In terminology, organism is an individual powered CHNOPS+ entity, e.g. plant, animal, microorganism, comprised of ‘organs’. [1]

The following are related quotes:

“No one, not even the vitalist, doubts that the organism is a Gibbs system.”
— Lawrence Henderson (1917), The Order of Nature

Organisms are much more complicated than minerals. We know the free energy of formation and the entropy of quartz, but the value of the same parameter in a cell is unknown.”
Norman Dolloff (1975), Heat Death and the Phoenix [2]

Organisms consist exhaustively of atoms and molecules. A steam engine may consist only of iron and other materials, but it is something else than iron and other components. Similarly, an electronic computer is not only a pile of semiconductors, wires, plastic, and other materials. Organisms are made up of atoms and molecules, but they are highly complex patterns, and patterns of patterns, of these atoms and molecules. Can the properties of benzene be predicted from knowledge about oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon? Or, at a higher level of complexity, can the behavior of a cheetah chasing a deer be predicted from the knowledge about the atoms and molecules making up these animals?”
Francisco Ayala (1983), “Biology and Physics: Reflections and Reductionism” [3]

1. (a) Organism – Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000.
(b) Daintith, John. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of Science (pg. 585). Oxford University Press.
(c) Organism –
2. Dolloff, Norman H. (1975). Heat Death and the Phoenix: Entropy, Order, and the Future of Man (pg. xv). Exposition Press.
3. Ayala, Francisco J. (1983). “Biology and Physics: Reflections and Reductionism”; in: Old and New Questions in Physics, Cosmology, Philosophy, and Theoretical Biology: Essays in Honor of Wolfgang Yourgrau (editor: Alwyn Merwe) (§A1:525-34). Plenum Press.

External links
‚óŹ Organism – Wikipedia.

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