Murray 4000

In genius studies, Murray 4000 (Murray 4000:#|#) refers to collection of the biggest 4,139 names (compare: Cattell 1000), based on citation dominance, from a meta-analysis of world literature in arts and sciences, of individuals who existed between 800 BC to 1950, as compiled by American intelligence scholar and political scientist Charles Murray (2003) (Ѻ); from this list, Murray ranked the top 20 names in 21 fields, namely: combined sciences (CS), astronomy (A), biology (chnopsology) (B), chemistry (C), earth sciences (ES), physics (P), mathematics (M), medicine (Med), technology (T), Chinese philosophy (CP), Indian philosophy (IP), western philosophy (WP), western music (WM), Chinese painting (CArt), Japanese art (JA), western art (WA), Arabic literature (AL, Chinese literature (CL), Indian literature (IL), Japanese literature (JL), and western literature (WL). Note: the shorthand "(Murray 4000:#|acronym)" indicates a person's top 20 listing in a category of the Murray 4000, e.g. William Harvey (Murray 4000:7|B), indicates that Harvey is 7th ranked in top 20 biology (chnopsology) names.

Overview
In 2003, Charles Murray, in his Human Accomplishment: the Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 BC to 1950, a Cattell 1000 like compendium, published the result of his name dominance research of a number of multi-cultural reputable existographical dictionaries, histories, and surveys of the arts, philosophy, and sciences, from which he compiled a list of 4,139 most-cited names, between 800BC and 1950, and therefrom derived a listing of top 20 names from each of the following 21 respective fields; some of which are listed below, the big check check mark (Green) mark indicated all members of group have been added to the top 1000 geniuses rankings; the small check ✓ mark indicates that their IQ:#|# has been assigned and their Murray 4000 ranking is in both top 1000 rankings and their article; the small box symbol, means their IQ:#|# has not been slated:

Combined sciences
check mark (Green)
ChemistryPhysics
Astronomy
Mathematics
1. Isaac Newton
2. Galileo Galilei
3. Aristotle
4. Johannes Kepler
5. Antoine Lavoisier
6. Rene Descartes
7. Christiaan Huygens
8. Pierre Laplace
9. Albert Einstein
10. Michael Faraday
11. Louis Pasteur
12. Ptolemy
13. Robert Hooke
14. Gottfried Leibniz
15. Ernest Rutherford
16. Leonhard Euler
17. Charles Darwin
18. Jacob Berzelius
19. Euclid
20. James Maxwell
1. Antoine Lavoisier
2. Jacob Berzelius
3. Carl Scheele
4. Joseph Priestley
5. Humphry Davy
6. Robert Boyle
7. John Dalton
8. Joseph Gay-Lussac
9. Joseph Black
10. William Ramsay
11. Justus Liebig
12. William Crookes
13. Claude Berthollet
14. Linus Pauling
15. August Kekule
16. Dmitri Mendeleyev
17. Johann Helmont
18. Frederick Soddy
19. Martin Klaproth
20. Robert Bunsen
1. Isaac Newton
2. Albert Einstein
3. Ernest Rutherford
4. Michael Faraday
5. Galileo
6. Henry Cavendish
7. Niels Bohr
8. Joseph Thomson
9. James Maxwell
10. Pierre Curie
11. Gustav Kirchhoff
12. Enrico Fermi
13. Werner Heisenberg
14. Marie Curie
15. Paul Dirac
16. James Joule
17. Christiaan Huygens
18. William Gilbert
19. Thomas Young
20. Robert Hooke
1. Galileo
2. Johannes Kepler
3. William Herschel
4. Pierre Laplace
5. Nicolaus Copernicus
6. Ptolemy
7. Tycho Brahe
8. Edmond Halley
9. Giovanni Cassini
10. Hipparchus
11. Walter Baade
12. Edwin Hubble
13. Friedrich Bessel
14. William Huggins
15. George Ellery Hale
16. Arthur Eddington
17. Ejnar Hertzsprung
18. Heinrich Olbers
19. Gerard Kuiper
20. Johannes Hevelius
1. Leonhard Euler
2. Isaac Newton
3. Euclid
4. Carl Gauss
5. Pierre Fermat
6. Gottfried Leibniz
7. Rene Descartes
8. Georg Cantor
9. Blaise Pascal
10. Bernhard Riemann
11. David Hilbert
12. Jacob Bernoulli
13. Diophantus
14. Gerolamo Cardano
15. François Viète
16. Adrien Legendre
17. John Wallis
18. Augustin Cauchy
19. Fibonacci
20. Archimedes





Technology
Medicine
Biology | ChnopsologyEarth Sciences

1. James Watt
2. Thomas Edison
3. Leonardo da Vinci
4. Christiaan Huygens
5. Archimedes
6. Guglielmo Marconi
7. Vitruvius
8. John Smeaton
9. Henry Bessemer
10. Thomas Newcomen
11. Charles Babbage
12. Carl Siemens
13. John Wilkinson
14. Benjamin Franklin
15. Charles Wheatstone
16. Alfred Nobel
17. Michael Faraday
18. Denis Papin
19. George Stephenson
20. Samuel Morse
1. Louis Pasteur
2. Hippocrates
3. Robert Koch
4. Galen
5. Paracelsus
6. Paul Ehrlich
7. Rene Laennec
8. Elmer McCollum
9. Alexander Fleming
10. Ambroise Pare
11. Emil von Behring
12. Joseph Lister
13. Kitasato Shibasaburo
14. Thomas Sydenham
15. Andreas Vesalius
16. Gerhard Domagk
17. Alexis Carrel
18. Sigmund Freud
19. John Hunter
20. Ignaz Semmelweis
1. Charles Darwin
2. Aristotle
3. Jean Lamarck
4. Georges Cuvier
5. Thomas Morgan
6. Carl Linnaeus
7. William Harvey
8. Theodor Schwann
9. Stephen Hales
10. Jan Swammerdam
11. Marcello Malpighi
12. Claude Bernard
13. Hugo de Vries
14. Karl Ernst von Baer
15. John Ray
16. Ernst Haeckel
17. Lazzaro Spallanzani
18. Gregor Mendel
19. Pliny the Elder
20. Albrecht Haller
1. Charles Lyell
2. James Hutton
3. William Smith
4. Georgius Agricola
5. Abraham Werner
6. Roderick Murchison
7. Matthew Maury
8. Louis Agassiz
9. Jean Guettard
10. Carl Mosander
11. Horace Saussure
12. Nicolas Desmarest
13. Alfred Wegener
14. Alexandre Brongniart
15. Adam Sedgwick
16. Thomas Chamberlin
17. Vihelm Bjerknes
18. Eilhard Mitscherlich
19. Per Cleve
20. Maurice Ewing






Chinese philosophy



1. Confucius
2. Laozi
3. Zhu Xi
4. Mencius
5. Zhuang Zhou
6. Xun Kuang
7. Wang Yangming
8. Mozi
9. Dong Zhongshu
10. Cheng Hao
11. Chengi
12. Feng Youlan
13. Zhou Dunyi
14. Kang Youwei
15. Dai Zhen
16. Han Fei
17. Zou Yan
18. Lu Jiuyuan
19. Zhang Zai
20. Huineng









Western artWestern philosophy
check mark (Green)
Western literatureWestern music
1. Michelangelo
2. Pablo Picasso
3. Raphael
4. Leonardo da Vinci
5. Titian
6. Albrecht Durer
7. Rembrandt
8. Giotto
9. Gian Bernini
10. Paul Cezanne
11. Peter Rubens
12. Caravaggio
13. Diego Velazquez
14. Donatello
15. Jan van Eyck
16. Francisco Goya
17. Claude Monet
18. Masaccio
18. Vincent van Gogh
19. Paul Gauguin
1. Aristotle
2. Plato
3. Immanuel Kant
4. Rene Descartes
5. Georg Hegel
6. Thomas Aquinas
7. John Locke
8. David Hume
9. Augustine
10. Benedict Spinoza
11. Gottfried Leibniz
12. Socrates
13. Arthur Schopenhauer
14. George Berkeley
15. Friedrich Nietzsche
16. Thomas Hobbes
17. Bertrand Russell
18. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
19. Plotinus
20. Johann Fichte
1. William Shakespeare
2. Johann Goethe
3. Dante Alighieri
4. Virgil
5. Homer
6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
7. Voltaire
8. Moliere
9. Lord Byron
10. Leo Tolstoy
11. Fyodor Dostoyevsky
12. Petrarch
13. Victor Hugo
14. Friedrich Schiller
15. Giovanni Boccaccio
16. Horace
17. Euripides
18. Jean Racine
19. Walter Scott
20. Henrik Ibsen
1. Ludwig Beethoven
2. Wolfgang Mozart
3. Johann Bach
4. Richard Wagner
5. Joseph Haydn
6. Georg Handel
7. Igor Stravinsky
8. Claude Debussy
9. Franz Liszt
10. Franz Schubert
11. Robert Schumann
12. Hector Berlioz
13. Arnold Schoenberg
14. Johannes Brahms
15. Frederic Chopin
16. Claudio Monteverdi
17. Giuseppe Verdi
18. Felix Mendelssohn
19. Carl Maria von Weber
20. Christoph Gluck


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Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“Murray scanned the most reputable biographical dictionaries and histories of the arts, philosophy, and sciences to find who and what, during 800 B.C.-1950, are mentioned in them. He came up with 4,139 persons and a list of events and ponders 20 persons in each of nine scientific, three philosophic, and nine artistic fields who were most extensively covered in the resources.”
— Anon (2003), American Library Association

References
1. Murray, Charles. (2003). Human Accomplishment: the Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 BC to 1950. Harper Collins.

External links
Human Accomplishment – Wikipedia.

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