On the Moving Force of Heat and the Laws of Heat which may be Deduced Therefrom

Reflections on the Motive Power of FireOn the Moving Force of Heat
To the left, the cover to the 1988 Eric Mendoza collected works set of the three big Carnot-Clapeyron-Clausius papers (1824:1834:1850), the latter of which, shown right, according to Willard Gibbs, marks the foundational start of thermodynamics as a science.
In famous publications, “On the Moving Force of Heat and the Laws of Heat which may be Deduced Therefrom” is an 1850 article, first communicated to the Academy of Berlin in February, written by German physicist Rudolf Clausius in which he set out to reconcile inconsistencies in French physicist Sadi Carnot’s 1824 publication Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, related to his use of the caloric theory in modelling changes or transformations involved in the arrangement of the particles of the working substance of the heat engine during a forward expansion and reverse contraction engine cycle. [1]

In dissection of the title, the term "moving force" or motive power, refers to movement of a body per unit time, by the action of heat, according to the premise of Boerhaave’s law, and the laws to be deduced, refer to the first main principle and second main principle.

This 1850 article by Clausius, according to American engineer Willard Gibbs, “marks an epoch in the history of physics”, moreover: [2]

“If we say, in the words of Maxwell some years ago (1878), that thermodynamics is ‘a science with secure foundations, clear definitions, and distinct boundaries,’ and ask when those foundations were laid, those definitions fixed, and those boundaries traced, there can be but one answer. Certainly not before the publication of that memoir.”

In short, the publication of this article marks the beginning of the science of thermodynamics.

The article was to become the first of nine memoirs making up Clausius' 1865 textbook The Mechanical Theory of Heat. [3]

1. (a) Clausius, Rudolf. (1850). "On the Motive Power of Heat, and on the Laws which may be deduced from it for the Theory of Heat", Communicated in the Academy of Berlin, Feb.; Published in Poggendorff's Annalen der Physick, March-April. LXXIX, 368, 500.
(b) Translated in: the Philosophical Magazine, July 1851, Vol. ii, pgs, 1, 102.
(c) Clausius, R. (1850), "Über die bewegende Kraft der Wärme, Part I, Part II", Annalen der Physik 79: 368–397, 500–524. See English Translation: "On the Moving Force of Heat, and the Law regarding the Nature of Heat itself which are Deducible Therefrom". Phil. Mag. (1851), 2, 1–21, 102–119.
(d) Reprinted in: Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire: and other Papers on the Second Law of Thermodynamics (pgs. 107-52) by E. Clapeyron and R. Clausius, Edited and with an Introduction by E. Mendoza, New York: Dover, 1988.
2. Gibbs, Willard. (1889). “Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius,” Proceedings of the American Academy, new series, vol. XVI, pgs. 458-65. In The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs (Volume II).
3. Clausius, R. (1865). The Mechanical Theory of Heat – with its Applications to the Steam Engine and to Physical Properties of Bodies (URL). London: John van Voorst, 1 Paternoster Row. MDCCCLXVII.

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