as an average 22-year old.
● Baumgold, Julie. (1989). “In the Kingdom of the Brain: How Love Changed the Smartest Couple in New York” (pg. 41). The New York Magazine. Feb 06.
● 1989 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records (page 26).

● Fact: At age 10 received a perfect score on the Stanford Binet IQ test.
Quote: " a ten year old achieved a ceiling score for 23-year-olds, thus giving her an IQ of 228." Her record was, supposedly, retired to the Guinness hall of fame because scores that high are no longer possible due to a lowering of test score ceilings.
● Baumgold, Julie. (1989). “In the Kingdom of the Brain” (pgs. 36-), New York, Feb 6.

* Note: this 157 value
according to actual records (rather than her blurry opinion), seems to be the more realistic estimate (if that) of her real IQ; the 228 value seems to be a number-fudging scam done as a publicity stunt, to become famous.
● Knight, Sam. (2009). "Is a High IQ a Burden as Much as a Blessing?",, Apr 10.

● Quote: “was first tested at age 7-years 7-months, hitting the ceiling of the test, a modest 127.”
● Quote: “When Marilyn was a ten-year-old student at Susan R. Buder school, she supposedly got a perfect score on the Stanford Binet. She hit the ceiling of that test, when appears on here school record as 167+. That figure was arrives at by dividing her mental age, recorded as 17-years 7-months, by her chronological age, recorded as 10-years 8-months, and multiplying by 100.” ([(17+10/12)/(10+8/12)]*100 = 167)
● Quote: “Both the month that Marilyn took the test and the mental age she achieved on it are matters of some question that contribute to the murkiness over the Guinness top score. Her record with the St. Louis board of education shows she took the test in March 1957; she insists she first took it in September 1956.”
● The actual records indicate that her IQ based on that test would be:
IQ = 100 \frac{17+10/12}{11+4/12} =   157\,
● The idea of sending Savant’s Sanford Binet test scores, taken when she was ten, to Guinness was conceived by American Lawyer Andrew Egendorf over dinner in 1983, who wanted promotion for a new book he was writing on high IQ societies. He sent her scores to Guinness on July 25 of that year.
● Quote: “Savant says she answered some additional questions in the adult portion of the test to bring her score to a mental age of 22-years, 10-months.”
● Quote: “She has an extremely high IQ, and scored a 167+ on the Stanford Binet when she was ten, but then the saga of the 228 gets a little complicated. Its derivation is murky, end even the man who helped present it to Guinness and compute the 228 now computes 218.”
● Quote: “Savant says she answered some additional questions in the adult portion of the test to bring her score to a mental age of 22-years, 10-months.”
● Quote: “She says documents supporting her claims were provided by a teacher whose name she can’t remember and sent to Christopher Harding, a Mega society member, now in Australia.”
● Quote (by Ronald Hoeflin): “Marilyn told me she had received a perfect score on the Binet when she was ten. I computed it. I divided 22 years 11 months by 10 years 6 months, and her IQ was 218. Marilyn [also] showed me a report card that listed her IQ as 167+.”
● Quote: “Guinness had been listing IQs of 196 as the world’s highest, but Hoeflin knew there were higher, “Marilyn asked me to write on her behalf,” he says, and he did. Norris McWhirter, former editor of the Guinness book, says he based vos Savant’s listing on the material from the Mega society. “I haven’t got anything original,” he says. Thus the highest IQ in the world was born. “She values it as a way of getting publicity for her literary work,” says Hoefling.
● Quote (Robert Jarvik): “I have been lucky to find love: my wife has the highest intelligence ever measured.”
● Fact: “graduated 178th out of a high school class of 613.” (top 29 percent)
● Fact: two years of college, studying philosophy, prior to dropping out.
● Wrote the Omni IQ quizes in the 1980s.
Leopold 75 Nathan Leopold (references)

(a) Simpson, James B. (1964). Contemporary Quotations (pg. 61). Crowell.
Section: "Nathan Leopold, on his IQ of 206 to 210."
(b) Nash, Jay Robert. (2004). The Great Pictorial History of World Crime (pg. 840). Rowman & Littlefield.
Quote: “Leopold, with an estimated IQ of 200, had graduated from the University of Chicago at the age of eighteen, the youngest ever to do so.”
Christopher Langan Christopher Langan (references)

(a) Morris, Errol. (2001). "The Smartest Man in the World". First Person, Aug. 14.
● In a 2001 video interview, by Errol Morris, titled “The Smartest Man in the World”, Langan stated that he took Omni magazine’s World’s Most Difficult IQ Test (a test that ran between in circa 1985-1998), and scored between 190-210.
(b) Sager, Mike (1999). "The Smartest Man in America". Esquire, Nov.
● Gives and IQ of 195.
(c) Parker, Philip M. (2008). Absolutists: Webster’s Quotations, Facts and Phrases (pg. 301). ICON Group International, Inc.
● claims “I am closer to absolute truth than any man who has been before me”, outlined his Cognitive-Theoretical Model of the Universe, billed as a theory of everything, in 1999; the theory, however, is fairly weak and inaccurate, particularly as compared to either Sidis or Goethe.
● Facts: Langan took the Mega Test, using the pseudonym of Eric Hart, and supposedly obtained a 42 on a first attempt (IQ=174) and a 47 on a second attempt (IQ=190). To explain his IQ, in his own words, he says he ended up “setting a record score” which correlated to an IQ of, in his own words, "somewhere between 190 and 210".
Galton (75px) Francis Galton (references)

(a) Richards, Robert J. (1989). Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of the Mind and Behavior (pg. 169). University of Chicago Press.
Quote: “Lewis Terman, who developed the Stanford-Binet IQ test, estimated Galton’s IQ at 200.”
(b) Terman, Lewis M. and Chase, Jessie M. (1920). “Psychology, Biology and Pedagogy of Genius” (pgs. 397-409, esp. pg. 404). Psychological Bulletin. American Psychological Association, Vol. 17.
Quote: “Terman analyzes certain documentary evidence presented in Karl Pearson’s biography of Galton, from which he concludes that boy Galton possessed an I.Q. which could not have been much less than 200.”
Grost 75 Michael Grost (references)

(a) Howard, Jane. (1965). “The Nicest Young Genius in the U.S.Life (104-114), May 21.
(b) Grost, Audrey. (1970). Genius in Residence (except) (pgs. 58, 102, 107, 111). Prentice-Hall.
(c) Grost, Michael Edward. (1977). An Existence Theorem for Boundary Value Problems for Nonlinear Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations, University of Michigan (Mathematics Genealogy Project)

Quote: “His IQ is so far above the 200 mark that it can’t be measured meaningfully.”

Notes: at age 6, had read through two sets of encyclopedias, at age 8 he gave a lecture to a class of college students at Michigan State University, when asked if he had done anything with binary numbers he stated that he had worked 2 to the 80th power once, on a blackboard, and it took him two hours, and when asked about the relation between biology and astronomy, he explained that the two sciences needed to be integrated, so to explain how, in evolution, the sun's reactions in water produced the first forms of life. He later graduated from MSU, at age 15, with BS in mathematics; MS age (17); PhD in mathematics from the University of Michigan at age 23.
(d) Anon. (1964). “Put Away Your Blocks”, Time, Oct. 09.
Quote: “Mike's IQ was too high to be tested meaningfully, he placed ninth among 3,400 M.S.U. students who took a comprehensive natural-science exam, was in the top 10% of doctoral candidates on a graduate-student screening test.”
(d) Michael Grost (newspaper clipping).
Quote: "scored upper one percent on test for mathematical ability for 12-graders/college freshman (at age 10)."
Sho YanoSho Yano (references)
(a) Anon. (2001). “Boy Wonder: Sho Yano Attends College at Age 10”, 60 Minutes, June 05.
(b) Ryan, Anne. (2003). “12-year-old begins Medical School at the University of Chicago.” USA Today, Aug 24.

Quote: "his IQ has been tested at about 200."
Quote: “has an IQ over 200”
(c) Sho Yano – Wikipedia (Korean → English).
(d) Sho Yano (2009) –

Notes: Graduated summa *** laude, from Loyola University Chicago, with a BS in biology and minor in chemistry at age 12 ; entered the combined MD-PhD in molecular genetics and cytology at age 13 the University of Chicago Medical School.
(d) Yano, Sho T., Panbehi, Bahman, Das, Arpita, and Laten, Howard M. (2005). “Diaspora, a large family of Ty3-gypsy retrotranspons in Glycine max, is an envelope-less member of an endogenous plant retrovirus lineage” (abstract). BMC Evolutionary Biology, 5:30
Fact: first co-authored research paper published at age 15.
Notes: PhD in molecular genetics and cell biology at the age of 18 (2009). Third year of medical school as of 2010.
Child prodigies (2005 listing) –
● Quote: “Sho was just 8 when he scored 1,500 out of 1,600 on the college-entrance SATs; he started college at age 9 (MD-PhD program at age 13; PhD age 17); he says his IQ has been tested at about 200”
Isaac Newton (75px)Isaac Newton (references)
Albert, Robert S., editor. (1992). Genius and Eminence (Ch. 3: The Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses, by C. M. Cox, pgs. 53-58, esp
Quote [C.M. Cox]: “Arnauld, Comte, Goethe, Grotius, Laplace, Leopardi, Michelangelo, Newton, Pascal, the younger Pitt, Sarpi, Schelling, Voltaire and Wolsey probably rated at 200 IQ or even higher.”
Einstein 75 (older)Albert Einstein (references)
(a) Yingling, Carl S. (1966). The Living Truth: a Philosophy of Education (pg. 37). Goodway Printing Co.
(b) Patel, Dina. (2004). A Data Gone Wrong (pg. 44). iUniverse.
(c) Hockney, D.J., Harper, William L., and Freed, B. (1975). Contemporary Research in Philosophical Logic and Linguistic Semantics (pg. 331). Springer.
(d) Anon. (1945). “Yale Prodigy: Youngest Graduate in College’s History is Merrill Kenneth Wolf who is only 14 and Started to Talk at Four Months.” Life, pgs. 51-54 Nov. 12.
(e) Lyons, Viktoria, Fitzgerald, Michael. (2005). Asperger Syndrome: a Gift or a Curse? (pg. viii). Nova Publishers.

Quote: “Einstein’s IQ has been estimated as about 225.”
Quote: “Einstein’s last tested IQ was 220.”
Quote: “the extent or degree of intelligence possessed by Einstein (e.g. 210 IQ points).”
Quote: “[Merrill Kenneth Wolf]’s of 182, which is only 23 points lower than Einstein’s [IQ=205]”
Quote: “Sidis had an IQ of 250 to 300, in comparison Albert Einstein’s IQ was 200.”
Quote: “Einstein’s IQ is estimated to be between 160 and 200.” (link)
● Wallace, Amy. (1986). The Prodigy: a Biography of William James Sidis, America's Greatist Child Prodigy (pg. 283). Dutton Adult.
● Abraham Sperling: "Einstein's IQ was 200".
● Flindt, Max H. and Binder, Otto O. (1999). Mankind Child of the Stars (pg. 180). Ozark Mountain Publishing.
● Quote: “true geniuses, such as Einstein, with his probable 200 IQ, occur so rarely in the human race that they seem to have little or no relationship to the common law of heredity.”
● Seitz, Robert N. (2002). “The Prodigy: a Book Review”, May 31.
● Quote: “Albert Einstein's IQ was 200.”
● Inhaber, Herbert and Carroll, Sidney L. (1992). How Rich is Too Rich? (pg 107). Praeger.
● Quote: “Einstein, whose IQ was alleged to be over 200, never was in any list of the nation’s wealthiest.”
● Naam, Ramez. (2005). More than Human: Embracing the Gift of Biological Enhancement (pg. 156). Random House.
● Quote: “We don’t know what Einstein’s IQ was, but it’s been guessed at about 160.”
● Fadul, Jose A. (2007). Encyclopedia Rizalana: Student Edition (pg. 49). LuLu.
● Quote: “Estimates were made by a group of psychologists at Stanford University for those who never took any IQ test: Leonardo Da Vinci, 220; Einstein and Mozart 160.”
Terence TaoTerence Tao (references)
(a) Gross, M. (1986). “Radical Acceleration in Australia: Terence Tao”, Gifted Child Today. Prufrock Press.
(b) Anon. (2007). “Terence Tao from NYTimes”, The Arabesque.
(c) Smith, Deborah. (2006). “Mozart of Maths”, The Sydney Morning Herald.
(d) Terence Tao - Wikipedia.

Quote: “Terry's IQ [age 11] has been assessed as between 220 and 230, and he has no areas of academic weakness.”
Quote: “According to Sin Chew Daily, Terrence Tao has an IQ of 211.”
Quote: “a one-in-a-million IQ score of 220.”
Notes: Started high school at age 8; BS (age 16) and MS (age 17) in science from Flinders University; PhD from Princeton (age 21) in mathematics; professor of mathematics at UCLA (age 24); winner of the 2006 Fields Medal (age 31).
Terrence Tao (08 Jul 2010 thread)
● Quote: “In November of 1983, at the age of 8 years 3 months, Terry informally took the South Australian Matriculation (university entrance) examination in Mathematics 1 and 2 and passed with scores of 90% and 85%, respectively.” (18/(8+3/12))*100=218.
Photo needed (icon)Edith Stern (references)
(a) Spratt, Mary and Taylor, Lynda B. (2000). The Cambridge CAE Course: Self-Study Student’s Book (pg. 276). Cambridge University Press.
(b) Anon. (1968). “University Graduate at Age 15” (Quote: IQ rating of 201), Lonl News-Sentinel, Jun 05.
(c) Ledson, Sidney. (2004). Teach Your Child to Read in Just Ten Minutes a Day (pg. 18). Trafford Publishing.
● Anon (date). “Edith Experiment”, New Yorker.
● McClintock, Jack. (1977). “The Edith Project”, Harper’s Magazine, March, pg. 21-24.
● Tee, George. (2007). “Genius: You Can Be One Too!’, July 4th,

● Stern, Aaron. (1971). The Making of a Genius. Renaissance Publications.

Quote: “today she has an IQ of 203 and works for IBM in secret computer software research and development.”
Quote: “with an IQ rating of 201.”
Quote: “Aaron Stern, whose daughter Edith (IQ 200) is the subject of his 1971 book The Making of a Genius, stated that he could foster the same meteoric IQ in the children of the Tasaday tribe, a Stone Age people living in the Phillippines.”
Notes: speaking full sentences before age one; playing chess and solving arithmetic problems by age 3; read entire Encyclopedia Britannica by age 5; learned algebra by age 5; reading six book per day at age 6; read Plato, Freud, and Darwin by age 8; enrolled in college at 12; BS in science from Florida Atlantic University (age 15), assistant professor of mathematics at MSU at 15; PhD in mathematics at age 18.

Note: Aaron Stern is a Jewish survivor of WWII, although he suffered from lung and heart conditions from his time living in the forests. He was a professor of language (knew 7 languages) who taught children in displaced persons camps using travel posters - the only things available. In this book, he writes of how he spent time with his young daughter in NYC, teaching her to read in grocery stores. They made museum trips on Sunday and talked about everything they saw from the time they left home until they returned. He emphasized how he always asked open-ended questions and asked his daughter to do research.
Christopher Hirata 75pxChristopher Hirata (references)
(a) Susan, Goldsmith. (1999). “The Wizard of Pasadena” (abstract), New Times Los Angeles, Jun 17.
(b) Woods, Vanessa. (2001). “Balancing Life as a Teenager and a Graduate Student.” The Daily Princetonian, Sep 21.
(c) Susan, Goldsmith. (2001). “Update on a Genius: at 18 he’s off to Princeton for a PhD in Physics”, New Times Los Angeles Online, Jul 19.

Quote: “Chris Hirata, CalTech student, whose estimate IQ is 225.”
Quote: “With an I.Q. estimated to be around 225, Hirata has been sought after by many elite institutions in his life. This year Princeton beat out schools like Harvard and Stanford for the right to claim him among its ranks.”
Notes: at age 12 won 1996 Physics Olympiad, an international competition among the world’s smartest math and science students (up to age 19), becoming the youngest medalist ever; at age 14 entered Caltech; began working with NASA at age 16 on a project exploring the possibility of colonizing Mars; completed his BS at age 18 from Caltech with a 4.2 GPA; completed PhD in physics (2005) at age 22 at Princeton; currently is an assistant professor of astrophysics at CalTech.
John Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill (references)
(a) Famous people IQ table (link) (link), etc.
(b) [ref. #23]
(c) Mill's 200 IQ score seems to trace to Cox (pgs. 707-); who wrote a biographical section on him in her Chapter XXIII: Cases Rated at AI IQ 190 to 200.

● Quote: "IQ=200"
● Feats: “could write Greek with his left hand while writing Latin with his right.” [23]
● Facts: Learned Greek at 3; wrote a treatise on the history of Rome at 6; reading Plato, etc. at 7; Latin, geometry, and algebra at 8; conic sections, spherical section, and Newtonian arithmetic; chemistry age 13 at the Royal Military College; at 14, chemistry, zoology, metaphysics, and logic at Montpellier University; law at 16 under John Austin.
Marnen Laibow-Koser 75Marnen Laibow-Koser (references)
● Feldman, David H. and Goldsmith, Lynn T. (1986). Nature’s Gambit: Child Prodigies and the Development of Human Potential (pgs. 34-36). Teachers College Press (updated edition: 1991).
● Adam Konantovich (pseudonym) = Marnen Laibow-Koser (real name); he was one of the six children studied in the 1986 book Nature's Gambit.
● Sadiq, Sabah. (2005). “Gifted Children: Analysis of Gifted Underachieves (Case Study: Marnen Laibow-Koser)”, University of Michigan.
● Hartigan, Patti. (2005). “Young + Brilliant, Blessed + Cursed”, The Boston Globe, Mar 6.
User:Marnen (2003-) - Wikipedia (user page).

● Quote: “He allegedly made the highest score attained to date on the Stanford Binet IQ test: 268; exceeding Marilyn vos Savant's score by 40 points. This, however, would have occurred after her world-record score was obtained.” (link)
● Quote: the Mega Society site references an "Adam Konantovich", stating that “I have seen a claim that Adam tested out at an IQ of 268” (link).
● Notes: Speaking words grammatically correct sentences at three months of age; at age 3.5, he read, wrote, and spoke several languages, studied mathematics, and composed music, played the violin; at age 7-8 was attending the MIT computer lab doing programming; obtained a perfect score on the Stanford-Binet at age of about 8; the term “omnibus prodigy” was coined to describe him, as his talents were not bounded within a single domain.
● Quote: “Adam was perhaps the most gifted child ever tested on the Stanford-Binet” (Halbert Robinson, accelerating learning expert).
● Notes: Engaged in complex conversations at 6-months, reading simple books by age 1; could speak several languages by age 3; parent’s home had an estimated 3,000 books (link).
● He currently is a computer programmer and music composer;
● Listed as the premier case study of the “gifted underachiever” (Sabah Sadiq).
● Quote: “Marnen can perhaps be described as not only gifted but highly gifted” (Sabah Sadiq).
● His mother considers him a “failed prodigy” (Hartigan 2).
Rick RosnerRick Rosner (references)
● Klosterman, Chuck. (2009). Eating the Dinosaur (pg. 21). Simon & Schuster.
Rick Rosner - Wikipedia.

● Quote: “Rosner is believed to have one of the highest IQ scores ever measured.”
● IQ=180-250 (according to his own estimates)
● Notes: scored 44 out of 48 (1985) and 47 out of 48 (1991) on Hoeflin's Mega Test, along with a perfect score on Hoeflin’s Titan test, which together supposedly gives him an adult deviation IQ of 195 and a ratio IQ of 250.
● He was famously in a 2009 Domino's commercial (below), playing Go with a fifth grader, which the caption "IQ = 200" shown below him.

● On 24 Dec 07, one time Wikipedian Willzo4 started the Rick Rosner article with the claim: “Rosner’s combined scores indicate an adult (deviation) IQ in the mid- to high-190s, corresponds to a ratio IQ of approximately 250 (Scoville).” In 2010 the exert was still there.
● Rosner, Rick. (1991). “When Good IQs Happen to Bad People”, Noesis, No. 57.

*This 250 value
which Rosner calls a “functional IQ”, has to be one of the stupidest references on this page; according to the Terman formula, a 26-year-old scoring perfect on test designed for 18-year-olds, gives an IQ of (18/26)*100=69, rather than 250.

● At age 5, in his own words, “on the last page of this test, given to everyone in my kindergarten class, was the "Draw-A-Man Test." We got IQ points based on whether our men had eyelashes, beltloops, and the right number of fingers. My man had all the options. He was standing next to a traffic light. Several weeks later, at a parent-teacher conference, Mrs. Shipper informed my mom and stepdad that I was a genius.”
● At age 14, in his own words, “My junior high offered an honors math class in which teams of two would work on special presentations. My friend Lon and I were assigned statistics. The stats we would analyze were the IQ's of the honors math class versus the IQ's of the entire ninth grade. I was allowed to see the IQ's of everyone in my grade. At 151, I had the highest IQ.”
● At age 18, in his own words, “through junior high and high school, I thought someone would love me for my IQ, even though I was a nerd. But I got permission to examine my school records and discovered that my IQ wasn't even that lovable. Most of my scores were in the 140's, not high enough to justify special destiny.”
● At age 20, in his own words, “in college, though a born-again dumb person, I was still a sucker for IQ tests, and Kevin Langdon's Adult Intelligence Test was a welcome excuse to ignore coursework. It's a multiple choice test, and, since I couldn't decide between two answers on one verbal problem, I submitted answer sheets under two different names. Apparently one answer sheet was lost, but the report I received gave me a score of 170, not far from the test's ceiling.”
● At age 26, in his own words, “I forged about 40 documents and went from being a 26-year-old undergrad to being 17-year-old Gilligan Rosner. I began high school summer school. (I needed to repeat a couple classes I'd missed during my imaginary junior year after a fictitious auto accident sent me into a fabricated coma.) By day, I attended class; by night, I made a living delivering stripping telegrams and bouncing. I got good grades in most of my courses--due to my advanced age relative to my classmates, I had a functional IQ of about 250.”
CurieMarie Curie (references)
● Sherriff, Lucy. (2004). “World’s Cleverest Woman Needs a Job: an IQ of 200 is a Sorry Thing to Waste.” The Register.
● Quote: “Daniela Simidchieva, [who is] a qualified industrial engineer with an IQ of 200, [is] listed by Mensa as the ‘world’s cleverest women’, [and has a] mind boggling IQ equal to that of Marie Curie, according to reports.”
● IQ=180 (Buzan, 1994).
HypatiaHypatia (references)
IQ of Famous People –
Geniuses –

● IQ = 170
● Quote: “She was a mathematician, astronomer, and Platonic philosopher. Her father had been the last head librarian of the Library at Alexandria and a professor of mathematics in Alexandra. This library later burned and everything was destroyed. She was the author of a commentary on Diophantus, she also wrote a work called The Astronomical Canon and a commentary on The Conics of Apollonius. She had a superior intelligence Her intelligence surpassed that of all other philosophers of her time and her accomplishments in music and science paled all others. He intelligence and knowledge surpassed her father's at an early age. People would come from other cities to hear her talk and learn from her. She was murdered for her beliefs. IQ unknown but seems to be in the 180-200 range.”
● MacDonald, Beverley and Weldon, Andrew. (2003). Written in Blood: A Brief History of Civilization (pg. 173). Allen & Unwin.
● Quote: “IQ scores of 200+ are ‘universal geniuses’. So far there’s been only one woman recorded on the ‘universal genius list, Hypatia, a Greek mathematician and philosopher of renowned beauty and intellect.”
● Note: the IQ=210 estimate doesn’t seem to have a good reference; although it has a certain number of mentions around the web, prior to 2007 (link) (link), likely originating in the fake 2006 Quigly Anderson list.
● Note: She is listed in Buzan’s Book of Genius, but he gives no IQ, only commenting that “the little we know of Hypatia suggests that she must have had a remarkable intellect.”
Emanuel Swedenborg Emanuel Swedenborg (references)
● (Cox, 1926)
IQ of Famous People –
● McWhirter, Norris. (1978). Guinness Book of World Records (category: Highest IQ, pg. 49). Bantam Books.

● IQ = 165
● IQ = 205
● Quote: “HIGHEST IQ: This Korean boy, with a 210 quotient, at the age of 4 years 8 months spoke 4 languages ... A similar rating has also been attributed to Emanuel Swedenborg.” (note: this is a Google Books snippet; and man be a connected sentence?)
Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (references)
● (Cox, 1926)
● IQ = 200
Thomas Wolsey Thomas Wolsey (references)
● (Cox, 1926)
● IQ = 200
Voltaire 75Voltaire (references)
● Cox, Catharine, M. (1926). Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred Geniuses (Genetic Studies of Genius Series) (Voltaire 200, 6+ pgs., esp. 144, 217). Stanford University Press.
Popenoe, Paul. (1927). “The Childhood of a Genius: A Review” (extract), Journal of Heredity. 18(4): 145-51.
● Author. (1943). Zoological Reprints and Separata, etc. (pg. #). Nature.

● Cox IQ=190 (finalized list)
● Quote [Catherine Cox]: “Several are well above the 200 IQ mark. Arnauld, Comte, Goethe, Grotius, Laplace, Leopardi, Michelangelo, Newton, Pascal, the younger Pitt, Sarpi, Shelling, Voltaire and Wolsey probably rated at 200 IQ or even higher.”
● Quote: “A group containing Voltaire must approach or perhaps exceed a score of 200.”
● Quote [Paul Popenoe]: “Pascal and Voltaire both probably had IQs in the neighborhood of 200.”
● Note: the fact that Voltaire, a year before his death, visited the imprisoned French polymath Jean Sales, in 1777, the first to employ the “human molecule” concept, lends great credibility to a 200-range IQ, as both Goethe (IQ=225) and Hirata (IQ=225) also, independently, employed the human molecular theory viewpoint.
Ainan CawleyAinan Cawley (references)
● Cawley, Valentine. (2007). “Passing O Level Aged 7”, Blog: The Boy Who Knew Too Much, Mar 25.

● Facts: could crawl at four months; walk at six months; read at eight months (link); construct complex sentences by age one; as a toddler, he would seek out science books in the library, showing a preference for dense texts with complicated illustrations of scientific matters, which he would absorb quietly and comment on later; by the time he was 3 or 4, he was interested in hyper-dimensional shapes and would draw their shadows in two dimensions as a form of intellectual play; by age 6½, he had taught himself chemistry on the Internet, and could answer O-level chemistry exams, scoring 100% (link); passed the GCSE (high school equivalency) at age seven; at age 8, on camera (14 Sep 2008), he set a world record for being the youngest person to be able reciting pi to 518 digits (link); in 2009 he was studying chemistry in college.

● IQ=263; Quote: “O Level is normally taken by sixteen year olds. The average candidate would, therefore, be sixteen and a half years old. Since the brightest 20% of students are the ones the exam is aiming at; to pass it one would need a mental age of 18.645 years. This is derived from the IQ score and the age thus: the deviation IQ of 113 is the same as the ratio IQ (in this case) of 113. IQ as a ratio is mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. Therefore the mental age of O level students who pass would be expected to be: 1.13 times 16.5 years, which is 18.645 years. Ainan is not 18.645 years old - he was seven years and one month when he took the exam - so passing means something interesting. It means that, in terms of his scientific reasoning capability his ratio to the norm is: 18.645/7 years 1 month. This equals a ratio of 2.63. That is Ainan is at least 2.63 times more precocious than average. In terms of IQ, were this a fair estimator of ratio IQ, which it is likely to be since it involves scientific reasoning which will have a large component of g, in it - the general intelligence factor - it would represent a ratio IQ of 2.63 times 100 or 263 IQ. This is a ratio IQ estimate which is different from a deviation IQ estimate.”

● IQ=349; Quote: “Yet, this is likely to be an underestimate of his precocity - for he has already read the A level texts and is working on a University text. That latter text is suited to a 20 year old Chemistry student. The average IQ of a chemistry student is 124. This corresponds to a ratio IQ of 125. Therefore the average mental age of a 20 year old Chemistry student would be 25. Using this to generate a ratio IQ for Ainan giving his age as 7 years and three months - the time when he started to read the University book, would give a ratio IQ of 349. This should be regarded as an accurate measure of precocity, at least - for it uses actual achievement as a marker for development.”
Dylan Jones 75Dylan Jones (references)
● Latimer, Clay. (2006). “Football and Studying Leaves Them Smart: at Mines, Tackling Both is All-Consuming”, Rocky Mountain News, Oct. 21.
● Lay, Jennie. (2009). “Outside the Bell Curve: at 16, He was Mines’ youngest-ever Graduate. Then What?”, Mines, Colorado School of Mines Magazine, Spring, 99(1): 18-21.

● Facts: engineering freshman at Colorado School of Mines at age 10, taking chemistry, mathematics, and calculus classes; able to recite pi to the 500th decimal; photographic memory; BS in mathematical and computer science (age 16), with a minor in bioengineering and life sciences; medical school age 17, studying to be a neurosurgeon (as of 2009), and to be board certified by age 28.
● IQ=200+; Quote: “a freshman who had an IQ in excess of 200.”
● Quote: “Willy Hereman, Colorado School of Mines mathematical and computer sciences professor, recalls a day when Dylan, age ten, came to his office to let him know that he had memorized the first 500 digits of pi. The professor pulled the number up on his computer screen to fact check and Dylan proceeded to recite about the first 300 digits without a hitch. So Hereman challenged him with another number, e, the basis of the exponential, 2.71828…, curious if Dylan might get the sequences confused. “Why would I get them confused?” Dylan asked, “They are two different numbers.” Hereman remembers Dylan returning disappointed two days later: he had only perfected the first 100 digits.”
Naida CamukovaNaida Camukova (references)
● Quote: "Camukova’s IQ is in the range of 140-200" (link).
● Naida Camukova (c. 1976-) (IQ=199.37) (Einstein assigned ceiling IQ=200) (link); started talking age 1, learned to read and write at age 2; age 14 was enrolled in both Moscow State University (history) and Daghestan State University (literature); began medical school at age 9 (or 15); speaks seven languages; age 25 became professor of history and literature; has published 25-books and read 3000 books; with photographic memory (able to remember even comma placements in books); only child of a neurosurgeon mother and lawyer father; had brain hemorrhage at age 23 (was in coma for 20-days) (Wikipedia) (Facebook), declared the world’s most intelligent person by the Moscow Institute from Brain Research;
● BS and MS by age 15, or about.
● Could be a fake or scam (link); but there are many references on here (in Turkey), stating that she is the world's smartest person, with a 200 IQ?

Supposedly can read a 300-page book in two hours (link).

Numbered references
1. (a) Goethe, Johann. (1809). Elective Affinties. Germany: Publisher.
(b) Sidis, William J. (1920). The Animate and the Inanimate. Boston: The Gorham Press.
2. (a) Adler, Jeremy. (1987). “Eine fast magische Anziehungskraft”. Goethe’s “Wahlverwandtschafte” und die Chemie seiner Zeit (“An almost Magical Attraction”). Goethe’s Elective Affinity and the Chemistry of its Time), Munich.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two), (preview), (ch. 10: "Goethe's Affinities", pgs. 371-422). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
3. Popenoe, Paul. (1927). “The Childhood of a Genius: A Review” (extract), Journal of Heredity. 18(4): 145-51.
4. Adler, Jeremy. (1990). "Goethe's Use of Chemical Theory in his Elective Affinities" (ch. 18, pgs. 263-79) in Romanticism and the Sciences - edited by Andrew Cunningham and Nicholas Jardine, New York: Cambridge University Press.
5. (a) In 2002, for instance, news-worthy story ran about how a mother named Elizabeth Chapman, 27, faked her son’s (Chris Chapman) test scores to gain renown as a boy-genius with an IQ of 298; a boy who was later hospitalized over a suicide attempt at age 7 and was later put in foster care.
(b) Anon. (2002). “Mom faked son’s genius scores Helped boy get 298 on IQ test; now she faces neglect trail”, Chicago Sun-Times, March 04.
(c) Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy, Golinkoff, Roberta M., and Eyer, Diane E. (2003). Einstein Never Used Flash Cards (pg. 126). Rodale.
(d) Goode, Erica. (2002). “The Uneasy Fit of Precocious and the Average.”, Mar. 12.
6. Gowdy, Larry N. (2007). Myths, Facts, and Lies about Prodigies: a Historiography of William James Sidis (abstract) (Amazon). Woven Strings Publishers.
8. (a) Cook, Anthony. (1992). “Meet a Real-life 11-year-old Doogie Howser: Masoud, now a College Junior with an A average.” Money, Dec. 01.
(b) Ringrose, Heather. (2001). “Meet Some Whiz Kids: Average IQ over 200”, Feb. 27,
(c) Cummings, Michael S. (2001). Beyond Political Correctness (pg. 153). Lynne Rienner Publishers.
9. Gross, Maraca. (2003). Exceptionally Gifted Children (pgs. 4-5, etc.; 7,000 word oral vocabulary, pg. 25). Routledge Falmer.
10. Lovecky, Deirdre V. (1993). “Exceptionally Gifted Children: Different Minds.”, Roeper Review, Vol. 17. 5-pgs.
11. Jensen, Eric. (2008). Enriching the Brain (pg. 148). Wiley.
13. Myers, David G. (2004). Psychology (pg. 421). MacMillan.
14. Binet, Alfred, Simon, Theodore, and Kite, Elizabeth S. (1916). The Development of Intelligence in Children: the Binet-Simon scale. Williams & Wilkins Co.
15. Stern, William, Wipple, Guy M. (1914). The Psychological Methods of Testing Intelligence. Warwick & York.
16. (a) Cox, Catherine. (1924). “On the Early Mental Development of a Group of Eminent Men”, disstertation/thesis. Stanford University.
(b) Cox, Catharine, M. (1926). Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred Geniuses (Genetic Studies of Genius Series) (IQ: definition, pg. 47). Stanford Univ Press.
(c) Catherine Cox – Human Intelligence, Indiana University.
17. Jackson, Wade. (2007). “Identifying the most intelligent person in the world”.
18. (a) Buzan, Tony and Keene, Ray. (2005). Buzan’s Book of Mental World Records (IQ table: World’s top 14 all-time highest IQs (180-220), pg. 31). D&B Publishing.
(b) Buzan, Tony and Keene, Raymond. (1994). Book of Genius. Stanley Paul.
(c) Greatest Geniuses of All Time (1-50) – Buzan’s book of Genius.
(d) Top 10 Geniuses of All Time (1-10) - Buzan's Book Of Genius.
(e) Methodology (Buzan 100 Geniuses) –
19. (a) Terman, Lewis. (1916). The Measurement of Intelligence: an Explanation of and a Complete Guide for he Use of the Stanford Guide for the Use of the Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale (I.Q., pg. 53, etc.). Houghton Mifflin Co.
(b) Lewis Terman – Human Intelligence, University of Indiana.
20. Poll conducted by American engineer Libb Thims in 2009 and 2010.
21. Gross, Miraca U.M. (2003). Exceptionally Gifted Children, 2nd ed (pgs. 252-, etc.). Routledge.
22. Gottlieb, Agnes, Gottlieb, Henry, Bowers, Barbara and Bowers, Brent. (1998). 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium. Kodansha America, Inc.
23. Bentsen, Cheryl. (1979). “The Brightest Kids”, New York Magazine (pgs. 36-40). Jun 18.
24. Buzan, Tony and Keene, Raymond. (1994). Book of Genius (words: pgs. 139 (Shakespeare), 162 (Goethe)). Stanley Paul.
25. Young, Christopher, Gloning, Thomas. (2004). A History of German Language Through Texts (pg. 248). Routledge.
26. Stefanou, Constantin and Xanthaki, Helen. (2008). Drafting Legislation: a Modern Approach (pg. 246). Ashgate Publishing.
27. Crystal, David. (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (pg. 123). Cambridge University Press.
28. Beck, I.L. and McKeown, M.G. (1991). Social studies texts are hard to understand: Mediating some of the difficulties. Language Arts, 68, 482-490.
29. E.B. Zechmeister, A.M. Chronis, W.L. Cull, C.A. D'Anna and N.A. Healy, Growth of a functionally important lexicon, Journal of Reading Behavior, 1995, 27(2), 201-212.
30. Sperling, Abraham. (1946). “A Story of Genius”, Psychology for the Millions, F. Fell, 332-39.
31. Cuillen, Michael. (1995). The Five Equations that Changed the World. Hyperion.
32. Muller, Ingo. (2007). A History of Thermodynamics: the Doctrine of Energy and Entropy (two most important formulas of physics, pg. 101-02). New York: Springer.
33. Farmelo, Graham. (2002). It Must Be Beautiful: Great Equations of Modern Science. Granta Books.
34. Crease, Robert P. (2004). “The Greatest Equations Ever: What Makes a Great Equation? Robert Crease seeks your Candidates and Criteria”, Physics World, May 10.
35. Crease, Robert P. (2004). “The Greatest Equations Ever: Maxwell’s equations of Electromagnetism and Euler equation top a Poll to find the Greatest Equations of All Time” (abstract), Physics World, pgs. 14-15, Oct.
35. Crease, Robert P. (2008). The Great Equations: Breakthroughs in Science from Pythagoras to Heisenberg. W.W. Norton & Co.
36. Nobel Prize: Special distinguished laureates – Wikipedia.
37. (a) Marie Curie IQ references: (IQ=180, ref: Buzan, 1994).
(b) Marie Curie IQ=200; Quote: “Daniela Simidchieva’s mind boggling IQ of 200 is equal to that of Marie Curie” (link).
38. (a) Linus Pauling: IQ = 170 (link).
(b) Interview response: “I don't have any precise evaluation of my IQ, but to the extent that psychologists have said that my IQ is about 160, I recognize that there are one hundred thousand or more people in the United States that have IQs higher than that. So I have said that I think I think harder, think more than other people do, than other scientists.” Pauling, Linus. (1990). “Interview: Linus Pauling – Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Peace”, Nov. 11, Big Sur, California.
39. (a) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One), (preview). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(b) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two), (preview), (Quote: "The founder of this new science [human chemistry] is the German writer, scientist, and polymath Johann von Goethe", pg. 371; ch. 10: "Goethe's Affinities", pgs. 371-422). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
40. (a) Kanowitz, Gavin. (2009). “40 Greatest Chemists of All-Time”, Mar 02.
(b) 13 Greatest Discoveries in Chemistry – Science Channel.
41. Prigogine, Ilya. (1984). Order Out of Chaos (pgs. 64, 319). Bantam Books.
42. Friedrich Nietzsche and his philosophy of the Superman –
43. (a) Robinson, Andrew. (2006). The Last Man Who Knew Everything: Thomas Young, the anonymous Polymath who proved Newton wrong, Explained how we see, Cured the sick, and deciphered the Rosetta stone, among other feats of Genius. OneWorld.
(b) Warren, Leonard. (1998). Joseph Leidy: the Last Man Who Knew Everything. Yale University Press.
(c) Findlen, Paula. (2004). Athanasius Kircher: the Last Man Who Knew Everything.
(d) Hjelmroos-Koski, Mervi. (2009). “Baron Alexander von Humboldt: the Last Man Who Knew Everything.” May 19, Blog of the Botanical Art and Illustration Program at Denver Botanical Gardens.
(e) Heilbroner, Robert L. (1999). The Worldly Philosophers: the Lives, Times, and Ideas of the Great Economic (Thorstein Veblen, Quote: he became known as “the last man who knew everything”, pg. 241). Simon and Schuster.
(f) Crawford, Osbert G.S. (1996). Antiquity (pg. 241), Vol. 70, Issues 267-68.
45. (a) Crawford, Osbert G.S. (1996). Antiquity (pg. 241), Vol. 70, Issues 267-68.
(b) Eliot, George (2004) [1871]. Gregory Maertz (ed.). ed. Middlemarch. Broadview Press. ISBN. Note by editor of 2004 edition, Gregory Maertz, p. 710.
(c) Brown, Sterling A. (1973). The Reader’s Companion to World Literature (pg. 299). Signet Classic.
(d) Cox, Catharine, M. (1926). Early Mental Traits of Three Hundred Geniuses (Genetic Studies of Genius Series) (pgs. 155, 163). Stanford University Press.
(e) Robinson, Andrew. (2006). The Last Man Who Knew Everything: Thomas Young, the anonymous Polymath who proved Newton wrong, Explained how we see, Cured the sick, and deciphered the Rosetta stone, among other feats of Genius (Alexander Murray Quote, pgs. 10-11) . OneWorld.
(f) Buzan, Tony and Keene, Raymond. (1994). Book of Genius (Goethe, pg. 162). Stanley Paul.
(g) Prigogine, Ilya. (1984). Order Out of Chaos (pgs. 64, 319). Bantam Books.
(h) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume One) (Quote “start of the science of human chemistry: pg. 295). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(i) Thims, Libb. (2007). Human Chemistry (Volume Two) (Quote: "The founder of this new science [human chemistry] is the German writer, scientist, and polymath Johann von Goethe", pg. 371; ch. 10: "Goethe's Affinities", pgs. 371-422). Morrisville, NC: LuLu.
(j) Bloom, Harold. (2002). Genius: A Mosaic of One-Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds (Bloom only defines two of his hundred to be universal geniuses: Quote: “What truly makes Montaigne a universal genius is his eloquent wisdom of self-acceptance founded upon profound self-knowledge”, pg. 41; Quote: “Since my method is juxtaposition, I delight in bringing together Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), together with the universal genius Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), and Thomas Mann (1875-1955)”, pg. 166). Warner Books.
(k) Wadepuhl, Walter. (1932). Goethe’s Interest in the New World (pg. 7). Walter Biedermann.
(l) Galison, Peter, Holton, Gerald J., and Schweber, Silvan S. (2008). Einstein for the 21st Century: His Legacy in Science, Art, and Modern Culture (ch. 1: Who Was Einstein? Why is He Still so Alive?, pgs 3-15; quote: pg. 10). Princeton University Press.
(m) Curtius, Ernst D. (1949). “The Medieval Bases of Western Thought”, Lecute delivered July 3, at the Goethe Bicentennial Convocation, at Aspen, Colorado; In European Literature in the Latin Middle Ages (pg. 589). Princeton University Press, 1991.
46. Robinson, Andrew. (2006). The Last Man Who Knew Everything: Thomas Young, the anonymous Polymath who proved Newton wrong, Explained how we see, Cured the sick, and deciphered the Rosetta stone, among other feats of Genius (ch. 10: A Universal Man, pg. 223) . OneWorld.
47. (a) Terman, Lewis. (1916). The Measurement of Intelligence: an Explanation of and a Complete Guide for he Use of the Stanford Guide for the Use of the Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale (I.Q., pg. 53, etc.). Houghton Mifflin Co.
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Further reading
● Hollingworth, Leta S. (1942). Children Above 180 IQ: Stanford-Binet Origin and Development. Arno Press.

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