Joseph Klein

photo neededIn thermodynamics, Joseph Frederic Klein (1849-1918) was a French-born American mechanical engineer, a "friend" of Willard Gibbs, noted for his 1910 The Physical Significance of Entropy, wherein he attempts to present a clear exposition on the Boltzmann-Planck model of entropy, as this applies to the entire universe.

Overview
In 1907, Klein completed the first English translation of Gustav Zeuner’s Technical Thermodynamics. [2]

In 1910, Klein, in his booklet Physical Significance of Entropy, distills the latest synthesis or rather reinterpretation entropy by Max Planck of Ludwig Boltzmann’s earlier work, the synopsis of which is best summarized by his abstract:

“In this little book the author has in the main sought to present the interpretation reached by Boltzmann and by Planck. The writer has drawn most heavily upon Planck, for he is at once the clearest expositor of Boltzmann and an original and important contributor. Now these two investigators reach the result that; entropy of any physical state is the logarithm of the probability of the state, and this probability is identical with the number of "complexions" of the state. This number is the measure of the permutability of certain elements of the state and in this sense: Entropy is the measure of the disorder of the motions of a system of mass points. To realize more fully the ultimate nature of entropy, the writer has, in the light of these definitions, interpreted some well-known and much-discussed thermodynamic occurrences and statements.”

This book seems to be one of the first to clearly elaborate on what soon came to be known as the Boltzmann-Planck “principle of elementary disorder”. [1]

Entropy applies to all bodies (Klein, 1910)
Klein's 1910 chapter "Reach and Scope of Entropy", wherein he explains that entropy applies to any and all "bodies" of the universe, and goes through Max Planck's proof of this; compare: Moriarty-Thims debate (2009).
Education
In 1868, Klein, age 19, at the suggestion of “friend” Willard Gibbs, then aged 29, he registered at the Sheffield Scientific School, taking a course in dynamic (mechanical engineering. In 1871, he completed a Ph.B., after which he served as assistant to professor W.P. Trowbridge, thereafter completed a D.E. in mechanical engineering. Klein then worked for five years as a draftsman of Colt Company, Hartford, Connecticut, eventually becoming chief engineer. In 1877, he became an instructor of mechanical engineering at Yale University, wherein he began to do experimental work on low temperature thermodynamics. In 1881, he went to Lehigh University, Pennsylvania, becoming dean in 1907, and acting president (1910), during which time he translated a number of engineering and thermodynamic works from German to English. [4]

Quotes | Employed
The following are quotes employed by Klein:

“The driving motive (or impelling cause) in all natural events is the difference between the existing entropy and its maximum value.”
Ludwig Boltzmann (c.1887), Publication; cited by Joseph Klein (1910) in: Physical Significance of Entropy (pg. 98)

Quotes
The following are noted quotes:

“The second law in its objective-physical form (freed from all anthropomorphism) refers lo certain mean values which are found from a great number of like and ‘chaotic’ elements. This law has no independent significance, for its roots go down deep into the theory of probabilities. It is therefore conceivable that it is applicable to some purely human and animate events as well as to inanimate, natural events, provided the variable elements present constitute adequate haphazard for the calculus of probabilities.”
Joseph Klein (1910), The Physical Significance of Entropy; cited by Jay Labinger (1995) [3]

References
1. Klein, Joseph F. (1910). Physical Significance of Entropy: or of the Second Law (principle of elementary disorder, pgs. 5-10). D. Van Nostrand Co.
2. Zeuner, Gustav; Klein, Joseph F. (1907). Technical Thermodynamics, 2 vol. Archibald Constable & Co.
3. (a) Klein, Joseph F. (1910). Physical Significance of Entropy: or of the Second Law (humans, pg. 89-90). D. van Nostrand.
(b) Labinger, Jay A. (1995). “Metaphoric Usage of the Second Law: Entropy as Time's (double-headed) Arrow in Tom Stoppard's Arcadia”, Presented at Nov meeting of the Society for Literature and Science, Los Angeles; in: The Chemical Intelligencer (pg. 32), Oct. 31-36, 1996.
4. Onofrio, Jan. (1999). Pennsylvania Biographical Dictionary (Klein, Joseph Frederick (1849-1918), pgs. 644-). North American Book Distributors.

Further reading

● Klein, Joseph F. (1880). “The Absolute Zero of Temperature”, Engineering Magazine. Van Nostrand.
● Klein, Joseph F. (1903). Design of a High-Speed Steam Engine: Notes, Diagrams, Formulas and Tables, Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged (ΡΊ). D. Van Nostrand Co.

External link
● Klein, Joseph Frederic – WorldCat Identities.

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