James Maxwell

James Maxwell nsIn existographies, James Maxwell (1831-1879) (IQ:205|#4) [RGM:73|1,500+] (Gottlieb 1000:205) (Murray 4000:20|CS / 9|P) (EPD:M8) (DN:4±) (RE:48) (GPE:3) [CR:478] was a Scottish mathematical physicist, a child prodigy, turned top ranked magnitude genius, one of the core founders of thermodynamics, noted for his 1860 development of the kinetic theory of gases, his 1862 Maxwell’s equations, describing the nature of the electromagnetic field, his 1871 Theory of Heat, his 1873 electromagnetic field theory of light, his 1875 thermodynamic surface work, among a number of other impressive accomplishments.

Maxwell's various letters, articles, and promotions helped to stitch together the early beginnings of the sciences of thermo-dynamics. [1] Maxwell used the symbol θΔics for the newly developing science of thermodynamics in his personal communications with Scottish physicist Peter Tait and Irish physicist William Thomson.

Social physics
In 1986, Theodore Porter, in his chapter “Social Law and Natural Science”, of his The Rise of Statistical Thinking, argued that Maxwell arrived at his molecular velocity distributions modes via John Herschel’s review of Adolphe Quetelet’s 1846 work. [27] Maxwell also read Henry Buckle.

Education
By the age of three, everything that moved, shone, or made a noise drew the question: “what's the go o' that?” and if that did not satisfy his curiosity, the more specific query “what's the particular go o' that?” would follow. In 1834, his mother described him as such: "he has great work with doors, locks, keys, etc., and 'show me how it doos' is never out of his mouth. He also investigates the hidden course of streams and bell-wires, the way the water gets from the pond through the wall." Maxwell is among the early parental death and genius group; his mother dereacting when he was age 8.

In 1847, Maxwell, age 16, entered the
University of Edinburgh; in an answer to an exercise for Scottish philosopher William Hamilton (1788-1856) on the properties of matter, Maxwell brilliantly and correctly concluded: [4]

“The only thing which can be directly perceived by the senses is force, to which may be reduced light, heat, electricity, sound and all the other things which can be perceived by the senses.”

The University of Edinburgh still has a record of books that Maxwell borrowed to take home while an undergraduate; these include: [26]

Augustin Cauchy, Calcul Différentiel
Charles Fourier, Théorie de la Chaleur
Gaspard Monge, Géometrie Descriptive
Isaac Newton, Optics
Simeon Poisson, Mechanics
● Richard Taylor, Scientific Memoirs
● Robert Willis, Principles of Mechanism (1841) (Ѻ)

In 1854, Maxwell graduated from college, after which he consulted William Thomson on which books to read in respect to the subject of electricity:

“Dear Thomson, now that I have entered the unholy estate of bachelorhood I have begun to think of reading. This is very pleasant for some time among books of acknowledged merit which one has not read but ought to. But we have a strong tendency to return to physical subjects, and several of us here wish to attack electricity.”
— James Maxwell (1854), “Letter to William Thomson” (Ѻ), Feb 20

At Edinburgh University, from 1854 to 1856, he worked in the laboratory of James Forbes, where he did some of his first work in color theory. Maxwell, in respect to thermodynamic schools, is generally classified as part of the Edinburgh school of thermodynamics.

Maxwell (color wheel)
Maxwell and his color wheel, his color photographed tartan ribbon (top right), and his color photograph method (below right).
Color wheel | Tartan ribbon
In circa 1855, Maxwell made a color disc (shown adjacent), the testing design of James Forbes idea that based on Thomas Young's wave theory of light that one could make any color (perceptual to the eye) by mixing colors; namely by taking a disc marked with pie chart like colored sectors and spinning it fast. [4]

In 1861, Maxwell directed the undertaking of the world’s first color photograph, namely that of a tartan ribbon (shown), constructed by having photographer Thomas Sutton photograph the ribbon on black-and-white film three times, first with a red, then green, then blue color filter over the lens: the three black-and-white images were developed and then projected onto a screen with three different projectors, each equipped with the corresponding red, green, or blue color filter used to take its image; when brought into alignment, the three images (a black-and-red image, a black-and-green image and a black-and-blue image) formed a full color image, thus demonstrating the principles of additive color. [10]

Kinetic theory
In 1859, after reading the 1857 paper "On the Nature of the Movement, Which we call Heat" by German physicist Rudolf Clausius, Maxwell formulated what is known as the "Maxwell distribution" of molecular velocities, which gave the proportion of molecules having a certain velocity in a specific range. [3] This was the first ever statistical law in physics. [4]

Maxwell's demon
His studies of kinetic theory led him to propose the now-famous Maxwell's demon paradox in a 1867 letter to Tait. [2]

Theory of heat
In 1871, Maxwell published the first edition of his now-famous Theory of Heat, one of the first treatises on thermodynamics. Of note, in the early editions, Maxwell had misinterpreted entropy, supposedly by relying its description by Peter Tait in his 1868 Sketch of Thermodynamics, and had to correct for his mistake in later editions.

Electromagnentic forceSpinning cells (Maxwell)
Left: Maxwell’s 1873 diagram of the spatial relationship between electromagnetic fields (see: electromagnetic force) ‘at a given instant’ along a ray of ‘plane-polarized light’. [24] Right: Maxwell's 1856 "spinning cells", or what he called “mechanical illustrations to assist the imagination”, the precursor models to the his eventual formulation of electromagnetic theory; seeded, in some way, from Scottish engineering physicist William Rankine’s 1842 molecular vortices model precursors. [8]
Electromagnetism
His 1873 publication A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, introduced the world to Maxwell equations, the four governing equations on the phenomenon of electricity and magnetism. Maxwell showed that these equations implicitly required the existence of electromagnetic waves traveling at the speed of light. [5]

Maxwell-Gibbs thermodynamic surface
In 1874, Maxwell constructed the first 3D thermodynamics surface model of the three states of existence of water. A sketch of this is famously shown as figure 26f in the 1875 edition of this Theory of Heat and the same diagram is also shown on the backdrop to the 2005 Gibbs stamp.

Evolution
Maxwell seems to have presented his views on evolution, in rather indirect ways, carrying his speculations all the way down to the atom-molecule level. [12]

Gibbs
Maxwell was the first to recognize and promote the work of Willard Gibbs around Europe.

Morality | Soul
See main: Maxwell on the soul
It has been surmised, such as by American physical economist Philip Mirowski, that Maxwell suggested that moral laws could be modeled by a process of analogy with natural laws, base on his statement concerning “attractions of pleasure or the pressure of constraint activity”, discussed in the context will or the will of beings. [8] This assertion (fact checked) is based on Maxwells 1856 article “Analogies in Nature”, wherein this passage occurs. [9] This assertion about Maxwell deriving “moral laws” in these early years contradicts his deeper religious ambivalences, such as his 1878 conviction of his belief that his “soul is an amphicheiral knot”, as expressed in his “A Paradoxical Ode.” [7]

God
See main: Maxwell on god
Maxwell, while clearly not an atheist – he said, e.g. dinner time prayers, believed in Jesus Christ and god, in some form or another, and believed in soul – seemed to align somewhere between a “god-fearing Israelite and a modern materialist”, in the form of a side-line commentator. [25] His last dying poem “A Paradoxical Ode” seems to give his finalized thoughts on the matter, mostly ambivalent views, that lean towards the materialistic side of the fence.

Reaction end | Philosopher's paradox
In 1878-79, the year of his death, Maxwell penned a review article "Paradoxical Philosophy" and followed this up with his last poem "A Paradoxical Ode", both outlining his views on the philosopher's paradox and the implications of thermodynamics and conservation of energy in regards immortality, the soul, the life/death demarcation, evolution, morality, consciousness, down to the atomic level. [7]

The poem is Maxwell’s rare inner thoughts on this tenuous matter and his last and dying poem, written in his final year as he was in the final stages of stomach cancer, as he went into his 48th year, the same age his mother died previously from the same disease.

The poem seems to have been provoked, in part, as a parting words reaction to the Tyndall-Stewart-Tait debate.

Collected works
Maxwell published at least 47 documents (letters, articles, books, correspondence, etc.) on thermodynamics during the years 1855 to 1878. [6]

Maxwell’s thermodynamic surface
Left: a modern annotated version of Maxwell's famous 1874 thermodynamic surface, constructed over the course of about seven months, from November 1874 to July 1875, based on the descriptions of thermodynamics surfaces in American engineer Willard Gibbs' two 1873 papers on the graphical methods of thermodynamics.
Poetry
The following are a few noted Maxwell poetry stanzas:

“I come from empyrean fires –
From microscopic spaces,
Where molecules with fierce desires,
Shiver in hot embraces.
The atoms clash, the spectra flash,
Projected on the screen,
The double D, magnesianb,
And Thallium’s living green.”
— James Maxwell (1874), To the Chief Musician upon Nabla: A Tyndallic Ode (Ѻ) (Ѻ)

Signature
Maxwell, amid his secret code letter writing circle, with Peter Tait and William Thomson (see: θ∆ics), would sometimes sign his letters, articles, and post cards as follows:

dp dt

which, is the analytical equivalent of the thermodynamical quantity JCM (and to James Clerk Maxwell's initials); such as reported by his existographer Lewis Campbell (1882); meaning: [16]

dp dt = JCM

The equation first appears in Peter Tait's 1868 Sketch of Thermodynamics (§162, eq. 4; pg. 91), in the following form, which Tait defines, specifically, as the second law of thermodynamics:

JCM (Tait, 1868)

Maxwell, shortly thereafter, took notice of the equation, and began using the dp/dt signature, first used in an Apr 1870 letter to William Thomson, and thereafter to Tait and various witty publications in Nature.

In 1964, physicist David MacDonald, in his Faraday, Maxwell, and Kelvin, stated that the derivative dp/dt would now be written more correctly written as: (∂p/∂t)v, and that it is one of Maxwell’s four thermodynamic relations derived by him in Theory of Heat (pgs. 165-69) from the geometry of isothermal and adiabatic curves; now commonly derived from the equality of the mixed second derivatives of the various thermodynamic potentials. [16]

In 1970, American science historian Martin Klein, in an appendix section “On Maxwell’s Signature”, citing Macdonald, devotes two pages to a discussion of Maxwell and his derivative signature, which he surmises that Maxwell meant as not only his own initials, but also "the second law of thermodynamics itself", as Klein puts it, where J is the mechanical equivalent of heat, C is Carnot's universal function, depending on temperature, and M is the “coefficient of proportionality, the heat absorbed per unit volume change in an isothermal expansion”. [17]

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Maxwell:

“Scholars dined together at one table. This brought Maxwell into daily contact with the most intellectual set in the college, among whom were many who attained distinction in later life. These, in spite of his shyness and some eccentricities, recognized his exceptional powers. The impression of power which Maxwell produced on all he met was remarkable; it was often much more due to his personality than to what he said, for many found it difficult to follow him in his quick changes from one subject to another, his lively imagination started so many hares that before he had run one down he was off on another.”
— Joseph Thomson (c.1880), on Maxwell’s 1850 age 16 years at Cambridge; in: James Clerk Maxwell: A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (1931) (pgs. 1-44) [26]

“Only one man lived who could understand Gibbs' papers. That was Maxwell, and now he is dead.”
— Anon (1879), Connecticut Academy member; circa Nov, said in meeting [23]

“Was it god who wrote these signs?”
Ludwig Boltzmann (1893), commentary on Maxwell’s equations (Ѻ)

“Before Maxwell, people conceived of physical reality—insofar as it is supposed to represent events in nature—as material points, whose changes consist exclusively of motions, which are subject to partial differential equations. After Maxwell they conceived physical reality as represented by continuous fields, not mechanically explicable, which are subject to partial differential equations.”
Albert Einstein (1935), The World As I See It [13]

“The most fascinating subject at the time that I was a student was Maxwell's theory. What made this theory appear revolutionary was the transition from forces at a distance to fields as fundamental variables. The incorporation of optics into the theory of electromagnetism, with its relation of the speed of light to the electric and magnetic absolute system of units as well as the relation of the refraction coefficient to the dielectric constant, the qualitative relation between the reflection coëfficient and the metallic conductivity of the body— it was like a revelation. Aside from the transition to field-theory, i.e., the expression of the elementary laws through differential equations, Maxwell needed only one single hypothetical step—the introduction of the electrical displacement current in the vacuum and in the dielectrica and its magnetic effect, an innovation which was almost prescribed by the formal properties of the differential equations. In this connection I cannot suppress the remark that the pair Faraday-Maxwell has a most remarkable inner similarity with the pair Galileo-Newton — the former of each pair grasping the relations intuitively, and the second one formulating those relations exactly and applying them quantitatively.”
— Albert Einstein (1949), Autobiographical Notes (pgs. 33-340 (Ѻ)

Maxwell was one of those once-in-a-century geniuses who perceived the physical world with sharper senses than those around him.”
Tom Siegfried (2006), “Maxwell and Molecules” [15]

Quotes | Gravity
The following are noted quotes by Maxwell on gravity:

“But when we face the great questions about gravitation: Does it require time? Is it polar to the ‘outside of the universe’ or to anything? Has it any reference to electricity? or does it stand on the very foundation of matter–mass or inertia? then we feel the need of tests, whether they be comets or nebulae or laboratory experiments or bold questions as to the truth of received opinions.”
— James Maxwell (1857), “Letter to Michael Faraday”, Nov 9 (Ѻ)

“Any opinion as to the form in which the energy of gravitation exists in space is of great importance, and whoever can make his opinion probable will have, made an enormous stride in physical speculation. The apparent universality of gravitation, and the equality of its effects on matter of all kinds are most remarkable facts, hitherto without exception; but they are purely experimental facts, liable to be corrected by a single observed exception. We cannot conceive of matter with negative inertia or mass; but we see no way of accounting for the proportionality of gravitation to mass by any legitimate method of demonstration. If we can see the tails of comets fly off in the direction opposed to the sun with an accelerated velocity, and if we believe these tails to be matter and not optical illusions or mere tracks of vibrating disturbance, then we must admit a force in that direction, and we may establish that it is caused by the sun if it always depends upon his position and distance.”
— James Maxwell (1868), “Letter to William Huggins”, Oct 13 (Ѻ)

Quotes | Second law
The following are noted quotes by Maxwell on the second law:

“The second law of thermodynamics has the same degree of truth as the statement that if you throw a tumblerful into the sea, you cannot get the same tumblerful out again.”
— James Maxwell (1870), “Letter to John Strutt”, Dec 6; the “moral” of his Maxwell’s demon argument [21]

“I have also a great respect for the elder of those celebrated acrobats, Virial and Ergal, the Bounding Brothers of Bonn …. But it is rare sport to see those learned Germans contending for the priority of the discovery that the 2nd law of θΔcs is the Hamiltonsche Princip, when all the time they assume that the temperature of a body is but another name for the vis viva of one of its molecules, a thing which was suggested by the labors of Gay-Lussac, Dulong, etc., but the first deduced from the dynamical statistical considerations by dp/dt. The Hamiltonsche Princip, the while, soars along in a region unvexed by statistical considerations, while the German Icari (Ѻ) flap their waxen wings in nephelococcygia [cloud-cuckoo-land] (Ѻ) amid those cloudy forms which the ignorance and finitude of human science have invested with incommunicable attributes of the invisible Queen of Heaven.”
— James Maxwell (1873), “Letter to Peter Tait”, Dec (Number 483) [22]

Quotes | General
The following are general noted quotes by Maxwell:

“The only thing which can be directly perceived by the senses is force, to which may be reduced light, heat, electricity, sound and all the other things which can be perceived by the senses.”
— James Maxwell (1847), age 16

“I have now nobody that I see too much of, though I have got several new acquaintances, and improved several old ones. I find nothing gives one greater inertia than knowing a good many men at a time, who do not know each other intimately. N.B.—Inertia, not = laziness, but mass; i.e. if one knows a man, he forms an idea of your character, and treats you accordingly. If one knows a company of men, they are strong in union, and overawe the individual. If one man only, we become mutual tyrants. If several independently, everyone plays the part of Dr. Watt's celebrated ‘Busy Bee’, and by mixing according to every possible combination hit out the best results.”
— James Maxwell (1852), “Letter to Lewis Campbell”, Mar 7 [20]

“All the mathematical sciences are founded on relations between physical laws and laws of numbers, so that the aim of exact science is to reduce the problems of nature to the determination of quantities by operations with numbers.”
— James Maxwell (1856), “Faraday's Lines of Force” (Ѻ)

“A strict materialist believes that everything depends on the motion of matter. He knows the form of the laws of motion though he does not know all their consequences when applied to systems of unknown complexity. Now one thing in which the materialist (fortified with dynamical knowledge) believes is that if every motion great & small were accurately reversed, and the world left to itself again, everything would happen backwards the fresh water would collect out of the sea and run up the rivers and finally fly up to the clouds in drops which would extract heat from the air and evaporate and afterwards in condensing would shoot out rays of light to the sun and so on. Of course all living things would regrede from the grave to the cradle and we should have a memory of the future but not of the past. The reason why we do not expect anything of this kind to take place at any time is our experience of irreversible processes, all of one kind, and this leads to the doctrine of a beginning and an end instead of cyclical progression forever.”
— James Maxwell (1868), “Letter to Mark Pattison”, Apr 7 (Ѻ)

“It is of great advantage to the student of any subject to read the original memoirs on that subject, for science is always most completely assimilated when it is in the nascent state.”
— James Maxwell (1873), A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (pg. xiii)

First causes are not known to us, but they are subjected to simple and constant laws that can be studied by observation and whose study is the goal of natural philosophyHeat penetrates, as does gravity, all the substances of the universe; its rays occupy all regions of space. The aim of our work is to expose the mathematical laws that this element follows … The differential equations for the propagation of heat express the most general conditions and reduce physical questions to problems in pure analysis that is properly the object of the theory.”
— James Maxwell (c.1870) [14]

“I cannot help thinking about the immediate circumstances which have brought a thing to pass, rather than about any ‘will’ setting them in motion. What is done by what is called myself is, I feel, done by something greater than myself in me.”
— James Maxwell (1879), “Comment to Fenton Hort when terminally ill” [19]

James Maxwell (standing)James Maxwell color wheel statue
Maxwell standing (left) and a 2008 statue of Maxwell (right) in George Street, Edinburgh. [11]
References
1. Maxwell, James C. (editors: Elizabeth Garber, Stephen G. Brush, C. W. Francis Everitt) (1995). Maxwell on Heat and Statistical Mechanics: On "avoiding All Personal Enquiries" of Molecules (section II: Documents from Kinetic Theory to Thermodynamics, pgs. 105-170, section III: Documents on Thermodynamics, pgs. 171-288). Lehigh University Press.
2. James MaxwellEric Weisstein’s World of Scientific Biography.
3. Clausius, R. (1857), "Über die Art der Bewegung, die wir Wärme nennen" (About the Nature of the Movement, Which we call Heat), Annalen der Physik 100: 353-379.
4. Mahon, Basil (2003). The Man Who Changed Everything – the Life of James Clerk Maxwell (color disc experiments, pgs. 50-55, 77, 93; senses quote, pg. 25). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
5. Maxwell, James C. (1873). A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (Volume One). New York: Dover.
6. Maxwell, James. (1855-78). “Documents on Thermodynamics (47 documents)”, in: Maxwell on Heat and Statistical Mechanics: On Avoiding all Personal Enquires of Molecules (pgs. 171-288), by Elizabeth Garber, Stephen Brush, and C. W. Everitt, Lehigh University Press, 1995.
7. (a) Maxwell, James. (1878). “Review: Paradoxical Philosophy”, in: Scientific Papers, II, pg. 451; in Nature, 19 (19 Dec 1878): 141-43; in: Scientific Papers, 2, 756-62.
(b) Maxwell, James. (date). “A Paradoxical Ode / After Shelley”, in: Life of Maxwell, pgs. 649-51; in: Knott, Life of Tait, pgs. 242-43.
(c) Knott, Cargill G. (1911). Life and Scientific Work of Peter Guthrie Tait (pg. 241-42). Cambridge University Press.
(d) Silver, Daniel S. (2007). “My Soul’s an Amphicheircal Knot: the Last Poem of James Clerk Maxwell”, SouthAlabama.edu.
(e) Brown, Adam. (2006). “Maxwell’s Paradoxical Ode”, research paper, University of South Alabama, Fall Term.
8. (a) Kruger, Lorentz, Daston, Lorraine, and Heidelberger, Michael. (1987). The Probabilistic Revolution (pg. 79). MIT Press.
(b) Mirowski, Philip. (1989). More Heat than Light: Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature’s Economics (pg. 257). Cambridge University Press.
9. (a) Maxwell, James C. (1856). “Analogies in Nature”, Feb.
(b) Maxwell, James C. (1990). The Scientific Letters of James Clerk Maxwell: Volume I, 1846-1862 (pgs. 376-83; quote: pg. 380). P.M. Harman, Editor. Cambridge University Press.
10. Additive color – Wikipedia.
11. (a) Statue of James Maxwell in George Street, Edinburgh.
(b) Maxwell statue (George Street Edinburgh) – Wikipedia Commons.
12. Petzold, Charles. (2005). “Maxwell, Molecules, and Evolution”, CharlesPetzold.com, Feb.
James Maxwell sculpture (side view)
Sculpture Alexander Stoddart in 2008, at the Black Isle Bronze foundry at Nairn in the Highlands, at work on the James Maxwell sculpture.
13. (a) Einstein, Albert. (1935). The World As I See It (pg. 65). John Lane The Bodley Head Limited.
(b) Zucker, Morris. (1945). The Philosophy of American History: The Historical Field Theory (pg. 554). Arnold-Howard Publishing Co.
14.
Myint-U, TYn, and Debnath, Lokkenath. (2007). Linear Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and Engineers (pdf) (pg. vii). Springer, 2011.
15. Siegfried, Tom. (2006). A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature (pgs. 135). National Academies Press.
16. Campbell, Lewis and Garnett, William. (1882). The Life of James Clerk Maxwell: with Selections from His Correspondence and Occasional Writings (dp/dt, pg. xi). MacMillan and Co, 1884.
17. MacDonald, David K.C. (1964). Faraday, Maxwell, and Kelvin (pgs. 62-63, 98-99). New York: Doubleday.
18. Klein, Martin J. (1970). his “Maxwell, His Demon, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Maxwell Say the Second Law as Statistical, Illustrated this with his Demon, but Never Developed its Theory” (abs), American Scientist, 58(1):84-97; in: Maxwell’s Demon 2: Entropy, Classical Information, Computing (editors: Harvey Leff, Andrew F. Rex) (pgs. 59-72; Appendix: On Maxwell’s Signature, pgs. 69-70). Taylor & Francis, 2002.
19. (a) Hort, Fenton J.A. (1882). “Letter to Lewis Campbell”, Feb 4.
(b) Fenton Hort – Wikipedia.
(c) Campbell, Lewis and Garnett, William. (1882). The Life of James Clerk Maxwell: with Selections from His Correspondence and Occasional Writings (pg. 421). MacMillan and Co, 1884.
(d) Anon. (1888). “Review: Natural Causation by C.E. Plumptre”, Journal of Education (pg. 479), Oct 1.
(e) Nørretranders, Tor. (1991). The User Illusion: Cutting Conscious Down to Size (Mærk verden) (pg. v). Publisher: A. Lane, 1998.
(f) Seitz, Frederick. (2001). “James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879); Member APS 1875” (pdf) (pg. 1; [n. 2, pg. 421]), Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 145(1):1-45, Mar.
(g) Flood, Raymond, McCartney, Mark, and Whitaker, Andrew. (2014). James Clerk Maxwell: Perspectives on His Life and Work (pg. 283). Oxford University Press.
20. (a) Maxwell, James. (1852). “Letter to Lewis Campbell”, Mar 7.
(b) Campbell, Lewis and Garnett, William. (1882). The Life of James Clerk Maxwell: with Selections from His Correspondence and Occasional Writings (pgs. 125-27; “nothing is to be holy ground”, pg. 128). MacMillan and Co, 1884.
21. (a) Maxwell, James. (1870). “Letter to John Strutt”, Dec 6.
(b) Maxwell, James C. (1995). The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell: Volume II, 1862-73 (editor: Peter Harman) (tumblerful, pg. 18, pg. 583). Cambridge University Press.
(c) Laidler, Keith. (2002). Energy and the Unexpected (pg. 44). Oxford University Press.
(d) Leff, Harvey S. and Rex, Andrew F. (2014). Maxwell’s Demon: Entropy, Information, Computing (pg. 290). Princeton University Press.
22. (a) Maxwell, James C. (1995). The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell: Volume II, 1862-73 (editor: Peter Harman) (pg. 18). Cambridge University Press.
(b) Coopersmith, Jennifer. (2010). Energy, the Subtle Concept: the Discovery of Feynman’s Blocks from Leibniz to Einstein (pg. 325). Oxford University Press.
(c) Flood, Raymond, McCartney, Mark, and Whitaker, Andrew. (2014). James Clerk Maxwell: Perspectives on His Life and Work (pg. 170). Oxford University Press.
23. Rukeyser, Muriel. (1942). Willard Gibbs: American Genius (Academy member quote, pg. 251; Gibbs' theses advised, pgs. 327-28; diagram anecdote, pgs. 328-29). Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc.
24. (a) Maxwell, James. (1873). Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (article 791). Oxford University Press.
(b) Marston, Philip L. (2014). “Maxwell, Faith and Physics”, in: James Clerk Maxwell: Perspectives on his Life and Work (editors: Raymond Flood, Mark McCartney, and Andrew Whitaker) (§14:258-91; diagram, pg. 273). Oxford University Press.
25. Marston, Philip L. (2014). “Maxwell, Faith and Physics”, in: James Clerk Maxwell: Perspectives on his Life and Work (editors: Raymond Flood, Mark McCartney, and Andrew Whitaker) (§14:258-91; diagram, pg. 273). Oxford University Press.
26. James Clerk Maxwell (2000) – MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive.
27. (a) Porter, Theodore M. (1986). The Rise of Statistical Thinking: 1820-1900 (thermodynamics, 19+ pgs; social physics, pg. 118). Princeton University Press.
(b) Porter, Theodore. (2013). “From Quetelet to Maxwell: Social Statistics and the Origin of Statistical Physics”, in: The Natural and the Social Sciences: Some Critical and Historical Perspectives (editor: Robert Cohen) (§11:345-62; esp. 359). Springer.

Further reading
● Maxwell, James. (1868). “On Governors”, Proceedings of the Royal Society, 16(100):270.
● Maxwell, James. (1873). “Does the Progress of Physical Science Tend to Give any Advantage to the Opinion of the Necessity (or Determinism) over that of Contingency of Events and the Freedom of the Will?”. Publisher.
● Maxwell, James. (1873). “Molecules” (Ѻ), lecture delivered before the BAAS Bradford; in: Nature, 8: 437-41; in: Phil. Mag. (4):453-69; in: Maxwell’s Scientific Papers, Volume 2 (pg. 361-78); in: Maxwell on Molecules and Gases (editors: Elizabeth Garber and Stephen Brush) (§:16: “Molecules”, pgs. 137-40). MIT Press, 1986.
● Maxwell, James. (1876). Matter and Motion. D. Van Nostrand Publishers.
● Maxwell, James C. (1995). The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell: Volume II, 1862-73 (editor: Peter Harman). Cambridge University Press.
● Maxwell, James C. (2002). The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell: Volume III, 1874-79 (editor: Peter Harman). Cambridge University Press.

External links
James Maxwell – Wikipedia.

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