James Ward

James WardIn hmolscience, James Ward (1843-1925) was an English psychologist and philosopher noted, in philosophical thermodynamics, for

Monism
In 1899, Ward, in his Gifford Lectures turned book Naturalism and Agnosticism, argued against materialism and dualism, criticizes “naturalism”, i.e. the belief that all phenomena are governed by the laws of science, and that supernatural cannot exist, and criticizes “agnosticism”, i.e. the belief that the existence of spiritual phenomena cannot be proved or disproved, and in their place argued for panpsychism, i.e. reality consisting of plurality of centers of activity, similar to the monism of Gottfried Leibniz, believing that the universe was comprised of psychic monads. [1]

Maxwell’s demon
Ward, at some point, argued that Maxwell’s demon gives a positive affirmation of illustrating the importance of mind. [2] Ward seems to have also critiqued the views of Herbert Spencer and his version of evolution; which may be from where he became acquainted with the second law. [3]

Reference
1. Ward, James. (1899). Naturalism and Agnosticism. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
2. Author. (1967). “Article” (James Ward, pg. 229; extropy, pg. 229; demon, pgs. 220, 221, 229), Physis, Vol. 9-10.
3. Author. (1925). Evolution in Light of Modern Knowledge: A Collective Work (pg. 453). Blackie and Son Limited.

External links
‚óŹ James Ward (psychologist) – Wikipedia.

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