Religion and intelligence

Belief in god (education level)
A 2011 Gallup poll of belief in god, in the US, by education level. (Ѻ)
In subjects, religion and intelligence, “belief in god and IQ” or “IQ vs ID”, refers to the subject of the existence of the inverse correlation existing between level of religious belief and level of intelligence, IQ, and or education.

Overview
In 1928 to 2012, according to research by Miron Zuckerman (2013), and his team at the University of Rochester, some 63 scientific studies were conducted about religion and intelligence, 84 percent of which (53 studies) found a “reliable negative correlation between intelligence and religiosity.” [2]

In 2010, Pew research, found, via polls of multiple answer testing on basic religious questions, find that atheists have a higher “religious IQ” than religious people. [1]

Geniuses | Religion
See main: Geniuses on; Geniuses on religion; Geniuses on god; Geniuses on the soul
The subject of geniuses and their religious beliefs is a peculiar and niche field of study.

In 1662, Blaise Pascal, in section 233 of his posthumous Pensees (Thought), an assembly of previously unpublished notes, posited his so called “god wager” or Pascal’s wager” (Ѻ), as it has come to be known, the conclusion of which being that if one was going to bet odds on whether it would be better to believe in god or not to believe in god, in respect to the possibility of afterlife, one should side with belief, probabilistically speaking. [3]

In 1927, Paul Dirac, at the fifth Solvay Conference in Brussels, while sitting around one evening at the hotel’s smoky lounge, some of the younger physicists, including Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli, began to openly berate Einstein for his habit of referring to “god this” and “god that”, most-famously: “god does not play dice”, in discussions of fundamental physics.

In the 2000s, believes began to tout Christopher Langan the last apocryphal genius to believe in the existence of god.

In 2010, Libb Thims began to tabulate (Ѻ) beliefs on the existence of god by the then 30 or so known IQ: 200+ cited thinkers.

Quotes
The following are related quotes:

“He who possesses science and art,
Possesses religion as well;
He who possesses neither of these,
Had better have religion.”
Johann Goethe (c.1785)

“58% of randomly selected scientists in the United States expressed disbelief in, or doubt regarding the existence of God; nearly 70% of the most eminent scientists disbelieve in the existence of god.”
— James Leuba (1916) [2]

“Although intelligent children grasp religious concepts earlier, they are also the first to doubt the truth of religion, and intelligent students are much less likely to accept orthodox beliefs, and rather less likely to have pro-religious attitudes.”
— Michael Argyle (1958) [2]

“College is a breeding ground for apostasy.”
— David Caplowitz (1977) (Ѻ)

“A comprehensive survey revealed that onlyabout 14 percent (Ѻ)of English speaking professional philosophers are theists.As for what little religious belief remains among their colleagues, most professional philosophers regard it as a strange aberration among otherwise intelligent people. Among scientists the situation is much the same. Surveys of the members of the National Academy of Sciences, composed of the most prestigious scientists in the world, show that religious belief among them is practically nonexistent,about 7 percent. (Ѻ)”
— John Messerly (2014), “Religions’ Smart-People Problem”, Dec 21 (Ѻ)

See also
Belief in the existence of god by scientists
Creationism scientists ranked by idiocy

References
1. (a) U.S. Religious Knowledge Quiz (2010) – PewForum.org.
(b) Staff. (2010). “Religious IQ: Why do Atheists Outscore Christians?” (Ѻ), The Week, Sep 29.
2. (a) Waugh, Rob. (2013). “Religious People are Less Intelligent than Atheists, Study Finds” (Ѻ), Yahoo News, Aug 12.
(b) Bates, Daniel. (2013). “Atheists have Higher IQs: Their Intelligence Makes Them More Likely to Dismiss Religion as Irrational and Unscientific” (Ѻ), Daily Mail, Aug 16.
3. (a) Note: the disproof of Pascal’s wager is that if one takes the bet, and sides their mind with belief in the existence of god, their beliefs by repercussion will be therein sided with morals dictated by the religion of that god; and thereby be “system-independent morals” (inflexible and anchored in ancient times) rather than “system-dependent morals” (flexible and anchored in modern times); whereby, accordingly, one’s choices will be, in many causes acted out “wrongly” (as compared to rightly), and the bet will have resulted in derisive continuity in the fabric of the universe operation.
(b) Neumann on soul (Ѻ)

Further reading
● Guillen, Michael. (2004). Can a Smart Person Believe in God? Thomas Nelson.

External links
Religiosity and education – Wikipedia.
Religiosity and intelligence – Wikipedia.

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