John Stewart

John Stewart sIn existographies, John Stewart (1747-1822) was a Scottish-English colonel turned peregrinating philosopher, labeled the “modern Pythagoras” (Ѻ), noted for his 1789 two-volume Moral Motion treatise, wherein, building predominately on Baron d'Holbach's 1770 The System of Nature, he attempts to promulgate a so-labeled "curious" physical sciences based “original materialistic philosophy” (Ѻ) “moral motion” theory of well-being and happiness of "animate matter", in which he viewed people as aggregated particles of matter, a type of intellectualized matter, and that all there is in the universe is matter and motion, a theory which out-rightly proclaims that deities do not exist. [1]

Following the publication of his two-volume Moral Motion (1789), over the next three decades, Stewart wrote prolifically, publishing nearly thirty philosophical works, including The Opus Maximum (London, 1803) and the long verse-poem The Revelation of Nature (New York, 1795).

Stewart suggested—as what seems to be one of the more hilarious, albeit realistic, anecdotes in science—that his books should be translated into Latin and buried to escape anticipated censorship and suppression. [9]

Stewart's main ideologies include: (1) abandon every idea of a deity, (2) abandon every hope of future existence, (3) accept the understanding that one is made of particles of matter (atoms), (4) consider the design of happiness in the context of great integer of nature in the course of universal change. [3]

Intellect
Stewart seems to have been quite cerebral; the following quote attests to such:

Stewart is the most eloquent man on the subject of nature I have ever met.”
— Thomas De Quincey (c.1792), discussion with William Wordsworth (IQ:165|#231); view concurred (Ѻ)

De Quincey, moreover, referred to him as an “inconsistent and perhaps slightly unhinged genius”. [8] Similarly, in 1796, James Sharples, the portrait-painter for George Washington, executed a pastel likeness of Stewart for a series of portraits which included such sitters as William Godwin (FA:40), Joseph Priestley, and Humphry Davy, suggesting the intellectual esteem in which Stewart was once held. [7] Likewise, adverts for his Moral Motion (1790) labeled the “modern Pythagoras” (Ѻ) thus comparing him as an upgraded Pythagoras (IQ:180|#83).

Associates
Stewart was friends and associates with: Thomas Paine, William Wordsworth, and John Oswald, Thomas De Quincey (Ѻ).

Walker | Locations
Stewart is known as the: “Celebrated Walking Stewart” (Ѻ), “General John ‘Walking’ Stewart” (Ѻ), “Walking Stewart” (Ѻ), or "the traveler", among other variants, owing to the fact that, after his work as a writer in Madras (1763), after which he resigned in a letter of “juvenile insolence and audacity”, served under Hyder Ali (1765), going from interpreter to General; amid which he was wounded, and escaped to become Prime Minister to the Nawab of Arcot; after which he left and “took to travelling” on foot in Persia, Ethiopia, Abyssinia, across Arabia, through France and Spain, to England, from Calais to Vienna (1784) and visited North America, during which time he focused his efforts on studying the "morality" systems of each country or state. Stewart, in sum, seems to have traveled to the following key locations: England, Scotland, Ireland, Madras (1763), Arcot (South India), Persia, Ethiopia, Abyssinia (Ethiopian empire), Arabia, Calais (Northern France), Vienna (1784), Italy, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany, Danish, Swedish, Russia, Poland, and North America; supposedly among others. The following, according to Ralph Griffiths, is what Stewart said about the Polish:

“The Poles are advanced in knowledge; but their diets hold forth a dreadful scene of the conflict of private and public good.”

Lapland, the northern most region of Finland, according to Stewart, as summarized by Griffiths, is the “only asylum of liberty”, whereas the rest of the world is “wretched all over the globe, and moral chaos is universal”. [3]

Stewart frontispiece (1790) (labeled)
Stewart's frontispiece, to his The Moral State of Nations (1790), showing Nature (or Mother Nature), being benighted by the artifices of priests of politics and religion; amid which philosophy consumes their screen in order to display the universality of transmutations; below which the following poem is shown: [4]

For Self and Nature linked in one great frame; Shows true Self-love and Nature’s as the same. Eternal matter to one center brings Men changed to boasts, and insects changed to kings. Who dares with force on Nature's chain to strike; On man or insects, jars the chain alike On Self, which changing never quits the chain In life or death, transmits or joy or pain.

The philosopher's scroll, seen by the light of fire, reads: Revelation of Nature: Reason, Humanity, Justice.
About | Overview
In 1767, Stewart, the black sheep of an eminent Scottish family of drapers based in London, who had been a reluctant pupil at Harrow School (Ѻ) and Charterhouse School (Ѻ), supposedly “keen to break the shackles of European education”, set off to India to seek his fortune. [6]

The Encyclopedia Britannica (1911) describes Stewart as follows: [5]

“British traveler, was born in London of humble parentage. After an unruly career at school he entered the service of the East India Company at Madras in 1763, but he threw up his position about two years later and became interpreter to Hyder Ali, afterwards serving as a general in his army; subsequently he served the nabob of Arcot, whose chief minister he became. Having enriched himself in this capacity, he began a series of travels through India, Persia, Ethiopia and Abyssinia, which earned him the nickname of "Walking Stewart." About 1783 he returned to Europe, where he cut a curious figure by wearing Armenian dress. He crossed over to America in 1791 and had various adventures, but soon came back to Europe, and made the acquaintance of Wordsworth in Paris and later of De Quincey in Bath. Be-coming short of money, he again went to America, where he supported himself by lecturing. Having returned to Europe, Stewart's fortunes began to mend. In 1813 a claim he had made against the nabob of Arcot was settled by the East India Company for £1o,00o, and he took rooms in London and settled down to enjoy life, airing his opinions on literature and art. He died on the loth of February 1822. De Quincey (see Collected Writings, 1890, vol. iii.) gives various particulars of him.”

Stewert, in his 1789 Travels to Discover the Source of Moral Motion (volume one) and Apocalypse of Nature, wherein the Source of Moral Motion is Discovered (volume two), outlines the very-interesting results of his researchers of having travelled the world to study the various systems of morality, out of which he derives a religion-free eight tenet “Religion of Nature”, based firstly on abandonment of every notion of a deity, with the replacement of the postulate that all that exists is matter and motion, then secondly outlines a new replacement religion of how combinations of the particles of matter coalesce to form “intellectualized bodies” that can have both moral motion and immoral motion in the course of the “revolutions and operations” of the universe, which is said to have neither beginning or end. [2]

Retrospect knowledge | Dating system
In 1790, John Stewart seems to have invented his own unique god-free dating system, according to which dates the zero year to the "start of man's retrospective knowledge", which he deduces by astronomical calculations (similar to Thims; see below), to have occurred 5,000-years prior to the publication of his Treatise on the Source of Moral Motion and the Moral State of Nations, or in abbreviated full:

● Stewart, John. (1790). The Moral State of Nations: Travels Over the Most Interesting Parts of the Globe, to Discover the Source of Moral Motion; Communicated to Lead Mankind Through the Conviction of the Senses to Intellectual Existence, and an Enlightened State of Nature. In the Year of Man's Retrospective Knowledge, by Astronomical Calculation 5000. Year of the Common Era, 1790. George H. Evans, 1837.

Stewart scholar Tristram Stuart comments the following on Stewart’s peculiar dating system: [6]

“From 1789 to his death in 1822 (allegedly from laudanum overdose), he produced reams of poetic and polemic work with extraordinary titles like The Apocalypse of Nature, The Revolution of Reason, and The Sophiometer: the Regulator of Mental Power. Published in England, France and the United States, they were idiosyncratically dated according to a chronological system in which 1795 was the ‘fifth year of intellectual existence’, or the publication of The Apocalypse of Nature’ and 1818 was the ‘7000th year of the Astronomical History, from the Chinese Tables’.”

Here, we see possibly, that Stewart seems to have utilized at least three different dating systems, one of which he epoch marks to the 1790 publication of his own work; which seems to corroborate to his “notorious egotistic disquisitions” in which he declared himself, to the London literary elite, e.g. Robert Owen, Thomas Taylor, Thomas Rickman, Henry Bohn, etc., as the “universal self, or man-god.”

Passion | Energy
Stewart utilizes an energy logic to a good extent, discussing the "energy of passion" for instance, and refers to the relation of heat and fire, to explain existence in relation to the body. The following quote gives a gist of his view:

Body and identity of man or manhood, like fire and heat, may be changed or commuted, and in portions what was fire may become man, and what was man become fire; the connection with nature being the same in all its parts, animate or inanimate; but motion in the former has the power of procuring happy combinations or identities; and the volition that propels that motion is motived by happiness, which it procures to its present, and perpetuates to all future stages of its revolution into sensitive nature, by which self, or the moral system, is temporally and eternally benefited.”

All-in-all, it seems that Stewart was a deep-thinker, very modern for his times. In summary of his work, one reviewer comments that after traveling the world and having seen how immoral the various countries have become: [3]
The Religion of Nature (Stewart, 1789)
Stewart's five main tenets of his "moral motion" natural religion theory.

Natural religion | Religion of Nature
The following are Stewart’s eight tenets, the first five of which also shown adjacent, of his natural religion (Part II, §:The Religion of Nature, pgs. 75-76): (Ѻ)

I. NATURE is the great integer of being, or matter and motion, without beginning as without end.

II. Mankind are the instruments of nature in its moral motion, formed to procure well-being or happiness to all animated matter.

III. All animated matter, however organized, changed, or dissolved, is related as parts inseparable from the great integer nature.

IV. Bodies "intellectualized" and possessing identifications of I, you, and they, are created to possess consciousness of existence by sensations of pleasure and pain; and though these [individual identities] are annihilated upon the dissolution of the bodies, they still, as parts of nature, are concerned in the future pain and pleasure of their common integer, from which they are inseparable, though subject to endless change and revolution.

V. Moral and physical motion are subject to fixed laws, which produce volition—the cause of action in animate matter.

VI. The judgment or result of the operation of the mental faculties can have cognizance only of secondary causes which it apparently controls and directs to produce well-being or happiness to its essence, which it will ever suppose to be the end [object] of primary causes.

VII. The human intellect has no power beyond the secondary causes of volition, and their end, which is happiness, all beyond being incomprehensibility; and the reasoning of analogy can influence only from its probability, and that must be considered relative to the happiness of all animated nature.

VIII. Man, in forming a volition to procure happiness, begins with self as the center, and extends to the circle formed by all animate matter. He is to will for himself alone, and do no violence to any part of animate matter; and in the orbit of social attraction he must imitate the revolution of the celestial bodies, whose reciprocal repulsion and attraction operate without concussion or violence to the center, or the point, self. Man cedes not, but reforms his volition when it is in collision with that of another, to acquire more happiness, considering himself a component part in this eternal relation to the great integer of nature; and by this means he produces and eternizes a system of moral harmony, or pain and pleasure, of which he must ever be a center, and participate as an eternal part of an eternal integer; which connection is indissoluble, though its mode is incomprehensible, and passes through every form of matter in an infinite revolution.

On the subject of the fourth tenet, the Stewart elsewhere writes:

“Self, as a part of all nature, is immortal and universal, and though identity of matter and mind separate, and their combination or identity is annihilated by death; yet self, as a part of nature, can never be annihilated, and pervades all nature in its revolutions and operations, and self is as much concerned in the present or future health or happiness of all nature, as the toe is concerned in that of the body.

Men who have no superstitious fears, suppose the dissolution of the body to end their concern with nature; but if their mental faculties were still more enlightened, they would see, that particular combinations of matter, called intellectualized bodies, are but stations or inns to receive matter in its revolution, and that those inns are to be regulated by laws and policy, to give comfort and pleasure to matter in its eternal revolution or passage, and from which self can never separate its connection.

Matter may be divided into two parts, intellectualized and unintellectualized, and these are constantly changing places; so that the former, by wise operations, labors to the happiness of both. By education and constitutions good moulds are formed to receive matter, and by a wise government happy inns or resting places are provided; and while it enjoys this happiness it has produced, it prepares it for unintellectualized matter, and prepares it for its own return in the general revolution.

When the mind takes into contemplation a subject of such importance, novelty, and magnitude, as the religion of nature, it is apprehensive and alarmed, and descends with caution and terror into its vast profundity.”

Reviews for this work in its day seem to have been to mortify many, whereas in the modern day, we seem that many of the parts of Stewart’s ideas, particularly classifying animate matter into intellectualized bodies (carbon-based matter) and unintellectualized bodies (non carbon-based matter), were well ahead of its time.

Atheism | Religion
On the current state of the minds of men in his day, with regard to religion and the physical sciences, Stewart states:

“When the mind takes into contemplation a subject of such importance, novelty and magnitude, as the religion of nature, it is apprehensive and alarmed, and descends with caution and terror into its vast profundity. In subjects and researches of infinitely less utility and consequence, how many minds have been debilitated and distracted! The mathematics have sacrificed many victims, astronomy more, the longitude and chemistry have absorbed and deranged many of the most strongly organized faculties, but the subject of religion has so universally deranged and destroyed the human faculties, that reason seems to have lost its powers of pre-eminence, and instinct would be preferred, but that the former contains innate elastic matter, which, when heated by the sun of wisdom, must expand, and reason then assume its pre-eminence and dignity.”

Then, prior to delving into the details of his new replacement “religion of nature”, he says:

“Agitated, though not confounded by these discouraging reflections, I shall proceed to give the course of exposition to my thoughts without any regard to ceremonious rules of literature on one hand, or the menaces of prejudice on the other.”

At one point (§2, pg. 32), to note, Stewart declares that "self is god", but it is in blurry connotation. Stewart’s view of nature is said, according to the books advertisement (Ѻ), to present a golden mean between the “deluded superstitionist, the dogmatic deist, and the chaotic atheist”. Stewart, himself, however, seems to be a big fan of Holbach.

dietary morality (labeled) 2
The basic outline of Stewart's moral vegetarianism ideologies; for humans, as "sentient intellectualized animate matter", eating meat is "immoral" owing to the "violence" involved in the procurement of meat and the "sacred passion of sympathy", but it's lower animals to eat meat, because they are uneducated.
Moral vegetarianism
See also: Newton in Senegal
Stewart, possibly similar to Leonardo da Vinci, seems to have derived a vegetarianism philosophy based on his moral motion sympathy-centric ideology; some of which seems to be elaborated on as follows: (Part II, §: The Arts, pg. 73): (Ѻ)

“The first art, and the most useful, which quality alone, in an enlightened slate of nature gives pre-eminence, is agriculture, as on this depends the existence of animate matter; and though a greater proportion of the human race subsist by devouring sentient fellow parts of this matter, yet this evil must cease in an enlightened state of nature; and man, the great instrument by which nature operates her own perfection, the moment he is called to intellectual existence, must change his aliment from animal to vegetable, in order to procure both health of body and health of mind. For as animal food tends to pamper the body with gross humors, and inflame the blood which gives strength to the passions, and in the same proportion debilitates the reason, so it must engender disease and vice; but vegetable diet has the contrary effect, which may be proved at any time by experience: though it requires a delicacy of attention, and accuracy of judgment to discover such results.

A man in an enlightened state of nature will be averse to the violence necessary to procure subsistence by animal food, and the only violence he will permit, and that with extreme regret, will be the destruction of destructive creatures, whom he cannot change by education or prevent by restriction: both of which means he will first attempt, in order that the "sacred passion of sympathy" may receive no callosity or diminution by hasty or voluntary violence,”

The roots of some of this error in logic, firstly seems to be stated in tenet VIII, which no doubt is why he placed it last, i.e. he was least confident about this tenet, and his misunderstanding of collision theory, and the fact that collisions have to be violent in order to break bonds to form new products, which is a part of natural chemistry; secondly, is his ideology that vegetarianism will solve the "problem of evil", in some way, which does not corroborate with coupling theory and how natural (i.e. good, in colloquial speak) is coupled to unnatural (i.e. evil, in colloquial speak).

Modern
In modern logic, it may be possible to re-write Stewart's moral motion theory in terms of Gibbs free energy changes, as in motion associated with negative change being quantified as "moral motion" and motion associated with positive change being quantified by "immoral motion" and system based definitions of morality based on Fritz Lipmann's 1941 free energy coupling theory, such as was alluded to in Robert Kenoun's 2006 Theory of History and Social Evolution.

John Q. Stewart
Scottish walking moral philosopher John Stewart (1749-1822), to note, is not to be confused with American social physicist John Q. Stewart (1894-1972); being that they both promulgated similar social materialism theories, and thereby initial confusion may arise.

Birth | Date confusion
There seems two listings of the date of Stewart’s birth (reaction start), 1747 and 1749; a review of Google Books shows latter to be the more common date, returning 339 results (Ѻ) for 1739 and 524 results (Ѻ) for 1749. Conversely, the mention (below) that he self-dereacted (suicide) on 20 Feb 1822, the morning after his 75th birthday, via laudanum ingestion, seems to corroborate the earlier date of 1747.

Reaction end
On 20 February 1822, the morning after his seventy-fifth birthday, 'Walking' Stewart's body was found in a rented room in Northumberland Place, near present-day Trafalgar Square, London. An empty bottle of laudanum lay beside him. [7]

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Stewart:

“The title page of a book ought to give the reader some insight into the author's design: but from those titles which arc prefixed to the two volumes before us, we were not able to form any conjecture respecting their contents; and after the most careful perusal, we are not certain that we understand the work sufficiently to make our readers acquainted with the author's leading ideas. The only thing of which we are sure, is, that this ‘traveling philosopher’ is, in his first volume, a haughty censor, and in the second, a professed enemy to all religion;— for a ‘religion of nature’, without a ‘god of nature’, is a solecism, too gross to pass on the meanest understanding.”
— Ralph Griffiths (1791), “Review of Stewart’s Moral Motion, Volumes 1 and 2” (pg. 143) [3]

“The remedy, which this wild projector proposes for correcting the disorders of human nature, is, to abandon every idea of deity, and every hope of "future existence", in the common acceptations of those terms; and to make the integer of nature, and self as connected with it, the sole objects of adoration; and to consider the design of providing for the happiness of those particles of matter, which happen to belong to our present bodies, through all their future connection with sentient beings, as the only comfortable and reasonable doctrine of immortality. This, if we are not greatly mistaken, is the whole of the wonderful discovery contained in a work, which calls itself the apocalypse of nature, and boasts of containing ‘the most important and useful ideas the press has ever presented to the discussion and contemplation of man’.”
— Ralph Griffiths (1791), “Review of Stewart’s Moral Motion, Volumes 1 and 2” (pg. 144) [3]

Quotes | By
The following are quotes by Stewart:

“In a disposition of mind interested in the happiness of all animated matter, the author of the following new ideas traversed the globe, and proposes to lay them before the public, conjuring his readers to pay them the attention their importance demands.”
— John Stewart (1790), Moral Motion (Preface) (pg. 7)

“The operations of knowledge are employed upon outward and foreign objects; but those of wisdom are internal, and applied only to the self. The greatest efforts of the former were exerted by Newton, to discover the physical laws of bodies; but when he attempted to make use of the latter to make discoveries in the moral world, he became an eminent example of deficiency in the quality of wisdom, and proved its greatest differences from knowledge.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion
John Stewart (overview)
A 1906 Dictionary of Indian Biography entry (Ѻ) on Stewart, wherein his work is described as "curious".

“The chimerical operations of religious phrenzy will be destroyed, by the doctrine of real existence.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (xiii) [8]

“There is no doubt that all matter, however organized or modified, is subject to the same laws of nature.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§1, pg. 106)

“A weak mind, that attaches itself to identity alone, may not be able to conceive its eternal connection with Nature, but I defy a mind, that has arrived at the acme of intellect and considers the indestructibility of matter to separate itself from its eternal integer, though it can have no knowledge of the mode of connection.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 12)

“The volition of man may be regarded as the source of moral motion, and takes its birth from outward or inward impression.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 13)

“We find in that combination of matter, called man, two powers, one passive, and the other active. The first is the corporeal power, formed of the visible and tangible parts, called body: the other is the result of the organization of that body, forming the power vulgarly called soul.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 16)

“Self, as a part of all Nature, is immortal and universal, and though identity of matter and mind separate, and their combination or identity is annihilated by death; yet self as a part of nature, can never be annihilated; self pervades all nature in its revolutions and operations, and self is as much concerned in the present or future health and happiness of all nature, as the hand is concerned in that of the body.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 23)

“Personal identity. is that state of matter in which it possesses a consciousness of existence, and power of motion to procure happiness for the present, and thereby perpetuate it in every stage of its transmutation or revolution; and no change of that identity by loss of memory or by death, can dissolve the connection with its integer Nature, but like a river absorbed by the ocean, it transmutes into all forms of matter, and returns to rivers again.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 29)

“To assist these meditations, these pages, I hope, will be useful; if not, I must recommend the writings of Hume, Voltaire, Bolingbroke, Rousseau, and last of all Mirabaud [D'Holbach,] who has completed the destruction of error in his System of Nature: and when, conversant with these writings, the mind shall be purged of its errors and prejudices, these pages will, I trust, be useful to introduce it to a system of wisdom and happiness.”
— John Stewart (1790), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 43)

“If these observations are not comprehensible or satisfactory, I must refer my reader to the System of Nature written in French by M. Mirabaud [now ascribed to Baron d’Holbach] where error is so closely combatted and pursued in all its recesses, that the mind by irresistible conviction emerges from its abyss, and seeks with impatience a new guide, or the light of nature, which I hope will be found in these pages, and that they will form a complete supplement to that work.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 78)

“Body and identity of man or manhood, like fire and heat, may be changed or commuted, and in portions what was fire may become man. and what was man become fire; the connection with nature being the same in all its parts, animate or inanimate; but motion in the former has the power of procuring happy combinations or identities; and the volition that propels that motion is, motived by happiness, which it procures to its present, and perpetuates to all future stages of its revolution into sensitive nature, by which self, or the moral system, is temporally and eternally benefited. The religion of nature differs from invented religion, as the former adores the effect of motion, which is comprehensible, and the latter the cause of motion, which is incomprehensible.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 81)
fly
Stewart applies his new "moral motion" theory of natural religion to the instance of a person being "incommoded by a fly", the justice of the act being determined by the "utility to the system of nature, the only standard of moral motion or action", according to which it is not OK to destroy the fly, per reason that it "disproportions the means to the end", but that it would be OK to destroy a tiger or lion set loose in a human environment.

“Let us suppose that a man, who is incommoded by a fly, instead of driving it away, kills it. Utility to the system of nature, the only standard of moral motion or action, may be applied to this act in the following manner: the fly in committing an act of violence on my body, agitates the chain of nature (see: great chain of being): it is useful to remove this cause, but utility does not demand the annihilation of it by death, because it disproportions the means to the end, and infects, by a motive of resentment, the disposition of the mind for universal sympathy and benevolence. The destruction of the tiger and lion, when brought to the standard of utility, may be justified in proportion to the violence they cause the human specks, which, as being the most happy existence of matter, is to be preferred to the brute. When the tiger infests the environs of man's habitation, utility requires him to be destroyed, and this would cause no vibration of the chain, because it would re-establish a counterpoise to the effect of the concussion began by the violence of the tiger; but when the hunter wantonly seeks him in the forest to destroy him, to promote the pleasure of the chase, the chain of nature would be agitated by this act of remote utility; for utility must be urgent to justify the least act of violence, otherwise the volition becomes corrupted, and the source of moral motion being polluted, its streams would convey the cause of moral pestilence or vice over all Humanity.”
— John Stewart (1789), Moral Motion (§2, pg. 82)

References
1. Watkins, John, Shoberl, Frederic, and Upcott, William. (1816). A Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors of Great Britain and Ireland (John Stewart, pg. 333). H. Colburn.
2. (a) Stewart, John. (1789). Travels to Discover the Source of Moral Motion (volume one) (energy, 35+ pgs; heat, 8+ pgs; The Religion of Nature, pg. 75-). Ridgway.
(b) Stewart, John. (1790). The Apocalypse of Nature: wherein the Source of Moral Motion is Discovered (volume two). Ridgway.
3. (a) Griffiths, Ralph. (1791). “Review of Stewart’s Moral Motion, Volumes 1-2” The Monthly Review, Volume 5 (Art. VI, Review: Travels Over the Most Interesting Parts of the Globe and The Apocalypse of Nature, pgs. 144-46). G. Griffiths.
(b) Ralph Griffiths – Wikipedia.
4. Stewart, John. (1790). The Moral State of Nations: Travels Over the Most Interesting Parts of the Globe, to Discover the Source of Moral Motion; Communicated to Lead Mankind Through the Conviction of the Senses to Intellectual Existence, and an Enlightened State of Nature. In the Year of Man's Retrospective Knowledge, by Astronomical Calculation 5000. Year of the Common Era, 1790. George H. Evans, 1837.
5. John Stewart (1749-1822) – Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911.
6. Stuart, Tristram. (2006). The Bloodless Revolution: A Cultural History of Vegetarianism from 1600 to Modern Times24: John ‘Walking’ Stewart and the Utility of Death”, pgs. 347-). W.W. Norton & Co.
7. Walking Stewart – Wikipedia.
8. Stokes, Christopher. (2015). “Desacralizing the Sign: Tooke, Stewart and Romantic Materialism”, in: Dynamics of Desacralization: Disenchanted Literary Talents (editor: Paola Partenza) (§3, pgs. 37-52; real existence, pg. 38). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
9. (a) Symonds, Barry. (2009). “Stewart, John (1747-1822)” (Ѻ), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
(b) Stokes, Christopher. (2015). “Desacralizing the Sign: Tooke, Stewart and Romantic Materialism”, in: Dynamics of Desacralization: Disenchanted Literary Talents (editor: Paola Partenza) (§3, pgs. 37-52; buried, pg. 44). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Further reading
● Stewart, John. (1810). The Philosophy of Human Society. Publisher.
● Stewart, John. (1810). The Moral or Intellectual last Will and Testament of John Stewart. Publisher.
● Stewart, John. (1812). The Revolution of Reason: the Establishment of the Constitution of Things in Nature. J. Ridgway.
● Stewart, John. (1813). The Scripture of Reason and Nature. Publisher.
● Courtney, William P. (1898). “Stewart, John (1749-1822)” (Ѻ), Dictionary of Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 54.

External links
Stewart, John – WorldCat Identities.

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