Mirza Beg

Mirza BegIn existographies, Mirza Arshad Ali Beg (1932-) (SNE:2) (EPD:F11) (DN:1) (CIR:15) (CR:202) is an Indian-born Pakistani organometallic chemist and physico-chemical sociologist noted for his 1987 book New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior, wherein he presents the first general outline of "physicochemical sociology" (see: two cultures namesakes), a physicochemical humanities conceptualized subject, likening society to a chemical solution and explains human behavior in terms of physicochemical laws, using terms such as fugacity, lattice energy, activation energy, affinity (or chemical affinity), free energy, drive (internal force and external force) and driving force, both interpreted in terms of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, enthalpy (or heat of reaction), entropy, phase rule (phases, degrees of freedom, intensive variables, state), polarity, Coulomb forces, pressure (i.e. social pressure) and partial pressure (i.e. pressure at interface of social boundary), temperature (i.e. social temperature), equilibrium constants, etc., advanced concepts and principles, such as: Le Chatelier's principle, law of mass action (see also: Julius Davidson), human chemical reaction theory, activated complex, miscibility (see also: Jurgen Mimkes), etc., likening migration to evaporation of solution molecules at higher temperatures, social conflict to the generation of heat in solution, slums to the formation of coarse-grained solids, war to rapid boiling, etc., and seems to grasp at very-advanced concepts such as human chemical bonding theory (in a loose verbal sense) and human molecular orbital theory (e.g. via molecular orbital diagrams and transition states applied sociologically), all done with in-text citation to just three physical scientists: Willard Gibbs, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton, and Robert Mayer, respectively. [1]

The name "Mirza Beg", to clarify, is the two-name rule shorthand employed by Libb Thims (2014), in Hmolpedia, to classify Beg when his work was first discovered. Later, when Thims met Beg in person in Pakistan, in 2019, it was found that the name "Ar-shad" is the first name or "common name" that his family and friends call him, "Mirza" being his maiden name, and "Dr. Beg" as his colleagues refer to him. Beyond this, historically, Beg has been cited as: M.A.A. Beg (Google Scholar), M. Arshad Ali Beg (Beg, 1983), and Arshad Ali Beg (Jalibi, 1987). As Beg, as of Sep 2019, has been cited over 170 times as "Mirza Beg", and that family and friend stated that calling him "Mirza" as first name is fine, this Hmolpedia employed name will be the standard usage, herein.

Mirza Beg and Libb Thims (15 Sep 2019)
A 15 Sep 2019 photo of Beg and Libb Thims in Karachi, Pakistan, on the first day of their 5-day interview session.
Beg-Thims interview
See main: Beg-Thims interview
In the summer of 2019, Beg was interviewed by Libb Thims in Karachi, Pakistan; the following is an Apr 2019 Hmolpedia Reddit (Ѻ) advert for the interview:

Beg-Thims interview (advert)

The following are noted dialogued quotes from the interview:

“Libb you are my amanuensis [?].”
— Mirza Beg (2019), Interview dialogue (Sun, day initial); Sep 15

“You see, de Lange believes what he wants to believe, namely that Gibbs energy as governor of social reactions is the 'spiritual component' of the energy of the father of Jesus, I believe what I believe, namely that Gibbs energy applied socially is the 'will of Allah', and you [Thims] believe whatever you want to believe, namely that you do not believe in god and that Gibbs energy applied socially is just a 'natural physico-chemical energy', yet all three of us have, in common, a belief in thermodynamics.”
— Mirza Beg (2019), Interview dialogue (day 1); comment arisen following Thims explanation of the "beliefs" of Social Newtons existive (possibly a reflection of Beg, following a reading of "religion as a function of birthplace" article, Thims had sent Beg a few days earlier, in respect to the stance Thims would adhere to in respect to religions dialogue digressions), Sep 15


Bagh massacre
An illustration of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (Ѻ), which Beg describes as an example of heating a liquid under pressure, the Bagh garden shown with five entrances, four of which were blocked off, after 25,000 people entered, after which the British set up machine guns outside the fifth door, firing continuously on the door for 10 minutes, as people tried to escape, like evaporating gas particles, according to Beg.
Bagh massacre
Beg, in his New Dimensions (pgs. 15-17) describes the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre (Ѻ) as an example of heating a liquid under pressure as follows:

“The temperature of the liquid at the boiling point remains constant which is the same as that of the vapors. On further heating the kinetic energy of the particles [see: human particle] of the vapor is raised and the temperature of the system starts rising thereafter. The particles get highly energized as the temperature is raised and there is commotion and disorder of the highest degree. One might find such a process during commotions due to panic or disaster.

An event which could describe the above processes and their relationship with human behaviour occurred at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar in 1919. The people of India. thought that by helping the British in winning the first World War [see: war] they deserved a treatment meted to other members of the Empire. However, the wartime restrictions on the Indians continued. Further repressive measures introduced by the rulers yielded a wave of opposition storms. This situation is similar to subjecting the society to high pressure [see: social pressure]. The Indian society was still in the liquid state [see: liquid society] in that there was no unity of thought and not much of an order had been introduced into it. The leaders were trying to unite the people or to crystallize the society by calling for meetings, strikes etc.

Protest meetings were being held all over India against the Rowlatt Act (Ѻ) and when two leaders namely Mr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew were deported from Amritsar, a protest strike was called to demonstrate unity of thought or that the process of crystallization had started. The 13th April was a Baisakhi day and a 25,000 odd mixed crowd of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs had gathered at a not too spacious Bagh to celebrate the harvesting festival. Martial Law had already been imposed in Punjab and the British were trying not to allow the Indians to crystallize and were increasing the pressure through military force.

The administrative control of Amritsar district was handed over to General Dyer. On the said day, he brought armed soldiers, positioned them on either side of the entrances and ordered them to fire without warning the crowd of his intentions. 1650 rounds were fired in 10 minutes to save India from a second mutiny.

The crowd which had hardly got to crystallizing stage had to evaporate off for life. The 25,000 men surged outward but bullets were directed towards the four or five entrances. They tried to find all the possible outlets to escape, climbing up the walls, jumping down into wells, entering sewerage drains etc. This serves as an example of heating a liquid pressure and of human beings bursting out under great stress and scare of death through various openings, large or small. 400 persons were killed an 1200 were wounded on the spot. The remaining 23,000 odd left the ground within 10 minutes in the same manner as a low boiling liquid would evaporate off under high temperatures leaving behind residues which have no external pressure.”


Human molecules | Reaction theory
Beg conceptualizes people, in societies, as human molecules in different possible states of societal existence, as follows: [1]

“An individual in a society is like a drop in a glass of water or a molecule [H2O] in a drop. One molecule cannot be identified from the other, yet there are scores of interacting forces on each molecule, in this case the smallest particle of water which is incapable of independent existence without these forces. The interacting forces are both attractive and repulsive. The smallest unit of a society, an individual, is incapable of independent existence by virtue of his being a social animal and there [being] a large number of interacting constraints on him.”

Beg artistically conceptualizes human molecules in three different possible social states, each divided by social migration/immigration equilibrium-attaining two-way reaction arrows, as follows:

Beg change of social states (diagram)

Beg, in his "one molecule cannot be identified from the other", in a society or solution (of water), to note, seems to touch on the seeming individuality problem, raised when human molecular theory is first introduced. This perspective, however, seems to be that followed in only the first four chapters; whereas, in chapter four "Human Interaction and the Socialization Process", he begins to treat human molecules individually, e.g. how past psychological states (e.g. birth order or sibling group size), of two potential friends, A and B, may affect later (adult) human chemical reactions processes (e.g. friendship bonding), such as the formation of "close friends denoted by AB formed according to reaction 4.1", which Beg denotes as follows:

 A + B \rightleftharpoons  AB \,

Beg goes on to elaborate, in his overall treatise, that these molecular humans can either be hermits (not part of any society), migrants (resulting from fugacity tendencies), or exist in fluid, gas, or solid like societies.

Human chemical bonding theory
In respect to discussions of human chemical bonding and or a theory of human chemical bonding (human chemical bonding theory), Beg states the following:

“The equilibrium process suggests that A and B interact to establish the A-B linkage but the reverse process of remaining as individuals like A and B is also operative.”

This mention of friendship formation as an “A-B linkage”, seems to be one of the earliest (non-Goethe based) mentions of a potential theory discussion of human chemical bonding.

Overview | Abstract
The following is the very-interesting cover-flap abstract of Beg's 1987 New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior: [1]

“This book presents an attempt to study human behavior through a physicochemical approach. It suggests a universality of phenomena; the attractive and repulsive forces, for example, are operative at atomic and molecular level as much as between celestial bodies. Since human behavior forms and integral part of the universe they should also be governed by the same set of forces and could be described by physicochemical laws. By weaving in events recorded in history into the fabric of physical phenomena and laws governing properties of chemicals and materials, the author has brought several analogies to the surface. Using the laws in physical chemistry he has tried to reduce the empiricism existing among quite a few aspects of human behavior. Some of the analogies of interest are: ideal solution and ideal society; internal pressure and migratory process; escaping tendency or fugacity and migration; stresses on crystals and on human systems; impurities in crystals and anti-social elements in societies; immiscibility and ethnic segregation; solution process and socialization; phase rule and associative interactions leading to merger of societies; driving force of a reaction and the spread of Islam and decline of societies; affinity and assimilation; interaction and socialization; loss of a degree of freedom and listening, marketing and leadership; polarization and munafaqat or mind-body split, etc.

Beg cover section (labeled) 6
Labeled cover section of Beg's 1987 New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior, showing slums, middle class, and big cities conceptualized as states of gas, liquid, and solid social organizations; shown with some type of reaction coordinate, energy surface (or potential energy surface), and or activation energy initial state to final state diagram overlay, seemingly conceptualizing people as molecules in different states of ordering.
Societies have been compared in this book with solids, liquids, and gases. A highly disciplined society observing the desired norms and following the same set of laws is suggested to be like a crystal whose constituent atoms or ions are placed at fixed points and they are at the most stable energy level. These societies are to be found in posh urban localities. Societies putting less emphasis on the rule of law, abounding in exception and being indifferent to many of the norms, are like liquids which have no shape of their own but assume that of their container. Energetically they are metastable and are at a slightly higher level compared with solids. Then there are societies with very few norms, they have a behavior pattern similar to gases which also have no shape of their own. They can get aggregated into liquids on condensation. Their atoms or molecules are irregularly placed and or loosely held without cohesive force. This is analogous to the random placement of houses and or huts in slums. The title cover [adjacent] depicts just these three kinds of societies.”


Physicochemical sociology | Chronology
See main: Beg analysis
Beg started working on his physicochemical sociology theory in 1974, a process of events which he explains as follows: [1]

“In 1974, I was nominated to attend an advanced training course at the National Institute of Public Administration, Karachi. As a chemist working on the fundamental aspects of coordination and organometallic chemistry, it seemed odd and totally unrelated to me. However, the first lecture by [management scientist] Ahmed Mumtaz was quite polarizing when he said that if the lectures during the following weeks could create a disturbance, even though slight, in the thinking of the participants, the objectives of the course would be attained and this led me to take the course with an open mind. I devoted quite a bit of my time to the course material picking up points related to chemistry and interpreting them in physico-chemical terms, wherever possible.

A peculiar feature of the course was that the lecturers were using terms like polarization, activation, potential energy, complexes, compounds, perhaps metaphorically and in an unrelated context. This compelled me to ask some of them if they were aware of the real sense of the terminologies which have actually been borrowed from chemistry or material sciences. As expected, they had no clue to them and this prompted me to write a few notes, related physico-chemical terminologies to those of human behavior. I was encouraged in doing so by Dr. Ahsan Siddiqui, the then deputy director of the Institute, who thought it would be a valuable contribution to the field of sociology.”

Beg continues:

The above notes where mimeographed and they appeared as a booklet Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology in 1976. Four papers were published out of this booklet in local journals. The response from the readers was very encouraging and in the light of the comments received it transpired that the pertinent data had to be put in urgently to provide a quantitative basis to the hypothesis.”

These four articles, referred to above, are: “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology” (1979), “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology: Assimilation” (1980), “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology: Affinity, Free Energy Changes, Equilibria, and Human Behaviour” (1981), each published in Pakistan Management Review, along with a fourth 1982 article published in Pakistan Marketing Review. [8]

In 1983, interestingly, Beg published “Physico-Chemical Processes and Human Behaviour Part—IV: Muslim Society, its Formation & Decline”, in Science & Technology in the Islamic World, an article that he does not cite nor mention in his 1987 book, in which he seems to water test some more questionable metaphysical ideas, one being his equation 12(a) for total spiritual activity, shown below: [10]

TSA new

The finalized book (1987), to note, does not contain this equation and is largely free from these types of "direct" metaphysical religio-mythology type assertions and or calculations; although not completely. One subtle example, discussed below, being how Beg jumps from Newton, in his 1701 descriptions of chemical affinity, referring to the reaction of sulphuric acid and copper as being the attraction of the "spirit" by the fixed bodies (pg. 95), to affinity of individuals and societies being concerned more with "material and spiritual gains" (pg. 96); another example being how in discussions of the whys of "learning", explained in the context of activation energy diagrams, free energy, and activated complex formation, etc., he inserts the sentence: "if the conflicts are gracefully overcome, one is blessed with success" (pg. 190). While this style of presentation is much toned down, i.e. verbal mentions of spiritual gains, as compared to equations for spiritual activity, grace, and blessings, etc., the issue is still the same, namely: the premise of a molecule or chemical species, as Beg seems to conceptualize people, being "concerned with spiritual gains", or blessed (by god), etc., is something not recognized by physical chemistry.

Beg goes on to explain that the time lag in the decade plus jump from 1974 ideas and notes to 1976 booklet to 1979-1983 journal articles to 1987 book, resulted because “time had become scarce”, owing to his scientifically demanding responsibilities and assignments, but that into the mid-1980s he developed a heart disease which necessitated a long leave of complete rest, which in retrospect he refers to as a “blessing in disguise”, being that it enabled him time to finish the book manuscript, get it reviewed, and published.

The follow is a 1987 photo of Beg, center, with Zia ul Haq (1924-1988) (Ѻ), the president of Pakistan, at right, during the book launch of Beg's New Dimensions in Sociology who is seen reading some of the preface of Beg's book, along with Afshraf Tabini (1930-2009), the governor of Sindh, at left:

Mirza Beg and Pakistani president

In 1999, Beg stated the following: [6]

“Everafter the publication of my first book: New Dimensions in Sociology, a Physicochemical Approach to Human Behavior, friends and readers have been wondering why I should have deviated into dimensions of sociology.”

In 2012, Beg stated the following: [7]

“Writing to introduce New Dimensions in Sociology through Physicochemical Approach to Human Behavior, I had wondered as to why the degree of universality of occurrence and correlation of physical phenomena and physicochemical laws with social interactions has not been identified, although the identicalness of a large number of such natural phenomena is and has been well known.”

In 2014, Beg, in his “Ideal Society, Socialization, and Social Pollution”, referred to the ideas presented in his book as follows: [4]

New dimensions in sociology: a Physicochemical Approach to Human Behaviour provides an interpretation of human behavior in terms of physicochemical principles. It has picked up similarities in the behavior of molecules and particles on the one hand and of human beings on the other. Beg’s hypothesis [is] that physicochemical laws hold for individuals in a society and the society just as much as for solutes, solvents and the solutions, i.e. in the system of the solutes having been dissolved by solvents to give solutions.

An individual in a society is considered by the author like a drop in a glass of water or a molecule in a drop. One molecule cannot be identified from the other, yet there are scores of interacting forces on each molecule, in this case the smallest particle of water, which is incapable of independent existence without these forces. The interactive forces that bring about existence are a composite of both attractive and repulsive or positive and negative forces.

The smallest unit of a society is an individual who is incapable of independent existence by virtue of him or her being a social animal and there are a large number of interacting constraints on him. Some of these constraints that govern the process of socialization include the positive and negative forces like desires and fears. Societies have developed by interaction of individuals through physical and biological processes and their present status is complicated by such constraints as interbreeding, distribution and migration. The society grows with the number of like-minded persons all agreeing to live in the same environment and to be governed by the same type of initiating and sustaining forces of behavior.”


Beg cover 400px
Beg cover (labeled) new 3
Left: original cover of Beg's 1987 New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior, showing society conceptualized as a reaction beaker or test tube. [4] Right: a 2014 re-formatted cover, done by Thims, to accentuate the gist of Beg's message, as a general treatise on Physicochemical Sociology, first employed on the Napoleon Laplace anecdote page.
The following is the table of contents: [1]

1. Human behaviour and physico-chemical laws.
2. Solutions and the society.
3. Assimilation.
4. Human interaction and the socialization process.
5. Affinity and socialization.
6. Polarizing forces and mind-body split or munafaqt.
7. Decline of societies and entropy changes.
8. Anti-bonding forces and motivation.
9. Environmental adjustment.

Beg, as outlined above, supposedly, explains social processes of assimilation, motivation, polarizing, force, decline, revolution, etc., via recourse to chemical affinity theory. [2]

Rahim | Review
In 1990, Pakistan scholar "Prof. Dr. S.A. Rahim", affiliated with the University of Karachi, then president of the Pakistan Philosophical Congress at Baragali, Peshawar, presented a paper entitled “The Ideal Society and the Ideal Solution”, wherein he gives a critical, essentially anti-materialism, review of Beg’s book. One interesting point of Rahim’s critique, is his discussion of what he calls disanalogy: [2]

“Another important question is of disanalogy between solution and society and how extensive it is. An important part of the significance of any concept is given by contrast, by showing the kind of things to which it does not apply. After drawing our attention to some positive analogy, the theorists generally fail to say something what the analogy is supposed to prove or suggest while they convey the impression that something's important has been proved or suggested.”

Rahim, interestingly, counters a number of Beg's physicochemical materialism positions via citation to James Jeans' 1943 Physics and Philosophy; one example being the following Jeans' quote: [5]

“The whole intricate fabric of civilized life was a standing record of achievement, not by atoms pushed and pulled by blind purposeless forces, but by resolute minds working to pre-selected ends.”

uncertainty principle
A cartoon humorously mocking the common practice of falsely thinking (see: ontic opening) that the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg applies to human affairs.

Uncertainty principle | Difficulties
See main: Uncertainty principle does NOT apply to the position and momentum humans
In respect to scientific difficulties on theory, one salient difficult on theory is found in Beg’s preface, in which to appease seeming critics of his theory, he inserts the following ontic opening like loophole:

Human behavior and physico-chemical laws seem to be interrelated, but time and again it has been questioned whether the enormously complex processes of human behavior could have a scientific basis at all. The human organism has limited dimension and there are a number of actions and reactions taking place within as well as on it and to all of these the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle applies. Thus it is apparently beyond the range of predictive or reproducible science.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. vii)

Here, of note, Beg mentions this supposition that the uncertainty principle "applies to" reactions between and within humans, in the context of some ideas on "reducing the degree of empiricism" of James Conant, who may have introduced the "Heisenberg applies to humans" ideology to Beg? Whatever the case, the uncertainty principle does not apply to humans per reason that human waves (see: human wave function) are much larger in wavelength than the wavelengths of light waves, and hence there is NO uncertainty in the measurement of human motions in the context of human chemical reactions or observations of positions of humans. The following quotes summarize the dismissal of the

“The Heisenberg principle is irrelevant to ethical questions, particular the question of human freedom. For a concise and excellent discussion of the Heisenberg principle and its irrelevance to ethics, see: Lewis Beck’s 1952 Philosophical Inquiry.”
— George Strodach (1963), “Introduction” to Epicurus: the Art of Happiness [14]

“Even the existence among the laws of a principle of indeterminacy limiting the precision with which the future can be predicted does not permit entry of caprice into the world of the physical scientist. Within a calculable and frequently very narrow range of uncertainty, the future is completely determined by the past. Given the laws and the particles, all else follows inexorably.”
Dean Wooldridge (1968), The Mechanical Man: the Physical Basis of Intelligent Life

Lastly, the entire issue, eventually, was resolved by Steven Weinberg and his 1992 Scrooge Tiny Tim dialogue, wherein he dismissed the entire issue as a false extension.

Dark ages
Beg, in his New Dimensions in Sociology (1987), like Mehdi Bazargan and his Thermodynamics of Humans (1956), attempts to grapple with a physicochemical thermodynamic interpretation of humans socially, in parallel with Islamic discussions found in the Quran, which brings to the fore a number of incompatibility issues, in respect to concepts such as: life, spirit, soul, and prayer, terms not recognized by modern chemistry and physics.
Difficulties | Religion
See: Religion as a function of birthplace
In respect to religious-bias "difficulties on theory", in the work of the Beg, is the salient issue of “religious theory ≠ physicochemical theory” incompatibility.

Beg, in religious belief, is DN:1, in that he states a belief in the existence of the god of Islam (Allah) and of his prophet Muhammad. In the 1987 preface to New Dimensions, to exemplify, Beg states:

“We do find that the society during the life time of the Prophet [569-632] was an ideal society by definition of the laws of solution.”

Beg, here, to clarify, is suppositioning that the period of the Islamic golden age (c.800-1258AD), which produced a number of number of middle ages geniuses, was an “ideal solution”, after which it fell apart into a non-ideal solution like society or a gas-phase like society, or something along these lines.

Another point to note, is that whenever Beg mentions the name Muhammad, in his book, the abbreviation “b.p.u.h.” notation, meaning “peace be upon him” (Ѻ), used reoccurringly throughout the book, and that, in respect to physical chemistry, that while “peace” is something amenable to physicochemical humanities theory (e.g. social Aristotle-Mpemba effect, war thermodynamics, etc.), prayer is not something recognize by the modern physical sciences; the famous 2006 Heart patient prayer study, in fact, discredited the concept of prayer.

Beg, in short, believes in the existence of a mythological person named Muhammad (see: Muhammad never existed), the Islamic equivalent of the mythological figure of Jesus Christ, a supposed 65th generation (Ѻ) descendent of Abraham—the central patriarch of Anunian theology (Ra theology)—who in turn is conceived as the 10th generation descendent of Noah, i.e. Nuh (in Islamic theology) or Nun or Nu (in Egyptian theology), who in turn is conceived as descendant from Adam (or "clay" in Hebrew), i.e. a named anthropomorphized rewrite of the Sumerian-Egyptian clay creation myth.

In any event, the first half of Beg's book, the Muhammad existence / prayer issue aside, is fairly cogent. On page 95, however, is where Beg's theory goes off the deep end. Firstly, Beg gives a well-honed history of chemical affinity theory, ending with the assertion that:

Isaac Newton, after the success with the gravitational forces, tried to interpret the chemical interactions in terms of gravitational attractions. In 1701, he described the reaction between sulphuric acid and copper or between iron and salt of tarter as the attraction of the spirit by the fixed bodies.”

This, for the most part, is fairly cogent; Newton’s famous 1718 “Query 31”, e.g., is said to have launched the chemical revolution. The term “spirit”, seen here, in these years, was more often than not, a synonym for “gas” or vapor. While Newton may have indeed had some type of religious conception to his chemistry discussions, the attraction of spirit by fixed bodies is largely an obsolete terminology (i.e. "spirit" is not something recognized in the physicochemical sciences). Beg, however, then cites the law of gravitation and Coulomb’s law, as tentative means to estimate the affinities of chemicals, the jumps to the following:

Affinity in the case of individuals and societies would be concerned more with material and spiritual gains than mere likes and dislikes as suggested for material bodies possessing masses m1 and m2 and charges q1 and q2.”

Here, in respect to the red flat term "spiritual gains", we see theory descending into absurdities, implying, per the extrapolate down approach, e.g., that hydrogen atoms have spiritual gains when they form H20 molecules when reacting with oxygen atoms. Here the alternative methods of Arthur Schopenhauer (1844), in respect to electrical charges and human or chemical "will" come to mine here, as does the more religious-soaked "spiritual" human free energy theories of Adriaan de Lange (1982).

In 2012, to cite a similar example, in the dedication section of his Life Processes: Health, Aging, and Disease, Beg states: [7]

“I dedicate the book to Hakim Mohammad Said Shaheed (Ѻ), may Allah bless his soul for all the wonderful works that he initiated.”

Beg's work seems to be presented in a society dominated by an Islamic belief system, albeit a culture surrounded and or embedded with Hinduism, Buddhism, and or Judaic belief system cultures. Beg, in this context, conceptualizes what he calls an "ideal society" on the model of an "ideal solution", stating somewhere along the line his belief that Muhammad was a real person, belief in the existence of god (Allah), belief in the existence of the soul, and that an "ideal society" was formed in Muhammad's life. Here, to note, we might compare the similar work of Mehdi Bazargan (Thermodynamics of Humans, 1956) who attempts to explain passages of the Qur'an in thermodynamic terms.
Physicochemical (term use)
A Google-made term usage chronology for the term “physicochemical”, which tended to be used in the years circa 1870s to 1930/70s, after which it was superseded by “physical chemistry”; although not completely (the unwieldy phrase “physical chemical”, e.g., is inept in certain uses). This may help to illustrate why Beg's "physiochemical sociology" work remained hidden for so many years.

Hiddenness | Discovery
On 13 May 2014, Mirza Beg was discovered by Libb Thims, via key word Google search on term “physico-chemical sociology”, therein becoming (Ѻ) Hmolpedia article #3263.

To digress, on this rather puzzling state of affairs, being that Thims has been actively searching for this type of derivation since 1995, it is rather curious that a sociology book specifically subtitled “a physico-chemical approach to human behavior”, with a cover showing three different types of society, each conceived as different states of humans conceptualized as molecular aggregates, inside of a reaction beaker, with a potential energy diagram equation overlay stylized image, should not be known to a 3,000+ article Encyclopedia of Human Thermodynamics, Human Chemistry, and Human Physics, not cited by anyone (specifically the known hmolscience scholars of the 3,262 hmolscience articles before him), and relatively unknown for so many years, 27-years to be specific?

On 29 May, Thims, in discussion with Jeff Tuhtan, communicated the following:

“A book I would serious recommend, if you can get a copy of it, is Mirza Beg’s 1987 New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior, first 22 pages available at Academica.edu (Ѻ), wherein he treats society as a type of liquid solution, humans as molecules, according to which such societies can change state to gas-like states (slums) or solid-like states (metropolises); he employs advanced concepts such fugacity, human chemical reaction theory, free energy, activation energy, among others. Only on page 25 so far, but I have a feeling, when digested, he will rank fairly high (in future retrospect) in the social Newton rankings.”

On 30 May, Tuhtan responded: “Seems like his book should have popped up earlier, but is certainly promising that there is more out there to find...”

Possible reasons for his gap in discovery, to discuss, tentatively, seem to have to do with: (a) terminology usage, the phrase “physicochemical” being an early 20th century common term, which only recently became an Hmolpedia article (possibly a precipitate of the ubiquity of the two cultures namesake issue), following discovery of the very ripe Henry Adams 1908-1909 personal communication usages of the "physico-chemical" term (see five examples in his Hmolpedia article) and also notice of the "physicochemical sociology" term coining, via Pitirim Sorokin, a precipitate of the Harvard Pareto circle (out of irritation of Lawrence Henderson's socio-economic usage), (b) that Beg's book, as of 2014, is not scanned into Google Books, meaning that it is not key word searchable (findable), (c) that Beg seems to only recently (late 2013 - early 2014) begun to upload aspects of his physicochemical sociology, the 1995 S.A. Rahim review in particular (Thims’ link into his work), to the Internet, via Academia.edu specifically, and (d) that his 1987 book is only cited and discussed by a handful of Pakistani scholars (sociologists and philosophers), in a few journals and publications, up until about 1992, after which citation and discussion of his work drops off; his book, e.g., is not cited by anyone in Google Scholar. (Ѻ)

Then again, on the other hand, to compare, it took Thims 11-years to discover (in 2006) the similar work of Goethe, who published over two-centuries ago? While some of this delay in recognition, obviously, may have much to do with belief system incompatibility issues, i.e. much of the 5,000-year old Anunian theology ingrained belief system (adhered to by over 75-percent of the modern world) has to be overthrown and replaced by a physicochemical belief system, some of this may have to do with the so-called genius hiatus effect, namely that in order to see and then accept the new belief system (or belief state), one has to first step out of (or be forced out of) the atypical fast lane of existence, as was the case for Beg, Thims, and Goethe, and given a window of free time think clearly and freely about the deeper questions, after having been trained in (or immersed oneself in) the physical sciences.

Although the Beg-find is relatively incomparable, semi-similar late finds include: Caspar Hakfoort (#3,238), who in 1998 nearly had an entire book finished on Wilhelm Ostwald and his social energetics, and the 1845 "Rankine love poem" (#3,086), the latter of which is extremely puzzling, in regards to hiddenness.

Beg was the son of Indian Mirza Mohammad Ali Beg (1876-1943), a worker in the police force, who had eleven children: Mirza Beg (organometallic chemist, herein), Mirza Amjad Ali Beg, who became a noted economist, and a daughter who became a physician, and eight other daughters. In 1948, Beg, aged 15, left his mother, and migrated from India to Pakistan. In 1962, after completing his PhD, he married Ishrat Jabeen (1943-), with whom he had one son, Farukh Aamir Beg, and one daughter, Huma Tazeen.

Faizan Baig
The nephew of Beg, Mirza Faizan Baig [EPD:13], one of the son's Mirza Amjed Beg, was helped during the Beg-Thims interview (Sep 2019) and was also helping Beg with publication of a slated second edition of his book, and stated interest in career counseling applications of physicochemical sociology and or human chemical thermodynamics, to which Thims mentioned the: social cannon ball model (1868), speech of Henry Pritchett (1906), and the Buss sexual receptivity study (1993), the drive-thru paradox (1995), and also the individualism speech of Ibrhim al-Buleihi, in respect to Faizan's puzzle as to why Pakistan has so much potential in its young people but little will towards realization:

“The individualism of the Arab has been erased in this society.”
— Ibrahim al-Buleihi (2010), Interview (Ѻ) dialogue, Feb 26

This situation is similar to that in China, where communism or socialism has erased "individualism", instead situating the "good of the party" above that of the individual, at all costs. In this respect, the Pakistani realization situation is comparable to the "submission to Islam" in Pakistan dominating over that of individualism.

Beg (education)
How Beg lists (Ѻ) his educational credentials at ResearchGate.net.
Beg completed his BS in 1953 at D.J. College, in general chemistry, where he studied under Mumtaz Kazi, an organic chemist, who had recently completed his PhD King's College, London (1952/53), then his MS in 1955 at Karachi University, after which he worked at Dalmia Cement Factory until 1960.

In 1961, Beg obtained his PhD in organometallic chemistry, with a dissertation on “The Chemistry of Some Trifluoremethylphosphines”, on the topic of the affinities of electron donor complexes related to P(CF3)3, at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, under professor Howard Charles Clark.

Beg then became a senior research officer at Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), during which time, from 1961 to 1966, he took MS classes in inorganic chemistry at the University of Karachi, while working as a cooperative teacher in their chemistry department, after which he was a research associate at the University of Western Ontario, from 1970 to 1973. Beg retired from PCSIR in 1992. He has been working as independent researcher since. Beg worked in a number of positions until his retirement, publishing over 200 articles in the fields of chemistry, applied chemistry, leather, building material, and developed processes in agricultural and industrial chemistry. [3]

Quotes | Employed
The following are quotes employed by Beg:

“I look upon amity and enmity as affections of intelligent beings and I have not yet found it explained by any, how those appetites can be placed in bodies inanimate and devoid of knowledge or of so much as sense.”
Robert Boyle (1661), "personal note"; in New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 95)

“If the lectures, during the following weeks, create a disturbance, even though slight, in the ‘thinking’ of the participants, the objective of the course will be attained.”
Ahmed Mumtaz (1974), “Advanced Training Course”, National Institute of Public Administration, Karachi; in New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. vi)

Quotes | On
The following are notes of praise, tribute, and or commentary on Beg’s work:

“If it could stand the test of time, [Beg’s] ideas, presented in [New Dimensions in Sociology] will rediscover new frontiers in sociology and will revolutionize the existing theories of human behavior as it has so far been propounded by philosophers. Beg's approach is a pioneering effort his writing style is matter of fact and demands adequate knowledge of physical chemistry [see: polymathy degree problem].”
Jameel Jalibi (1987), “Foreword by a Sociologist” [9]

Beg is a qualified, experienced research in chemistry. It is to his credit that in this book he has ventured far afield from his area of specialization. This book is a testimony to the fact that sociology is not, has not been, and must not be the exclusive domain of sociologists.”
— Anon (1989), Book Review: New Dimensions in Sociology in The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences (Ѻ)

Beg seems to have laid the foundation of a new interdisciplinary branch of knowledge in Pakistan which may be called ‘socio-chemistry’ or the chemistry of society.”
— S.A. Rahim (1990), “The Ideal Society and Ideal Solution” [2]

“The advantages of [New Dimensions] are manifold.”
— Anon (1990), Book Review: New Dimensions in Sociology in Pakistan & Gulf Economist (Ѻ)

“I read the first forward and the author’s forward of Beg’s article. I scanned the full text, concentrating longer on the sections where you added comments. Then I read the communications thread. M. Beg makes some interesting observations about molecular ‘behavior’. But when he extends the concept of ‘behavior’ to include following the teachings of a Prophet, I think he introduces confusion between natural law and religious customs/practices on the part of a particular society.”
John Patrick (2015), commentary on Beg’s 1987 New Dimensions and 2014 Beg-Thims dialogues [11]

Gibbs free energy (cartoon)
A segment of Gibbs free energy of each species, of a system of mixed chemical species, in respect to the Gibbs energy of the entire system, from a 10-page science cartoon on fugacity, by Lucas Landherr (2016), which exemplify much of the extrapolation of of ideas and concepts of Beg’s overal thesis, namely that men and women in various social systems are akin go oxygen and water molecules in a beaker, and that the princples of physical chemistry apply to both types of chemical species, those in the laboratory beaker and those in the social beaker (see: social retort). [13]
Quotes | By
The following are noted quotes by Beg:

“Quite a few natural phenomena are so well known that one wonders why the degree of universality of phenomena has not been identified out of the observations starting from the atomic and molecular level to the distribution of the celestial bodies. One can find a relation between the attractive and repulsive forces at the intermolecular level and the inter-stellar forces on the one hand and the likes and dislikes among the living beings, particularly the human species. One could qualitatively suggest that the latter are part of a universal system. It should therefore, be possible to quantitate these observations by applying the laws of physico-chemical sciences to certain analogies in the society. For example, the solvent could be considered as the main society and the emigrant a solute. Assimilation of the emigrant would depend on the nature of the main society as well as the migrant. The deviations in behaviour and acceptability of the latter can be predicted on the basis of the laws of solution.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pgs. viii-xi)

Affinity of chemical substances was considered by Newton not to be exactly similar to those of the human beings but the empirical observations and the nature of attraction in the form of kinship were already well known during his times. There are scores of evidences which suggest that human beings interact with one another because of the affinities they may or may not have for one another just like chemical substances. Based on the concept of affinity it should be possible to suggest a mechanism for socialization of the human species.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pgs. viii-xi)

“The driving force of a reaction is another observation that could be related to the speed with which human interactions nucleate and either result in a revolution or in the domination of one faith over the other.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. ix)

“The likes and dislikes of living beings were compared with the chemical affinities of many compounds. It would appear that a parallelism between human behaviour and physico-chemical interaction has been felt for a long time but the reverse does not seem to have attracted the attention of either the social scientists or the physicists and chemists, possibly because of the compartmentalization [see: doctrinaire departmentalism; hydraism; anti-interdisciplinarity; Herrick’s Humpty Dumpty] of these branches of science into different faculties.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 2)

“An interpretation of some of the physico-chemical laws like the behaviour of components in a solution, as governed by Raoult’s law (Ѻ) and Henry’s law (Ѻ) and the deviations from the ideal behaviour of solutions, is given herein; also, the occurrence of equilibria, free energy and the driving force and then the transition state complex formation are discussed in terms of human behaviour.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pgs. 2-3)
Fugacity (comic) 2
The first segment on fugacity, from a ten page science cartoon, by Lucas Landherr (2016), which Beg applies socially, as in the escaping tendency of a social organism to leave a social system. [13]

“If the study of fugacity is applicable to the escaping tendency of a set of organisms from a certain environment, it could be extended to the process of urbanization. It might be possible to calculate the rate of migration from the rural to the urban areas and later on, the rate of emigration from the country.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 3)

“Melting point of crystals is usually sharp and its sharpness characterizes purity. The energy added for melting introduces small regions of disorder into the crystal and destroys the regular arrangement; the irregularity so created rapidly spreads throughout the lattice. The amount of disorder allowed in a crystal is in a very limited region and only when the limit has exceeded to the entire lattice that melting occurs. Similar forces are operative in a society. It is not possible to introduce small regions of disorder in a well-balanced society without at the same time disturbing the total environment. The spread of an epidemic or scare of anti-social elements is contagious. The amount of disorder allowed to be absorbed in a society is also limited. When this limit is exceeded, the cohesive forces holding the components of the society together are weakened. It may be mentioned here that a highly ordered society resists many intrusions and does not yield to disruptive forces easily. On the other hand, a disordered society would have a low yield point and would be highly susceptible to attack from anti-social forces. The decay of the once highly cohesive Muslim society described later has been attributed to a disorderly arrangement existing in their fold and it could not withstand the onslaught of the European forces.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 7)

“There are reactions of the combustibles with air. Certain metals easily burn in air but others form an oxide and allow burning with difficulty. Sand, lime and clay do not burn but phosphorus must be stored out of contact with air so that spontaneous fire is prevented. Analogous interactions in societies have been discussed in subsequent chapters, particularly the one on ‘decline of societies’.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 10); compare Ludwig Buchner (1855) on phosphorus (see: below).

“Just as man and woman attract one another, so oxygen attracts hydrogen, and, in loving union with it, forms water, that mighty omnipresent element, without which no life nor thought would be possible. Likewise, potassium and phosphorus entertain such a violent passion for oxygen that even under water they burn—i.e. unite themselves with the beloved object.”
Ludwig Buchner (c.1855), Publication; cited by Henry Finck (1887) in Romantic Love and Beauty (pgs. 6-7)

Reaction rate
A general diagram of "reaction rate" (see: video), i.e. the speed at which a reaction occurs, which according to Beg, "depends primarily on the affinity which the reactants have for one another", which Beg says is a principle (see: human reaction rate) that applies to the speed of human chemical reactions.
“The certainty and rate of reaction depends primarily on the affinity which the reactants have for one another. The rusting of iron, burning of phosphorus and combination of hydrogen with chlorine with explosive violence on exposure to radiation are some examples of high affinity while the inertness of nitrogen and noble gases are cases of substances showing lack of affinity to react under ordinary conditions. Individuals and societies, similarly have their affinities [and hence reaction rates (see: human reaction rate) vary according to interpersonal chemical affinities] and this is the subject of the chapter [§5] on Affinity and Socialization.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 10)

Beg fig 1.7
“The next factor which determines the reaction velocity is the concentration of the reactants. The rate of a chemical reaction is proportional to the molecular concentration of each of the reactants. The collision frequency [see: collision theory] of A and B, the two species responsible for formation of AB would depend on their number. If their number is doubled, their collision frequency and hence the rate of reaction would also be doubled. This aspect has been discussed in the chapter [§4] on Human Interaction and the Socialization Process.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pgs. 10-11)

“The rate of chemical reaction increases with an increase in temperature [see: social temperature] which determines the rate of molecular motion, the higher the temperature the higher the frequency with which molecules [see: human molecule] collide with each other. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules and hence of the velocity with which they move. The molecular motion stirs up the molecules and prevents their close packing in their respective state viz solid, liquid or gas. Accordingly, gaseous reactions are more facile than those in liquid or solid state. Social interaction among the highly disordered anti-social elements [see: human element] who can easily be excited can be considered similar to gaseous reactions [conjecture: high social temperature]; the law abiding average middle class reacts like the liquids while the well-ordered society behaves like crystalline solids.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 11)

“A rise in temperature and a consequent stirring up of the molecules causes an increase in volume but if the volume [see: social volume] is fixed there is development of a force normal to the area of the body and is known as pressure [see: social pressure; lateral pressure].”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 11)
Group meeting
Beg conjectures that some people have to be pressurized or forced to express their views openly in meetings in order to form products, the way lime and silica have to be forcefully ground together in order to form silicate of lime.

“Chemical reactions between different states of matter take place at the boundary or interface of the systems. Stirring and shaking of immiscible substances brings fresh interfaces and reaction takes place by renewed contact. Unsociable persons do not usually interact but when they are faced with different situations in a group for a sufficiently long time, they do enter into dialogue.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pgs. 11-12)

“Sometimes pressure as to be used to bring about reaction and the reactants may be inter-ground to bring in a change. Lime and silica for example do not form silicate unless heated together over 1200°C but if the two are ground together the silicate of lime is obtained. This is similar to a group discussion. Participants of meetings may tend to avoid expressing their point of view but when deliberately asked to do so, they are pressurized to participate and once the inhibition has been overcome, they keep speaking as and when they feel to do so.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 12)

Non-availability of basic amenities in rural areas leans to a breakdown of their social environment. This process is comparable with that of the solids towards their melting point. The rural population migrates towards the towns looking for work and even if they do not get an employment, they keep attached to them because of the attractions offered e.g. hospitals, cinemas, freedom from obligations to relatives and chiefs etc. The migrant to the urban center remains in a liquid state or becomes a part of the disorderly arrangement which is the only one available to him. He has no permanent employment or housing and other amenities and there is a general atmosphere of misery and unrest' for such persons. The internal pressure of the villages pushes the workers to a town to find work as domestic servants, clerks, messengers, etc. but if the conditions are equally bad in the towns, the worker keeps moving and may settle in a city or may migrate to a neighboring or else to an advanced country.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 13)

Beg (evaporation)
Refugges and migrants, according to Beg, can be compared to gas particles leaving a liquid system. This can be compared to the recent thermodynamic border theory crisis models of Nathaniel Umukoro (2016). [15]
“Evaporation seems comparable to migration e.g. of the flight of migratory birds as soon as the temperatures start rising in the tropics. People start leaving their homes in case they are faced with epidemics, famine, floods or other calamities such as war. War and war like situations also initiate flight of population to secure areas. Such situations have surfaced up in Vietnam, Cambodia, Hungary and Afghanistan. Almost 2000 persons per day on an average are in flight from their homes. This can be termed as the evaporation rate of the concerned population. There are a total of 11-million refugees or ‘evaporates’ on a global basis. Some 15% of the population has vaporized from Afghanistan. The migratory process in the present context would comprise development of internal pressure in the above situations and having become much higher than external pressure, the traditional linkages with the home are in the first stage shaken to give a disordered state comparable with liquids. The liquid society vaporizes when its internal pressure builds up further and in the second stage there is exodus. Exodus from ordered societies requires much higher input of energy as for crystals, compared with those which are less ordered like the liquids.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pgs. 14-15)

Physicochemical laws can be extended to a variety of human relations and interactions.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 22)

“Mass migration can be viewed similar to boiling when the input of heat creates such intensive molecular motion that the molecules leave the system after changing to the vapor state.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 35)

Affinities and fugacities characterize the behavior of individuals in a society.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 95)

“It is very difficult to have an ordered state in a heated atmosphere which results in separation of species.”
— Mirza Beg (1987), New Dimensions in Sociology (pg. 135)

Driving force of a [social] system is analogous to the energy which drives a chemical reaction to completion. It is, in chemistry, composed of two terms: the heat of reaction and entropy or disorderliness or randomness of the system.”
— Mirza Beg (1999), Social Pollution and Global Poor Governance [6]

“America has been a land of immigrants ever since the founding of the Republic. Though European in the beginning, in the last few decades, it has welcomed all, irrespective of color, ethnicity or religion. As Muslims, Islam enjoins us to be just and truthful, in thought, works and deeds; as well as be respectful of other religions while practicing the tenets of Islam. As Americans we cherish the constitution and the bill of rights. America is our home and our children's future. Democratic norms are embedded in Islamic heritage. The only way for a peaceful religion to flourish is in a democratic setting, without coercion. Freedom is a yearning of all human souls. The quest of centuries for equality and justice led to the realization, that the only guaranty of individual freedom is to guarantee freedom for all, within a constitutional framework. It culminated in the pluralistic American democracy.”
— Mirza Beg (2008), “America is Our Home” [12]

See also
Beg analysis
Beg-Thims dialogue

1. Beg, Mirza Arshad Ali. (1987). New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior (abs) (intro) (pdf, annotations by Libb Thims, 2014) (individual, pg. 23). Karachi: The Hamdard Foundation.
2. Rahim, S.A. (1990). “The Ideal Society and the Ideal Solution”, paper presented as the General Presidential Address by Prof. Dr. S. A. Rahim, University of Karachi, at the 28th Annual Seminar (June) of the Pakistan Philosophical Congress at Baragali, Peshawar.
3. Curriculum Vitae – Academia.edu.
4. Beg, Mirza A.A. (2014). “Ideal Society, Socialization, and Social Pollution” (Ѻ), Apan-gan.net, Apr 34.
5. Jeans, James. (1943). Physics and Philosophy (pg. 21). Dover, 2012.
6. Beg, Mirza A.B. (1999). Social Pollution and Global Poor Governance: Analysis of Psyche of Governing Hierarchy (preface, pg. #; chemistry, pg. 20). Research and Development Publications.
7. Beg, Mirza A.A. (2012). Life Processes: Health, Aging, and Disease. Pakistan: Research and Development Publications.
8. (a) Beg, Mirza A.A. (1979). “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology”, Pakistan Management Review, 20, 2nd Qtr.
(b) Beg, M. Arshad Ali. (1980). “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology: Assimilation” (Ѻ), Pakistan Management Review, 21(3):5-##.
(c) Beg, M. Arshad Ali. (1981). “Human Behaviour in Scientific Terminology: Affinity, Free Energy Changes, Equilibria, and Human Behaviour” (Ѻ), Pakistan Management Review, 22(4):17-##.
(d) Beg, M. Arshad Ali. (1982). “Article Title”, Pakistan Management Review, 1, 32, Jan.
9. Jalibi, Jameel. (1987). “Foreword by a Sociologist”, in: New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior (pgs. iv-v). Hamdard Foundation Press.
10. Beg, M. Arshad Ali. (1983). “Physico-Chemical Processes and Human Behaviour Part—IV: Muslim Society, its Formation & Decline” (Ѻ) (Ѻ), Science & Technology in the Islamic World, 1:237-44.
11. Patrick, John. (2015). “Email communication to Libb Thims”, Jan 21.
12. (a) Beg, Mirza A. (2008), “America is Our Home”, AmericanMuslimForum.org, Apr 10
(b) Bilici, Muchahit. (2008). Finding Mecca in America: How Islam is Becoming and American Religion (pg. 116). University of Chicago Press.
13. Shepherd, Dante. (2019). “Fugacity” (artist: Joan Cooke), Science Comic, North Eastern University.
14. (a) Beck, Lewis. (1952). Philosophical Inquiry (pgs. 143-47). Publisher.
(b) Strodach, George. (1963). Epicurus: the Art of Happiness (Introduction, pgs. 71, 199). Penguin.
15. Umukoro, Nathaniel. (2016). “Thermodynamics: Application of its Principles to the Effects of Cross-Border Migration and Boko Haram Crisis on Security Challenges in Africa” (pdf) (abs), Journal of Applied Security Research, 11(1):44-60.

Further reading
● Mahmood, Ilyas A. (1989). “Book Review: New Dimensions in Sociology: a Physico-Chemical Approach to Human Behavior” (Ѻ) (pdf), The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 6(1):155-59.
● Beg, Mirza A.A. (c.2013). “Emergence of Life Forms in Thermodynamics and Islam” (Ѻ), Academia.edu.
● Thims, Libb. (2014). “Note on Beg’s Physicochemical Sociology” (pdf), Econophysics, Sociophysics and other Multidisciplinary Sciences Journal (Ѻ), No. 4.
Further reading
● Beg, Mirza A.A. (2015). “Socio-Physico-Chemical Interpretation of Poverty, Class Structure and Social Pollution” (Ѻ), Academia.edu, Oct 22.
● Beg, Mirza. (2016). “Socio-Physicochemical Theory” (Ѻ), submitted to Libb Thims, on Jun 22, in lieu of attendance, for distribution at 7th BioPhysical Economics Meeting, Washington, DC, Jun 26-29.

External links
Mirza Arshad Ali Beg – Academia.edu.
Mirza Arshad Ali Beg (scientist) – Facebook.
Mirza Arshad Ali Beg – Facebook.
Mirza Arshad ali Beg – Twitter.
Mirza Arshad Ali Beg – Quora.
Beg, Mirza Arshad Ali – WorldCat Identities.

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