|Above left: a replica of the type of pump used by Guericke, of the Messingen Feuersprutz variety, from the Guericke exhibition in the Lukasklause in Magdeburg.  Above right: the schematic of Guericke performing his famous beer keg vacuum experiment, using a Messingen Feuersprutz modified into the form of a suction pump. |
In c.1652, Otto Guericke took a Messingen Feuersprutz and retooled it so that it could both squirt water and suck water, and therein invented a prototype vacuum pump. 
1. Guericke, Otto. (1663). The Vacuum of Space (De Spatio Vacuo). Unpublished; New Magdeburg Experiments on the Vacuum of Space (Ottonis De Guericke Experimenta Nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de Vacuo Spatio) (preface, pdf) (sun quote, pg. xx; education, pg. xxiii). Janssonius a Waesberge, 1672.
2. Schnneider, Von D. (1986). “In the Footsteps of Guericke: The Death of Otto von Guericke 300 Years Ago” (“Auf den Spuren Guerickes: Zum Tod von Otto von Guericke vor 300 Jahren”) (pdf), Phys. Bl., 42:12.