Perpetual motion of the first kind

perpetual motion
A 1894 summary of the perpetual motion of the first kind (I), by American physicist J.E. Trevor. [1]
In motion classifications, perpetual motion of the first kind refers to perpetual motion machines or perpetual motion theories that violate the first law of thermodynamics. In lay terms, perpetual motion of the first kind is a device or theory that purports to create energy out of nothing. [1]

The classification of perpetual motion of the "first kind" seems to trace to German physical chemist Wilhelm Ostwald’s 1893 Textbook of General Chemistry, wherein he outlined the so-called two laws of energetics. [2]

1. Trevor, J.E. (1894). “Book review: Lehrbuch der Allgemeinen Chemie”, The Physical Review . MacMillan and Company.
2. Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1893). Textbook of General Chemistry (Lehrbuch der Allgemeinen Chemie). Leipzig: W. Engelmann.

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