Islam

Islam (Mecca)
Above: the annual pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj), something that must be done at least once during a Muslim’s reaction extent (lifetime), as one of the five "pillars" or basic acts in Islam. Right: the 2011 Islam’s Quantum Question, by Nidhal Guessoum, showing a depiction of iron fillings around a magnet alluding to a comparison of Kaaba (cuboid building at center) and its “black stone” (eastern cornerstone) to the magnet and humans, in Islamic belief, aligned towards the Kaaba, like the aligned iron filings (see: Ising model of human behavior). [1]
In religion, Islam (CR:62), aka "Mohammedan faith" (Rheticus, 1540), is the Quranic version of Abrahamic theology, itself being a monotheistic rescript of Anunian theology, the description of which, according to Islamic folklore, is believed to be the spoken words of a god, named Allah, enunciated over the course of 40-years, from 609 to 632, to a prophet named Muhammad, a conceptualized 62-generation descendant of Abraham (a conceptualized ten generation descendant of Noah, i.e. Nuh or Nun); an adherent of which is called a Muslim, whose membership includes some 20 percent of the world’s current population.

Overview
In circa 2011, Neil Tyson posited (Ѻ) that the fall of the Islamic golden age (800-1100) occurred after Hamid Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) declared mathematics evil or the work of the devil.

Atheism
See main: Islamic atheism
In Islam, atheists, among whom are mostly closet atheists (as open atheists in the Muslim world tend to be killed) are categorized as kafir (كافر), which carries connotations of blasphemy and disconnection from the Islamic community; a term, to note, that is also used to describe polytheists (shirk), and that translates roughly as "denier" or "concealer". In Arabic, "atheism" is generally translated ilhad (إلحاد), although this also means "heresy". (Ѻ). In the 14th century, the top three heretics or Islamic atheists were al-Marri (c.1020), aka the "Arab Lucretius", Ibn al Rawandi (c.870), a three impostors advocate, and Abu Hayyan (923-1023) (Ѻ), noted for his dialogue (Ѻ) on “why atheists do good work?” if, e.g., they have they have no fear of a final reckoning, do not seek to be rewarded by god or even expect even to return to god? The gist of their atheism rep was summarized as follows:

“The heretics in Islam are three: Ibn al Rawandi, Abu Hayyan al Tawhidi, and Abu Alaa al-Ma’arri–of them, mostly Abu Hayyan, because they (attempt to) edify grandiloquence but in fact they babble.”
— Ibn al-Jawziyyah (c.1325) [6]

In 2004, Jennifer Hecht, likewise, groups al-Rawandi, al-Tauhidi, and al-Ma’arri as the "three worst zindiqs" [anti-religionists] of Islam, according to the Islamic tradition. [7]
The 11 Feb 2018 interaction between two Muslims and an atheist, during which once the atheist says he believes in big bang and doesn't believe in god, they kick him off the show.

On 11 Feb 2018, in Egypt, the following interaction occurred between Mahmoud Ashour, a former deputy Sheikh of Al-Azhar, and Mohammad Hashem, and Ex-Muslim atheist youth, intermediated by a Muslim talk show host of Alhadath Alyoum TV:

Sheikh Mahmoud: Why did you become an atheist?
Ex-Muslim Atheist: Because there is no scientific evidence for god.

Muslim Host: How can you say that. Who created you? Who made you exist as a human being?
Sheikh Mahmoud: Do you know how you were created?
Ex-Muslim Atheist: There are many theories explaining our existence on this planet …

Sheikh Mahmoud: I’m asking you a question. How did you become a human being?
Muslim Host: How come you exist in this universe?
Ex-Muslim Atheist: Ok. Let me explain. There are theories that try to explain our existence. One theory is that god created us. Okay? But there are other theories, with much more evidence, like big bang theory.

Muslim Host: Speak Arabic! You are in Egypt. And you are addressing simple people, so don’t use big words for no reason.
Ex-Muslim Atheist: I’m using these terms because science is conducted in English.

Muslim Host: What science are you talking about, you are confusing and unreliable. You deny the existence of god and reject our religion and principles.
Ex-Muslim Atheist: Is this so bad?

Muslim Host: Of course, you come here to talk about a certain idea, but have nothing to offer. You offer atheism! You offer heresy! I apologize to the viewers for having an Egyptian of this kind on our show. I’m sorry, Mohammad, but you cannot stay with us on the show. Because your ideas are inappropriate, I’m sad to say. We cannot promote such destructive ideas. You have not uttered a single convincing word.

Sheikh Mahmoud: Look, dear Mohammad, you need psychiatric treatment. Many young people today suffer from mental illnesses, due to material or mental circumstances.
Muslim Host: It’s like Sheikh Mahmoud says, have you seen a psychiatrist? I advise you to leave the studio and go straight to a psychiatric hospital. You shouldn’t be here. Unfortunately, I cannot let you be here anymore. Please get up and leave, and I will continue the show with Dr. Mahmoud. Unfortunately, your ideas are destructive and bad for Egyptian youth. You are a bad example of Egyptian youth. … Mohammad, you can’t stay here. I advise you to go straight to a psychiatric hospital.

Of note, when the atheist said: "One theory is that god created us, okay", he should have inserted: "but this theory says that we were created from "sticky clay" (Quran, Surah 37:11); the problem with this, however, is that one of the main elements in clay is aluminum, but as scientists (e.g. Alfred Lotka, 1925) have pointed out, there is no aluminum in humans and also aluminum is a poison to humans. This, categorically, is the aluminum disproof of the existence of god.

Evolution
In Muslim countries, such as Egypt and Pakistan, only around 15 percent of the population believes in Darwinian evolution, a belief conflict issue that Algerian astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum investigates in his 2011 Islam’s Quantum Question. [1]

Muhammad
See also: Muhammad never existed
Little, to note, has been published on the historicity of the Quran, say as compared to the historicity of the Bible, presently known to have written by some 52+ scholars, collectively, over the course of some 600 years (500BC-100AD).

In 2008, German jurist and former Islamic theologian Sven Kalisch, whose doctoral thesis (1997) was on “common sense and flexibility in Islamic legal methodology” (see also: Goethe's jurisprudence issues and student reactions), completed at the Faculty of Law and Economics at the Technical University of Darmstadt—a Protestant-to-Muslim convert (age 15) turned Muslim-to-nonbeliever convert (age 44)—made controversial headlines by stating, in an article entitled “Islamic Theology Without the Historic Muhammad: Comments on the Challenges of the Historical-Critical Method for Islamic Thinking”, his researched opinion that Muhammad never existed; at the time, he was said to be in the middle of completing a book on this subject. [2] In addition to the non-existence of Muhammad, Kalisch has doubts on the historical existence of Jesus (god-Horus/Osiris), Moses, Abraham (father Ra son of Nun), and other so-called prophets of the Islamic, Christian, and Jewish traditions. Controversy and legal action over the Muhammad non-existence proposal forced Kalisch to publicly relinquish his belief in Islam (2010) and eventually to have his professorship renamed to “intellectual history of the Middle East in post-ancient time” and to be moved to the Department of Philology. [3]

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“Myth as a constituent of Arab-Islamic culture has long been ignored or even denied.”
— Jaroslav Stetkevych (2000), Muhammad and the Golden Bough: Reconstructing Arabian Myth (pg. ix)

Christianity and Islam made it illegal and immoral to think for a long time, and that’s why philosophy and science slumbered for centuries. That fact is proven by the simple fact that I could not find a philosophy book at a bookstore when I visited Istanbul, Turkey. Turkey is now a Muslim nation so it’s hard to find books by philosophers out on display at libraries or bookstores.”
Monydit Malieth (2013), The Future Affects the Past [1]

“The Koran = Mein Kampf of the prophet Mohammad.”
— Micheal Sturzenberge (2016), Munich interaction (Ѻ), Mar 3
Omar Khayyam (atheist)
A statue and quote by Omar Khayyam, noted unbeliever.

“Who burned the books of Averroes? Who banished Alhazen? Who accused Avicenna and Ibn Al-Khwarizmi of heresy? Was it Israel or America?! They didn’t even exist back then. We did. Let’s be honest about it.”
— Ibrahim Al-Buleihi (2010), Al-Arabiya TV (Dubai/Saudi Arabia) part one (Ѻ); part two (Ѻ)(Ѻ), Feb 26; Nasser Dashti, supposedly, is a younger version of him; see: Middle Ages genius; among other (Ѻ) comments

“We Arabs and Muslims are backward, but we don't know it.”
— Saudi Cleric (2016), Mermi TV translated debate, Sep 1 (Ѻ)

“How come the Europeans, Americans, and Japanese are never possessed by ‘Jinns’?
— Khaled Montaser (c.2017), Publication (Ѻ)

See also
Comparative mythology and religion
Middle ages geniuses
Religio-mythology
Mirza Beg
Mehdi Bazargan

References
1. Guessoum, Nidhal. (2011). Islam’s Quantum Questions: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science (abs) (thermodynamics, 3+ pgs). I.B. Tauris.
2. (a) Kalisch, Sven. (2008). “Islamic Theology Without the Historic Muhammad: Comments on the Challenges of the Historical-Critical Method for Islamic Thinking”, (in German), Publication.
(b) Anon. (2008). “Excerpt: Muslim Academic Questions Muhammad’s Existence”, The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 15.
(c) Higgins, Andrew. (2008). “Professor Hired for Outreach to Muslims Delivers a Jolt” (Ѻ), The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 15.
(e) Historicity of Muhammad – Wikipedia.
(f) Thims, Libb. (2011). Purpose? (in a Godless universe). (94-pg manuscript) (unfinished); Online as 105-page unfinished manuscript (14 Apr 2013). IoHT publications.
(g) Sven Kalisch – WikiIslam.net.
3. Sven Kalisch (German → English) – Wikipedia.
4. Malieth, Monydit (aka Tonnerre). (2013). The Future Affects the Past: What Destination is Time Rushing To? (pg. 51). Red Lead Books.
5. Anon. (2016). “What is the Jefferson Quran” (Ѻ), TheJeffersonQuran, WordPress, Jul 18.
6. Kamel, Marwan. (2015). “The 11th Century Poet Who Pissed of al-Qaeda” (Ѻ), HistoryAnswers.co.uk, Feb 2.
7. Hecht, Jennifer M. (2003). Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas (pgs. 231-33). HarperOne.

Further reading
● Green, Joey. (2003). Jesus and Muhammad: the Parallel Sayings (Foreward: Sayyid Syeed; Introduction: Kenneth Atkinson). Seastone.

External links
Atheists Ex-Muslims (section) – WikiIslam.

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