In existographies,

Bachelier, in short, built on the work of

In the mid-1950s, Bachelier’s 1914

References

1. Savoiu, Gheorghe. (2012).

2. (a) Bachelier, Louis. (1900). “Theorie de la Speculation”, PhD thesis in mathematics, Annales Scientifiques de l’Ecole Normale Suprieure, III-17: 21-86.

(b) Preda, Alex. (2009).

(c) Mantegna, Rosario N. (2006). “The Tenth Article of Ettore Majorana” (abs), Arxiv.org, Aug 29; in: Bassani G.F (ed) (2006)

(d) Daniel, Gilles and Sornette, Didier. (2008). “Econophysics: Historical Perspectives”, in:

(e) Joules Regnault – Wikipedia.

3. Szpiro, George. (2011).

Further reading

● Laurent, Carraro and Crepel, Pierre. (2006). “Louis Bachelier, March 11, 1870 – April 28, 1946”, Mathematics, Portraits, images.math.CNRS.fr.

● Weatherall, James O. (2013).

External links

● Louis Bachelier – Wikipedia.

**Louis Bachelier**(1870-1946) (CR:4) was a French mathematician noted, in human physics, for his 1900 PhD thesis*The Theory of Speculation*, written under his advisor Henri Poincare, a publication focused on determining the probability of price changes, via using__Brownian motion__to evaluate stock options, which according to Gheorghe Savoiu and Ion Siman, is said to mark the start of the econophysics. [1]Bachelier, in short, built on the work of

__Jules Regnault__, and used a random hypothesis to treat securities prices similar to gas molecules, moving independently of each other, with future movements being independent of past movements. [2]In the mid-1950s, Bachelier’s 1914

*Games of Gambling, Chance, and Risk*(*Le jeu, la chance et le hasard*) was discovered, in the Yale library, by statistician Leonard Savage, who in turn sent several postcards to colleagues to see if anyone was familiar with his work; one went to Paul Samuelson, who whet searching for his book in the MIT library, and therein found his PhD dissertation, who thereafter began to revive his work. [3]References

1. Savoiu, Gheorghe. (2012).

*Econophysics: Background and Applications in Economics, Finance, and Sociophysics*(pg. 8). Academic Press.2. (a) Bachelier, Louis. (1900). “Theorie de la Speculation”, PhD thesis in mathematics, Annales Scientifiques de l’Ecole Normale Suprieure, III-17: 21-86.

(b) Preda, Alex. (2009).

*Framing Finance*(pg. 264). University of Chicago Press.(c) Mantegna, Rosario N. (2006). “The Tenth Article of Ettore Majorana” (abs), Arxiv.org, Aug 29; in: Bassani G.F (ed) (2006)

*Ettore Majorana Scientific Papers: on the Occasion of the Centenary of the Birth*(pgs. 250-26). Springer.(d) Daniel, Gilles and Sornette, Didier. (2008). “Econophysics: Historical Perspectives”, in:

*Encyclopedia of Quantitative Finance*(abs), Rama Cont (eds). Wiley, 2010.(e) Joules Regnault – Wikipedia.

3. Szpiro, George. (2011).

*Pricing the Future: Finance, Physics, and the 300-year Journey to Black-Scholes Equation: a Story of Genius and Discovery*(pg. 185). Basic Books.Further reading

● Laurent, Carraro and Crepel, Pierre. (2006). “Louis Bachelier, March 11, 1870 – April 28, 1946”, Mathematics, Portraits, images.math.CNRS.fr.

● Weatherall, James O. (2013).

*The Physics of Wall Street: a Brief History of Predicting the Unpredictable*(Bachelier, 68+ pgs). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.External links

● Louis Bachelier – Wikipedia.