Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle 2In existographies, Robert Boyle (1627-1691) (IQ:185|#57) (Cattell 1000:354) [RGM:466|1,500+] (Murray 4000:6|C) (Gottlieb 1000:142) [Kanowitz 50:41] (GPE:39) (GCE:6) [CR:155] was an Irish chemist and physicist, noted for 1659 pneumatical engine experiments, which resulted in his 1660 “Spring of the Air” letter, to “Charles Lord Viscount of Dungarvan, eldest son to the Earl of Cork” (Ѻ), which outlined "Boyle's law", turned 1662 book New Experiments: Physico-Mechanical, Touching the Spring of the Air, and its Effects: Made, for the most part, in a New Pneumatical Engine, for his 1661 The Skeptical Chemist: Chemico-Physical Doubts and Paradoxes touching the Experiments, whereby Vulgar Spagyrists [Alchemists] are Wont to Endeavor to Evince their Salt, Sulphur and Mercury to be the True Principles of Things, wherein he sought to debunk the "three principles theory" of Geber, which is one of the first modern chemistry treatises, wherein he began to reinvent atomic theory.

Air pump | First generation
See main: Gas laws
In 1647, German engineer Otto Guericke invented a vacuum pump to disprove Greek philosopher Parmenides' circa 485 BC hypothesis that “nature abhors a vacuum”, and or the variant of this logic in Rene Descartes cosmology. Guericke’s vacuum pump experimentation was first described in the 1657 book Mechanical Hydraulic Pneumatics by German scientist Gaspar Schott, a correspondent of Guericke.

In 1655, or before, Boyle had encountered reports of Marin Mersenne, Pierre Gassendi, and others, on the weight of the air, and on engines such as the wind gun, and the Torricelli vacuum tube. [10]

“Boyle first learned of these [1644 to 1648] [Florence and Paris] accomplishments in experimental pneumatics, by Torricelli, Pascal, and Roberval, through the correspondence of Charles Cavendish, Theodore Haak, and Samuel Hartlib.”
Steven Shapin (1985), Leviathan and the Air Pump (pg. 83)

Robert Boyle experiments 2
A reconstructive photo (Greer, 2007) of Robert Hooke, left, and Robert Boyle, right, doing pressure and volume experiments with their pneumatical engine, which is a glass bulb, aka “receiver” (or vacuum bulb), attached to a vacuum pump (aka air pump). [12]
In Jan 1658, Boyle had heard of Guericke’s vacuum work, as reported in Gaspar Schott’s Mechanical Pneumatical Hydraulics (Mechanica Hydraulico-pneumatica) (1657). [8]

“You speak still of the ‘German vacuum’ as of no ordinary beauty; but the poet says, Uritque videndo fæmina.”
— Samuel Hartlib (1658), “Letter to Robert Boyle”, Jan 7 [9]

In late 1658, Boyle contacted Ralph Greatorex, a London instrument maker, firstly, who could not make a successful device; then contacted Robert Boyle, who since the year previous had been Boyle’s assistant. [10]

“I did not set about the construction of an air pump until I had heard of Guericke’s ‘way of emptying glass vessels, by sucking out the air at the mouth of the vessel’.”
— Robert Boyle (1659), “Letter to nephew, Lord Dungarvan” [14]

Hooke, retrospectively, reported that he had completed the machine in 1658/59.

“You may be pleased to remember, that a while before our separation in England, I told you of a ‘book’ [Mechanics of Gas Hydraulics, 1657], that I had heard of, but not perused, published by the industrious Jesuit Schottus; wherein, it was said, he related how that ingenious gentleman, Otto Guericke, consul of Magdeburg, had lately practiced in Germany a way of emptying glass vessels, by sucking, out the air at the mouth of the vessel, plunged under water. And you may also perhaps remember, that I expressed myself much delighted with this experiment, since thereby the great force of the external air, either ruining in at the opened orifice of the emptied vessel, or violently forcing up the water into it, was rendered more obvious and conspicuous than in any experiment that I had formerly seen. And though it may appear by some of those writings I sometimes showed you, that I had been solicitous to try things upon the same ground; yet in regard this gentleman was beforehand with me in producing such considerable effects by means of the exsuction of air, I think myself obliged to acknowledge the assistance and encouragement the report of his performances hath afforded me.”
— Robert Boyle (1659), “Letter to nephew, Lord Dungarvan” (Ѻ), Dec 20

In Mar 1659, Boyle took the completed machine from London to Oxford. [10]

“I am now prosecuting some things with an engine I formerly writ to you about.”
— Robert Boyle (1659), “Letter to Samuel Hartlib”, Nov [10]

On 20 Dec 1659, Boyle sent his famous “Spring of the Air” experiments overview letter, to his nephew Lord Dungarvan, aka “Charles Lord Viscount of Dungarvan, eldest son to the Earl of Cork” (Ѻ). This famous “Spring of the Air” dedicatory letter to his nephew, the young Lord Dungarvan, is dated from Beaconsfield, Dec 20, 1659—where, in all probability, according to existographer Flora Mason (1914), Boyle was spending Christmas with his friend Edmund Waller, the Poet, at his house. [16]

In 1660, Boyle, as described in his New Experiments, had completed 43 experiment; some of which are summarized as follows:



Experiment
Description
Notes
-------

------------------------------------------------------------



1.
He sucked out the air by several "exsuctions" until he got to the point that if he let the handle go, the piston would rise up on its own, spinning the handle, or something to this effect (pgs. 7-8).

2.
Talked about the difficulty of raising a cap or stopper (stopple) from the evacuated receiver.Discussed by Henry More in his Anecdote Against Atheism. [10]

3.



4.Half full lamb's bladderHe puts a lamb's bladder, with half of its full capacity of air, ties it off, puts it in the receiver, and begins to do several exsuctions, and watches the bladder expand.Boyle cites Gilles Roberval, and his carp's bladder experiment, as being the originator of this.

5.
Does another variation of the bladder experiment, where he breaks the bladder.

6.
Did some type of bladder tied to a small tube, either with air, with air and water, or with water, and tested to see expansion. “It hath seemed almost incredible, which is related by the industrious Mersennus (Marin Mersenne), that air, by the violence of heat, though as great as our vessels can support without suction, can be made so dilated as to take up seventy times as much room as before.”
— Robert Boyle (1660), New Experiments (pg. 15)

7.
Made some kind of glass blown bubble figure which the put into the receiver.

8.
Did something with the glass apparatus of figure 7.

9.



10.
Did various candle's lit inside the vacuum, seeing how long they could make the flame last, observing the smoke, etc.

11.
Used the coiled wire (figure 10) and put burning coals in it.

12.
Did some type of experiment with a soldier's lit match in the receiver.

13.
Put a match and a sealed bladder into the receiver to test to see if smoke would replenish the receiver.

14.
Fired the trigger of a pistol against gunpowder to test for sparks.

15.
Put some combustible material in the receiver and tried to light it on fire with a magnifying glass.

16.
Put an iron needle into the receiver and found that a loadstone (magnet) attracted the needle.

17.Void-in-void A Torricellian apparatus was put into the receiver and then evacuated to see if the tube level would fall to the level in the basin; Boyle said this was "the principle fruit I promised myself from our engine". [10] The could not, however, get the mercury down to the basin level, the level remaining a few inches above.Done earlier by the French school. Note the second generation Boyle pump did get the level all the way down.

18.
Put some mercury in a long tube, with some air (or something) and put in his bedroom window next to a weather glass, and observed the two for several weeks; talked a lot about it.

19.
Repeated the void-in-void experiment, but with water.Then noted that Blaise Pascal had tried this earlier.

20.
Did some type of water in an egg-shaped vessel; and talked about some type of syringe experiment they did a few years back.Talked about the experimental philosophy of a Mr. Wilkins.

21.
Put an oiled bladder into a tube of water and put it into the receiver, to test for atmospheric pressure on water, or something.

22.
Did some type of modified water experiment to try to test to see what the bubbles were.

23.
Did something similar to experiment #22, but with distilled rainwater and used vessels called "philosophical eggs" as the chemists call them.

24.
Did some experiments with other liquids, such as salad oil, wine, etc.

25.
Did some experiment with mercury and water, and something floating, to test the bubbles.

26.Pendulum experiment Put a pendulum inside receiver and put one outside receiver, set them swinging, and tested to see if there was a difference.

27.Sound in vacuumDid a variant of Kircher's bell in vacuum experiment with a watch.Cited Athanasius Kircher as originating the bell test in a vacuum experiment.

28.
Did some kind of water in glass egg experiment.

29.
Used some kind of metal like liquid, that smoked or something, to test how meteors might move in space, or something.

30.
Let smoke settle into the receiver, then turned and shoke the receiver to see what would happen, or something along these lines.

31.Two flat marble discsThis was the separation of two plane surfaces experiment. [10]
This dates back to Lucretius who used it to prove the existence of the vacuum.

32.Weight-raising experiment Disconnected the evacuated receiver, and used a special tapered valve (figure 9) with attached scale to see how much weight the receiver could raise, testing up to 10 pounds, by throwing on ounce pieces onto the scale until the vacuum broke. A variant, supposedly, of #2. Boyle, here, in his annotations, digressed on anti-teleology in nature, or something along these lines. [10]

33.Weight-raising experimentDid a variant of #32, where (pg. 46) they attached 14 to 28 pounds of weight to the teeth of the piston, to be raise or lowered; talked a good deal about this experiment.More appealed to Boyle’s experiments #32 and #33 in which large weights were lifted by the sucker [piston] reascending into the cylinder. More claimed that these trials showed the limited applicability of any mechanical law of gravity, and that there ‘is a principle transcending the nature and power of matter that does umpire and rule all.”
Steven Shapin (1985), Leviathan and the Air Pump (pg. 212)

34.
Did some type of Archimedes buoyancy of two different objects in water.

35.
Did some type of siphon experiment.

36.
Attempted to weight air, with some kind of glass bubble, a scale, balanced against a piece of lead; talked for awhile about this.Cited Galileo.

37.
Did some tests to figure out the possibility that they saw some strange flashes of light in the vacuum when they turned the key, to let air in or out or something.

38.
Tested to see how fast snow and salt would melt in a vacuum.

39.
Did something with air and water using figure 14.

40.
Put a fly, bee (and a bee with a flower), and a butterfly into the vacuum.

41.
Tested classical theories about "respiration" in a vacuum, first by putting lark and a mouse in the receiver, he the tried to find a fish to put in, but put in an ell instead.

42.
Tested corrosive liquids on the dissolving of bodies.

43.
Did some experiment where they caused water to be boiled.

(add)

Air pump | Second generation
In Dec 1661, Boyle began communicating, based on reports from Robert Moray to Christiaan Huygens, that he was starting to design a new pump that would be horizontal to the surface and under water, which could have been completed "probably as early as Jan 1662" (Shapin, 1985). This new pump, made by Boyle, resulted following attacks on his experiments by Thomas Hobbes, who said air was getting in (hence the new water design), and Franciscus Linus, and later by Henry More. This new so-called Boyle second generation vacuum pump is shown below: [10]

Boyle second air pump (with parts)

This design employed water seals, like Guericke, and had a changeable receiver, so that one could fit a given receiver size to the experiment at hand.

Bell in vacuum (Boyle)
A depiction of Boyle’s "bell a vacuum" test (1669). [15]
In c.1661, Boyle introduced Christiaan Huygens to the merits of experimenting with vacuum pumps (Helden, 2003), and it was Huygens who constructed the first air pumps in Holland and France, with the assistance of Denis Papin. [11] The transmission of ideas form Boyle to the surrounding areas, is shown on the following map (Shapin, 1985):

Guericke map 4

In 1662, Boyle published a second edition of his New Experiments: Physico-Mechanical, Touching the Spring of the Air, and its Effects: Made, for the most part, in a New Pneumatical Engine; werein, building on the pressure volume work of Henry Power and Richard Towneley, stated Boyle's law:

“What that pressure should be according to the [Power] hypothesis, that supposes the pressures and expansions to be in reciprocal proportion.”
— Robert Boyle (1662), New Experiments (§A5, point E, pg. 101); based on Henry Power's hypothesis

Boyle, according to temperature historian Tom Shachtman, originally believed in Aristotle’s version of Parmenides contention that nature abhorred a vacuum and wrote that he would have never bothered trying to make one, but that thereafter he refused to accept any ancient teachings without skepticism. [6]

Boyle and his assistant Robert Hooke then improved Guericke's air vacuum design and built their own in 1658, a pneumatical engine, one that also functioned as a pump. [2] After conducting a number of experiments with their air pump, Boyle published the results in the 1660 book New Experiments Phisico-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air, and Its Effects (Made for the Most Part in a Pneumatical Engine). In the 1669 second edition of Spring of the Air, a statement of what is now known as "Boyle’s law" can be found defined in modern shorthand as: [3]

PV = K\mid_{n,T} \,

which says that for a body of gas at constant number of particles n and temperature T the product of the measure of the pressure P and volume V of gas will be a constant K. The Spring of the Air had a great influence on other scientists, who built their own air pumps, and devised new experiments of their own.

Several decades later, in the 1690 memoir "A New Method to Obtain Very Great Motive Powers at Small Cost", Boyle and Huygen's associate French engineer Denis Papin conceived that the quick condensation of steam in a cylinder, via contact with a cold body, would quickly make a vacuum that would drive the piston down in such a manner that if the process was repeated in a cyclical manner useful work, as in raising weights out of mines, could be obtain. This design was later used by English engineers Thomas Savery, in 1697, and Thomas Newcomen, in 1710, to make the first working steam engine.

Bird in Vacuum (Boyle)
Boyle's 1670 freezing a "bird in a vacuum" experiment, done to disprove Thomas Hobbes' wind theory of cold, according to which cold and freezing was the result "frigorific particles".
Hobbes freezing dispute
In c.1660, Boyle engaged into a supposedly decade-long debate with Thomas Hobbes on the nature of freezing. The entry on “freezing” from the 1765 Complete Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences, reads as follows: (Ѻ)

“FREEZING, in philosophy, the same with congelation. Philosophers are by no means agreed as to the cause of this phenomenon. The Cartesians account for it by the recess or going out of the ethereal matter from the pores of the water. The ‘corpuscularians’, on the other hand, attribute it to the ingress of frigorific particles, as they call them: Hobbes asserts, that these particles are nothing else but common air, which entangling itself with the particles of water, prevents their motion. Others will have a kind of nitrous salt to be the cause of congelation, by insinuating itself between the particles of water, and fixing them together, like nails: and indeed it seems probable that cold and freezing do arise from some substance of a saline nature, floating in the air; since all salts, and particularly nitrous ones, when mixed with ice and snow, greatly increase their cold and even bulk.”

Hobbes’ cold theory, to note, seems have some type of association to Pierre Gassendi’s theory of hot and cold, which he acquired from Epicurus, according to which a body would be hot if it contained “calorific atoms” and cold if it contained “frigorific atoms”. (Ѻ)

Boyle also disproved Epicurus’ theory of “cold corpuscles”, which were said to work by stealing insensibly into liquors they insinuate themselves into, without any show of boisterousness or violence. Cold corpuscles were said to be “swarms of frigorific atoms”. Boyle also disproved Thomas Hobbes' theory that the source of all cold was the wind by freezing live animals in a vacuum, an often misunderstood anecdote.

Boyle, in any event, to disprove Hobbes' cold theory, froze a bird in a vacuum, as shown adjacent.

Skeptical Chymist
In his famed 1661 book The Sceptical Chymist, Boyle had to point out to all the alchemists that what they were doing, with all their false claims, was detrimental to the betterment of the science of chemistry: [4]

“If men would more carefully distinguish those things that they know from those that they ignore or do but think, and then explicate clearly the things they conceive they understand, acknowledge ingenuously what it is they ignore, and profess so candidly their doubts, that the industry of intelligent persons might be set on work to make further enquiries, and the easiness of less discerning men might not be imposed on.”

In apology for being so sharply abrupt, Boyle continues ‘I perceive that [various] of my friends have thought it very strange to hear me speak so irresolvedly, as I have been wont to do, concerning those things which some take to be the elements, and others to be the principles of all mixt bodies.’ Boyle is criticizing earlier research founded on the belief that salt, mercury, and sulphur were the ‘true principles of things’.

Atomic theory
Boyle, in 1661, along with French mathematician Rene Descartes (1637), French mathematician Pierre Gassendi (1649), and English physicist Isaac Newton (1686), was one of the first to revive Greek philosopher Leucippusatomic theory.
Boyle water freezing experiment
Water is one of the few exceptions to Boerhaave’s law type behavior; specifically, when liquid water is cooled, it contracts [V↓] like one would expect until a temperature of approximately 4 degrees Celsius is reached, after which it expands [V↑] slightly until it reaches the freezing point (0°C), and then, when it freezes, it expands by approximately 9%. In c.1664, Boyle, in his investigations of the power of the cold, found that it took 72 pounds of weight to keep the cork from popping out when water froze.

Cold | Hot
See also: Absolute zero
In 1665, Boyle published his New Experiments and Observations Touching Cold, in which he experimentally disproved a number of ancient myths about cold, while also revealing a number of new experimental facts. [5] In one experiment, in measuring the work of the power of cold, Boyle discovered that a weight of 72 pounds was required to prevent expanding ice from pushing out a cork. [6]

Education
Boyle, supposedly, was taught and or influenced via the chemistry by George Starkey (1628-1685). [7]

Quotes | Employed
The following are quotes employed by Boyle:

“To seem to ‘know all things’ (see: last person to know everything) certainly, and to speak positively of them, is a trick of bold and young fellows; whereas those, that are indeed intelligent and considerate, are wont to employ more wary and diffident expressions as he speaks.”
Aristotle (c.350), Publication; cited by Robert Boyle (1662) in New Experiments Physico-Mechanical on the Spring of the Air (pg. 2); in: Collected Works, Volume One (Ѻ)

Quotes | On
The following are quotes on Boyle:

Boyle’s hypothesis of the spring of the air is absurd, ‘unless perhaps we concede what is not to be conceded, that something can be moved by itself. For you suppose that the air particle, which certainly stays still when pressed, is moved to its own restitution, assigning no cause for such a motion, except that particle itself’.”
Thomas Hobbes (1661), Dialogus Physicus (pgs. 247-49); cited by Steven Shapin (1985) in Leviathan and the Air Pump (pg. 141)

“Your main achievement was the expulsion of the ‘devil of substantial forms, which as stopped the progress of true philosophy, and made the best of scholars not more knowing as to the nature of particular bodies, then the meanest ploughman.”
— Henry Oldenburg (1666), “Told to Boyle”; cited by Steven Shapin (1985) in Leviathan and the Air Pump (pg. 219)

Boyle improved on the pneumatic engine invented by Otto Guericke, and was thereby enabled to make several new and curious experiments on the air, as well as on other bodies: his chemistry is much admired by those who are acquainted with that art: his hydrostatics contain a greater mixture of reasoning and invention with experiment than any other of his works; but his reasoning is still remote from that boldness and temerity which had led astray so many philosophers.”
David Hume (1836), The History of England, Volume Two (pg. 653)

Quotes | By
The following are noted quotes:

“There is a ‘spring’ or elastic power in the air we live in. By which ‘έλατηρ’ or ‘spring of the air’, that which I mean is this: that our air either consists of, or at least, abounds with, parts of such a nature, that in the case they be being or compressed by the weight of the incumbent part of the atmosphere, or by any other, body, the do endeavour, as much as in them lieth, to free themselves from that pressure, by bearing against the contiguous bodies that keep them bent; and, as soon as those bodies are removed, or reduced to give them way, by presently unbending and stretching out themselves, either quite, or so far forth as the contiguous bodies that resist them will permit, and thereby expanding the whole parcel of air, these elastical bodies compose.”
— Robert Boyle (1659), ‘Letter to nephew, Lord Dungarvan’ (pg. 8), Dec 20

“And when with excellent microscopes I discern in otherwise invisible objects the inimitable subtlety of nature’s curious workmanship; and when, in a word, by the help of anatomical knives, and the light of chemical furnaces, I study the ‘book of nature’, and consult the glosses of Aristotle, Epicurus, Paracelsus, Harvey, Helmont, and other learned expositors of that instructive volume; I find myself oftentimes reduced to exclaim with the psalmist, how manifold are thy works, O Lord? In wisdom hast thou made them all.”
— Robert Boyle (1659), Some Motives and Incentives to the Love of God (pgs. 59-60) (Ѻ)

Epicurus supposes not only all mixt bodies, but all others to be produced by the various and casual occursions of atoms, moving themselves to and fro by an internal principle in the immense or rather infinite vacuum.”
— Robert Boyle (1861), The Skeptical Chemist (Ѻ)

Heat seems principally to consist in that mechanical property of matter we call motion.”
— Robert Boyle (c.1660), Publication; cited by Donald Cardwell (1971) in From Watt to Clausius (pg. 4)

“The information of sense assisted and highlighted by ‘instruments’ are usually preferable to those of sense alone.”
Robert Boyle (c.1675), “Propositions on Sense, Reason, and Authority” (Ѻ) [10]

Boyle (experiments)
A image Robert Boyle, from the front piece of the 1774 The Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Volume One, which shows a “bird in a vacuum”, a repercussion of his dispute with Thomas Hobbes, which is captioned with the Latin phrase “Ex rerum Causis Supremam noscere Causam”, which translates as “to known the supreme cause, from the causes of things”. [13] Next to the vacuum pump are a two branch mercury barometer, a double capillary manometer. At left is a furnace with an alembic, for experimenting with fire.
References
1. Schott, Gaspar. (1657). Mechanical Hydraulic Pneumatics (Mechanicahydraulica-pneumatica). Würtzburg.
2. Wilson, George. (1849). “On the Early History of the Air-Pump in England”, The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, (pgs. 330-54).
3. Morris, Richard. (2005). The Last Sorcerers: the Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table (pg. 55). The National Academies.
4. Boyle, Robert. (1661). The Sceptical Chymist (pg. 11). New York: Dover.
5. Boyle, Robert. (1665). New Experiments and Observations Touching Cold. Publisher.
6. Shachtman, Tom. (1999). Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold (pgs. 28, 31). Mariner Books.
7. (a) Newman, William R. (2003). Gehennical Fire: the Lives of George Starkey, and American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution (Elective affinity, pgs. 231-34). University of Chicago Press.
(b) George Starkey – Wikipedia.
8. (a) Boyle, Robert. (1647). “Letter to Samuel Hartlib”, Mar 19/29; in: Works, Volume One (pg. xxxviii). Publisher.
(b) Hartlib, Samuel. (1658). “Letter to Robert Boyle” (Ѻ), Jan 7/17; in: Works, Volume Six (pg. 99). Publisher.
(c) Boyle, Robert. (1660). New Experiments on the Spring of the Air (pgs. 2-6). Publisher.
(d) Turner, H.D. (1959). “Robert Hooke and Boyle’s Air-Pump” (Ѻ), Nature, 184(4684):395-97.
(e) Webster, Charles. (1965). “Discovery of Boyle’s Law: and the Concept of the Elasticity of Air in the Seventeenth Century” (abs) (pdf), Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 2(6):441-502.
(f) Frank, Robert. (1980). Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists (§4-5). University of California Press.
(g) Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, Simon. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Jan 1658, pg. 231). Princeton University Press, 2011.
10. Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, Simon. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Jan 1658, pg. 231; sense, pg. 36; 17th experiment, pgs. 40-45; 31st experiment, pgs. 46-; More, pg. 210; #32 variant of #2, pg. 210-12; Gassendi, pg. 231; second air pump, pgs. 170-72, 247; Dec 1661, pg. 232). Princeton University Press, 2011.
11. (a) Helden, Anne. (1991). “The Age of the Air-Pump” (pdf), Tractrix: Yearbook for the History of Science, Medicine, Technology, and Mathematics, 3:149-72.
(b) Helden, Anne. (2003). “Air Pump”, in: Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: from Copernicus to Newton (editor: Wilbur Applebaum) (§: Air Pump, pgs. #; Guericke, 5+ pg. #). Routledge.
12. Anon. (2014). “What We’re Loving: Science, Spicer, Sea Maidens, Sandwiches” (Ѻ), The Paris Review, Feb 28.
13. (a) Boyle, Robert. (1774). The Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Volume One (editor: Thomas Birch). A. Millar.
(b) Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, Simon. (1985). Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (translation, pg. 32). Princeton University Press, 2011.
14. Weld, Charles. (1849). “A History of the Royal Society, with Memoirs of the Presidents: Robert Boyle” (pg. 442), Littles Living Age, 21(264):433-59, Jun 9.
15. (a) Bells in the void – Institute and Museum of History of Science, Florence, Italy.
(b) Boyle, Robert. (1669). A Continuation of New Experiments, Physico-Mechanical, Touching the Spring and Weight of the Air and their Effects (bell in vacuum, pg. 43) (Ѻ). Hall.
16. Masson, Flora. (1914). Robert Boyle: a Biography (Dec 20, 1659, pg. 202). Constable.
17. Boyle, Robert. (1774). The Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Volume One (editor: Thomas Birch) (Boyle's law, appendix chapter 5, note E, pg. 101). A. Millar.

Publications
● Boyle, Robert. (1662). New Experiments on the Spring of the Air, Volume One. Publisher.
● Boyle, Robert. (1669). A Continuation of New Experiments, Physico-Mechanical, Touching the Spring and Weight of the Air and their Effects (bell in vacuum, pg. 43) (Ѻ). Hall.
● Boyle, Robert. (1680). A Continuation of New Experiments Physico-mechanical, Touching the Spring and Weight of the Air, and Their Effects: Wherein are Contained Divers Experiments: Together with a Description of the Engines Wherein They Were Made. The Second Part (Ѻ) (Experimentorum novorum physico-mechanicorum continuatio secunda) (assistant writer: Denis Papin). English edition, 1682.
● Boyle, Robert. (1774). The Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Volume One (editor: Thomas Birch). A. Millar.
● Boyle, Robert. (1774). The Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Volume Two (editor: Thomas Birch). A. Millar.
● Boyle, Robert. (1774). The Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Volume Three (editor: Thomas Birch) (§: A Continuation of New Experiments Physico-Mechanical, pgs. 1-#; images, pg. end matter). A. Millar.
● Boyle, Robert. (1774). The Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Volume Four (editor: Thomas Birch) (§: A Continuation of New Experiments Physico-Mechanical, The Second Part (London, 1682) (author: Denis Papin), pgs. #-#; images, pg. end matter) . A. Millar.
● Boyle, Robert. (1774). The Works of the Honorable Robert Boyle, Volume Five (editor: Thomas Birch). A. Millar.

Further reading
● Boyle, Robert. (c.1660). “On the Mechanical Origin of Heat and Cold”, in: Works, Volume 4 (pgs. 236-59; esp. Experiment VI on pg. 249-250). London, 1772.
Boyle, Robert. (1725). The Philosophical Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle Esq: Abridged, Methodized, and Disposed Under the General Heads of Physics, Statics, Pneumatics, Natural History, Chymistry, and Medicine (Section: Pneumatics: Physico-mechanical Experiments to show the Spring and Effects of the Air, pgs. 407-651), Vol. 2. W. and J. Innys.
● Anon. (1839). “Robert Boyle (publications)”, Catalogue of the Scientific Books in the Library of the Royal Society (pgs. 297-98). The Royal Society.
● Boyle, Robert. (1979). Selected Philosophical Papers of Robert Boyle (editor: M.A. Stewart). Manchester University Press.

External links
Robert Boyle – Wikipedia.
Leviathan and the Air-Pump – Wikipedia.

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