Lessons on Social Movement

Lessons on Social Movement
Title page to French social philosopher Maurice Hauriou's 1899 book Lessons on Social Movement.
In famous publications, Lessons on Social Movement or Leçons sur le Mouvement Social is an 1899 book, dated to have been written in Nonac, France, completed on October 15, 1898, by French social-philosopher Maurice Hauriou in which social phenomenon are explained in terms of thermodynamic principles of Rudolf Clausius, Sadi Carnot, and Robert Mayer, using, it seems, the 1892 Thermodynamics textbook of French physicist Henri Poincare as a reference.

New science
The following excerpt seems to capture Hauriou's aim in that he is attempting to outline a new science: [1]

“I intend to seek analogies between social movement with physical movements, therefore, to compare the mechanics of social science with thermodynamics. I owe you some explanations on this design. There is need to establish a new science if analogies and relations that unite science are already established. In doing so, the human mind obeys the feeling that he has the web link and continuity of natural phenomena at the same time, if using the similarities found it is possible to determine more accurately the specific content of the new science and to classify the essential elements, then they serve it as it touchstone of human theories.”

A larger part of Hauriou's effort to establish this 'new science', which he leaves nameless, seems to be the aim to reconcile determinism and freedom in social movement under the guidelines of the universality of 'thermodynamics', a subject which, in Hauriou’s view, can be used to explain the moral sciences or the "sciences of the conduct of social movements". A key guiding aspect of Hauriou's approach seems to be German physicist Rudolf Clausius' second main principle or the principle of increasing entropy, as Hauriou calls it, which he argues leads to a state of stasis in the social body or a static society.

Research
The following preface excerpt seems to capture Hauriou’s research efforts in the development of his lesson on social movement:

“It became necessary to study the thermodynamics. Not being a mathematician, I feared this study, but my learning was greatly facilitated by the work of Henri Poincare which I wish to pay tribute to the uninitiated, that he is not only accessible, but bright. Taken together the principles of thermodynamics seemed to confirm my views rather than the reverse, but it might perhaps not suffice to mention that I was not sufficiently reassured, but when I understood the importance of the principle of increasing entropy I felt like a shocked. Here was the reason for the doubling of energy in the form of movement and heat, the key opposition of the organic and the representative, the increase in entropy was a sign that it exists in the “conduct” of the universe, conduct that is carried out by application of the organic representative and it is manifested by the creation of static and the increase of law, it aims to free items. I ventured to see in thermodynamics ‘the science of behavior of physical movements’ and I made for the moral sciences or sciences of the conduct of social movements.”

In short, according to Hauriou, thermodynamics, being the science of physical movements, can be used to develop a science of human behavior and social movements.

Book review
The following is a one-page 1900 book review by French sociologist Celestin Bougle: [2]

Pour concilier, par une théorie plus satisfaisante que celle de M. Fouillée ou de M. Bernés, les deux conceptious de la réalité sociale, —• celle qui la considère comme un produit du mécanisme, et celle qui y voit un produit de la liberté,—

M. H. a cherché des analogies directrices dans la mécanique rationnelle et la thermodynamique. Il y a un mouvement social « comparable au mouvement physique » ayant comme lui son espace, sa direction, sa mesure (Leç. I). Il y a un « potentiel social », constitué par la situation, les richesses les inventions, les traditions, capable de se transformer eu vitesse acquise et inversement (Leç. II). Enfin, et surtout, de môme que les phéuomèues d'ordre thermique « représentent » les mouvements physiques, les mouvements sociaux ont leur représentation, scientifique ou idéaliste, mécauiste ou non mécauiste (Leç. III.).

Par cette forme nouvelle de l'énergie, capable de se convertir eu mouvement et inversement (Leç. IV;, une solidarité nouvelle est constituée, qui est représentative et non plus seulement organique (Leç. V). Grâce à la réaction incessante de l'une sur l'autre, le mouvement social peut être « conduit », comme le prouve le principe de la dissipation de l'entropie, vers la création d'un « statique social, qui tend à concilier pratiquement le mécanisme et la liberté ».

Nous ne saurions suivre dans le détail tant d'assimilations hardies. Elles ont d'ailleurs donné lieu, dans les articles cités, à un débat sufïïsant. D'une manière générale, il nous est impossible de trouver que les rapprochements invoqués éclairent les objets rapprochés. Sommes-nous instruits sur la nature du fluide électrique qui opère dans le téléphone si on nous dit qu'il est « représentatif », et qu'il roule les formules d'ondulation en ondulation (p. 60j ?

Inversement, « que les alternances que l'on observe dans l'histoire des institutions sociales n'empêchent point les institutions de conserver la même individualité, le môme être, » cela s'explique-t il vraiment par la formule générale du principe de la conservation de l'énergie? Les métaphores orgauicistes ont longtemps égaré la sociologie : il ne semble pas qu'elle doive attendre beaucoup d'éclaircissements des métaphores rnécauistes.
To reconcile a more satisfactory theory than Fouillee or Mr. Bernes, both conceptious of social reality one that sees it as a product of the mechanism, and one that sees a product of freedom.

Hauriou's guidelines sought analogies in rational mechanics and thermodynamics. There is a social movement "comparable to the physical movement" with him as its space, its direction, its measure (Leç. I). There is a "social potential", constituted by the situation, the riches inventions, traditions, was able to turn momentum and vice versa (Leç. II). Finally, and most importantly, the same order of thermal phenomenon 'represent' physical movements, social movements have their representation, scientific or idealistic or not mécauiste mécauiste (Leç. III.).

Through this new form of energy that can be converted into motion and vice versa (Leç. IV, a new solidarity is formed, which is representative and not only Organic (Leç. V). With the reaction relentlessly one over the other, the social movement can be "led", as evidenced by the principle of dissipation of entropy, towards the creation of a "social static, which seeks to reconcile the almost mechanism and freedom".

We cannot follow in detail so bold assimilations. They have also resulted in the articles cited in a debate sufïïsant. Generally, it is impossible to find that invoked comparisons illuminate near objects. Are we educated about the nature of the electric fluid which operates the phone if we are told it is "representative", and it rolls formulas ripple ripple (p. 60J?

Conversely, " the vibrations that we observe in the history of social institutions do not prevent the institutions to retain the same individuality, the same being, "Does it really reflects the general formula of the principle of conservation energy? organistic metaphors have long lost sociology: it does not seem to await clarification of many metaphors rnécauistes.

English translation
No English translation, as yet, seems to exist. Shown below is the partial start of a straight French → English Google translation of Hauriou's book.

(pgs. ii-vi)

Other books by Mr. Maurice Hauriou: Study on decentralization, ^ 8vo pamphlet, 1892 (Paul Smith) 2 fr. 50; The traditional social science, 1 volume in-8, 1896 (Larose editor) 7 Fr. 50; Precis of Administrative Law, a vol.in-8 ", 3eédi 'Lion, 1897 (Larose editor) 12 fr."

ON SOCIAL MOVEMENT

PARIS: LIBRARY OF THE SOCIETY OF GENERAL COLLECTION OF LAWS AND JUDGMENTS, BY JB FO.NDÉ S1REÏ, AND THE JOURNAL OF THE PALACE, Old House L. LA.ROSK & FORCKL, 22 IIK Soufflat 22, L. LAROSE, Director of the Library, 1899.

PREFACE

I just want to show the chain of ideas where I went because my starting point was the study of something very special and if I got a kind of general system of the world, is without have premeditated. I started to prepare lessons on the "power" material that has long attracted and, appropriately, to get benefit comparisons, I was armed with some information on the energy. The power can indeed be regarded as a kind of social energy of a mechanical nature. But no sooner had I set in my mind reconciling, I was struck more the difference between the two concepts, the power seemed to be some "representation" that men are the real energy that circulates throughout the social body and yet this represented presentation was itself a social energy. There was social energies "representative" social energies near real or organic.

At this point my thoughts, I joined at most Fouillee, because either idéesforces theory due to philosopher, from the design of the contracting agency, we can easily make out the opposition the organic social and representative office. But the way of energy comparisons where I had committed myself to train further. I wondered if there was not in the world other representative examples of energy and if the opposition of the organic and the representative could not be found in all things. Memories of the physical transformation of motion into heat energy and heat energy in motion [mechanical equivalent of heat] climbed back into my memory, it occurred to me that the heat and light could be a form of energy that is representative of the form of movement, and immediately I argued that the waves of light actually contain representations, I imagined that the mental representation of things there was a previous representation fluid, especially caloric things.

It became necessary to study the thermodynamics. Not being a mathematician, I feared this study, but she was greatly facilitated by the work of Henri Poincare which I wish to pay tribute to the uninitiated they are not only accessible, but bright. Taken together the principles of thermodynamics seemed to confirm my views rather than the reverse, but it might perhaps do not sufficiently reassured, but when I understood the porlée the principle of increasing entropy I felt like a shock. Here was the reason for the doubling of energy had the form
(pgs. vii-3)

movement and heat in the form, the key opposition of the organic and the representative, the increase in entropy was a sign that it exists in the universe "conduct" that conduct is carried out by application of the organic representative and it is manifested by the creation of static and the increase of law, it aims to free items. I ventured to see in thermodynamics "the science of behavior of physical movements" and I made for the moral sciences or sciences of the conduct of social movements.

I have no doubt these insights to my preconceptions lawyer because a lawyer does not deny that there is a line of social movement and it shall, in general, to attach great importance to the idea conduct. Shall I also, at the risk of compromising that very philosophical passages of the thermodynamics of H. Poincare seemed to be turned to my advantage?

Such is the genesis of the trilogy that I got: movement, motion representation, led the movement. Like all systematic construction, this one is probably too simple to be completely true. But I thought it contained enough truth to be given lessons in which the original program found himself strangely altered. I still hope she has enough to deserve that these lessons are published.

Mathematicians forgive me for having used a thermodynamic where mathematics are excluded. They will remember that the basic principles of this science, the Carnot-Clausius, like Mayer, are, above all, the truths of experience. They'll pardonnerontaussi to have, for the convenience desapplications social, diverted some expressions of their strictly scientific sense. They want good, moreover, refer to "notes and clarifications" I'm the main elements to the kindness of Mr. Camille Dauzère, licensed physical èsysciences.

Quantal sociologuesetauxjuristes, jelesprie discredit this doctrine on the social movement, if its truth appeared, would have certain advantages:

First, while confirming the legitimacy of organicism it shows the limits of this theory, it would take away the claim, accepted so lightly by so many people, to serve as a basis to direct the moral and right, it would restore the 'ethics on its true foundation is the idealist representative, that is to say, the ideal but this restaurant would operate retrospectively by scientific considerations and analogies that would only strengthen the traditional ideal of freedom and justice;

A second advantage of this doctrine is that the "representative office" to be distinct from the "organic office) • would still be objective; sociology avoid engaging in the deceptive way of subjectivism mind, everything would no body, but everything is objective, as befits the subject of a science;

Finally, there are three main directions in the sociology organismic direction, the direction in which representative Tarde has done such a great way to science with its laws of imitation and social logic, management ethics, the mental tendencies find the most diverse to meet.

Nonac, October 15, 1898.

ON SOCIAL MOVEMENT
LESSON: The social
movement.

Summary. - Object Lessons: analogies to draw on rational mechanics and thermodynamics to support the theory that there were deficiencies in the social life of both the mechanism and freedom. - I. The social movement. - A. Distinction between social movement and the representation of the social movement. - B. The movement, energy, atoms, and the system of Hertz, the energy system, the system of central forces atomic. - G. Developments on the social movement: a) nature of this movement, 6) the mobile social state c) social space d) the direction and extent of the social movement, the value, the rating on the stock exchange, a kind of differential . - D. Applying the principles of social movement of inertia, relative movements of the equality of action and reaction.

I intend to seek analogies that this social movement with physical movements, therefore, to compare the mechanics of social science with thermodynamics. I owe you some explanations on this design. There is need to establish a "new science" by M. H. if analogies and relations that unite science are already established. In doing so, the human mind obeys the feeling that he has the web link and continuity of natural phenomena at the same time, the similarities found it possible to determine more accurately the specific content of the new science and to classify the essential elements, they serve it as it touchstone peoples theories.

Social science in its formative period, has not escaped the common law, the most important contributions she has received include, besides the theories suggested, analogies invoked. There is one direction in which, to my knowledge, there has not yet undertaken comparisons followed and yet where it is necessary that it should be established.

The social reality must be conceived as the product of the mechanism or the like freedom; sociologists can not escape the urgency of this issue that stirs the depths of all existence, but is especially exciting for the existence of a social thing. They started by choosing one or the other point of view, by adopting it exclusively and draw analogies to support their claims. Those who leaned to the mechanism on social, found similarities in the side of biology, and these companies appeared to them comparable to living organisms. Those who opted instead for freedom, found similarities in the side of logic and law, labor agreements they seemed comparable to syllogistic reasoning, and ultimately legal contracts W.

(1) The major organismic sociological theorists of this century, Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, etc.. We found both

However, as these two theories asserted themselves, they felt, and this is precisely the advantage of magnification artificial analogies, if both contain an element of truth, neither one nor the other not shut up entirely. The companies appeared very similar in part to organizations, but partly also to syllogistic agreements or contracts. It was suspected that it was appropriate to combine the two theories, because in reality the mechanism and liberlé were amalgamated. This sentiment was again revealed in the well-known works, from that which Fouillee [Alfred Fouillée, Contemporary Social Science, 1880], in 1880, launched the idea of agency-company contract, until the most recent of Mr. Marcel Bernes [Marcel Bernes, Sociology and Moral, 180?] believed to explain the transition from freedom to the mechanism by successive consolidation becomes a reality.

It was then formed on the social reality a third theory, conciliatory first two. But the third theory, in turn, would need to undergo the test of scientific comparisons, analogies found the singularly fortified, at the same time, they provide guidance on the process used by the society to make the synthesis that is assumed between determinism and freedom. This is a full and critical bibliography in the book by René Worms, Body and Society, Paris, 1805. - The contractual theory is well known, the first theoreticians of international law and Rousseau. - As to the logical theory, which also does not refer so openly for freedom, I see as its main representative, in addition to logicians and philosophers, in his Logic Tarde social, passim, esp., P. 60 "a nation is a complicated syllogism, etc.. .


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References
1. Hauriou, Maurice. (1899). Leçons sur le Mouvement Social (Lessons on Social Movement) (thermodynamique, 23+ pgs; entropie, 19+ pgs; quote, pg. 79). Paris: Larose.
2. (a) Bougle, Celestin. (1900). “M. HAURIOU: Leçons sur le Mouvement Social” (Book Review: Lessons on Social Movement by Maurice Hauriou, 176-pages, 1899), in: L’Annee Sociologique, Volume 3. P.U.F.
(b) Celestin Bougle – Wikipedia.

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