John Philoponus

In existographies, John Philoponus (c.490-570) (IQ:165|#451) [RGM:772|1,500+] was a Roman philosopher, scientist, theologian, grammarian (Ѻ), and astronomer (Ѻ), noted for []

Impetus
In c.530, Philoponus, amid his Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics and or his Commentary on Aristotle’s Soul, rejected Aristotle’s dynamical theory of motion, and in its place situated a theory of impetus, according to which an object moves and continues to move because of an energy imparted in it by the mover and ceases the movement when that energy is exhausted; this influenced, supposedly, Avicenna, Bonaventure, John Buridan (or Jean Buridan), and Galileo, the latter of whom, in his The Two New Sciences (1638), cites Philoponus, and the later development of inertia (principle of inertia).

Library burning | Apocrypha
In c.1300, Abu’l Faraj, an Arab historian, floated the retrospectively categorized apocryphal apocryphal story, e.g. it was debunked by Edward Gibbon, that during the 642AD Muslim capture of Alexandria, a certain Christian priest named “John the Grammarian” approached the army leader Amr ibn al-As and asked him if he could spare all the books of wisdom, about which Amr queried the caliph Omar, who purportedly replied that all the wisdom we need is the Quran, so they burned the books, and used them as fuel to heat the baths of Alexandria, and that it took six months to burn them all. This, supposedly, is invented history. (Ѻ)(Ѻ)

Quotes | Employed
The following are quotes employed by Philoponus:

Water has a greater affinity with wine, but with olive oil it is unwilling to mix.”
— Empedocles (c.450BC), fragment 56 (B91); cited by Philoponus (c.550AD) in Commentary on Aristotle’s Generation of Animals (123.19-20)

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Philoponus:

“Philoponus is one of the greatest geniuses of antiquity.”
Pierre Duhem (1913), The System of the World (Le système du monde) [2]

Philoponus, who was was the last great philosopher of nature in the Greek world, refuted Aristotle's theory that the velocities of falling bodies in a given medium are proportional to their weight, making the observation that ‘if one lets fall simultaneously from the same height two bodies differing greatly in weight, one will find that the ratio of the times of their motion does not correspond to the ratios of their weights, but the difference in time is a very small one’. He also criticized Aristotle's antiperistasis theory of projectile motion, which states that the air displaced by the object flows back to push it from behind. Instead Philoponus concluded that ‘some incorporeal kinetic power is imparted by the thrower to the object thrown’ and that ‘if an arrow or a stone is projected by force in a void, the same will happen much more easily, nothing being necessary except the thrower’. This is the famous ‘impetus theory’ (Ѻ), which was revived in medieval Islam and again in fourteenth century Europe, giving rise to the beginning of modern dynamics.”
— John Freely (2012), Before Galileo [1]

Quotes | By
The following are quotes by Philoponus:

“If one lets fall simultaneously from the same height two bodies differing greatly in weight, one will find that the ratio of the times of their motion does not correspond to the ratios of their weights, but the difference in time is a very small one.”
— Philoponus (c.530), Publication [1]

“If the early philosophers said that mind moves everything, e.g. Aristotle (De Anima 405a18-19), how is it that they said that motion was proper to the soul? Yes they did, Aristotle says, for they thought that soul and mind were identical, as for instance Democritus did Now we nowhere find him explicitly saying that mind and soul are identical, but he established this by an argument. Democritus, he says, plainly intends this for he said straight out that truth and appearance are identical, and that there is no difference between the truth and what appears to the senses, but what appears and seems so to each individual is true, as Protagoras said, whereas in fact they are different, sensation and imagination being concerned with appearance, and the mind with truth. Now if the mind is concerned with truth, and the soul is restricted to appearance, and what is true is the same as what appears, as Democritus things, then the mind is identical with the soul.”
— John Philoponus (c.530), Commentary on De Anima (71.19-34)

See also
Philodemus (c.110-35BC) Greco-Roman Epicurean philosopher

References
1. Freely, John. (2012). Before Galileo: the Birth of Modern Science in Medieval Europe (pg. 8) (Ѻ). Publisher.
2. Duhem, Pierre. (1918). The System of the World (Le système du monde: histoire des doctrines cosmologiques de Platon à Copernic) (pg. 398). Publisher.
3. Taylor, C.C.W. (1999). The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus: Fragments: a Text and Translation with a Commentary by C.C.W. Taylor (Philoponus, 6+ pgs; quote, pg. 145-46). University of Toronto Press.

External links
John Philoponus – Wikipedia.

TDics icon ns

More pages